chapter 25 electric currents and resistance hw7: due monday, march 30; chap.24: pb.32,pb.35,pb.59...
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- Chapter 25 Electric Currents and Resistance HW7: Due Monday, March 30; Chap.24: Pb.32,Pb.35,Pb.59 Chap.25: Pb.19,Pb.25,Pb.31
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- I Electric current is the rate of flow of charge through a conductor: Unit of electric current: the ampere, A: 1 A = 1 C/s. 25-2 Electric Current The instantaneous current is given by:
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- I A complete circuit is one where current can flow all the way around. Note that the schematic drawing doesnt look much like the physical circuit! 25-2 Electric Current
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- I Example 25-1: Current is flow of charge. A steady current of 2.5 A exists in a wire for 4.0 min. (a) How much total charge passed by a given point in the circuit during those 4.0 min? (b) How many electrons would this be?
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- I 25-2 Electric Current Conceptual Example 25-2: How to connect a battery. What is wrong with each of the schemes shown for lighting a flashlight bulb with a flashlight battery and a single wire?
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- I By convention, current is defined as flowing from + to -. Electrons actually flow in the opposite direction, but not all currents consist of electrons. 25-2 Electric Current
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- I Experimentally, it is found that the current in a wire is proportional to the potential difference between its ends: 25-3 Ohms Law: Resistance and Resistors
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- I The ratio of voltage to current is called the resistance: 25-3 Ohms Law: Resistance and Resistors
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- I In many conductors, the resistance is independent of the voltage; this relationship is called Ohms law (Ohmic Materials). Materials that do not follow Ohms law are called nonohmic. Unit of resistance: the ohm, : 1 = 1 V/A. 25-3 Ohms Law: Resistance and Resistors
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- I Conceptual Example 25-3: Current and potential. Current I enters a resistor R as shown. (a) Is the potential higher at point A or at point B? (b) Is the current greater at point A or at point B?
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- I 25-3 Ohms Law: Resistance and Resistors Example 25-4: Flashlight bulb resistance. A small flashlight bulb draws 300 mA from its 1.5-V battery. (a) What is the resistance of the bulb? (b) If the battery becomes weak and the voltage drops to 1.2 V, how would the current change?
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- I Standard resistors are manufactured for use in electric circuits; they are color-coded to indicate their value and precision. 25-3 Ohms Law: Resistance and Resistors
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- I This is the standard resistor color code. Note that the colors from red to violet are in the order they appear in a rainbow.
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- I Some clarifications: Batteries maintain a (nearly) constant potential difference; the current varies. Resistance is a property of a material or device. Current is not a vector but it does have a direction. Current and charge do not get used up. Whatever charge goes in one end of a circuit comes out the other end. 25-3 Ohms Law: Resistance and Resistors
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- I The resistance of a wire is directly proportional to its length and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area: The constant , the resistivity, is characteristic of the material. is in .m 25-4 Resistivity
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- I Example 25-5: Speaker wires. Suppose you want to connect your stereo to remote speakers. (a) If each wire must be 20 m long, what diameter copper wire should you use to keep the resistance less than 0.10 per wire? (b) If the current to each speaker is 4.0 A, what is the potential difference, or voltage drop, across each wire?
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- I For any given material, the resistivity increases with temperature: Semiconductors are complex materials, and may have resistivities that decrease with temperature. 0 and T 0 are the resistivity and temperature at 0 C or 20 C. 25-4 Resistivity
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- I Example 25-7: Resistance thermometer. The variation in electrical resistance with temperature can be used to make precise temperature measurements. Platinum is commonly used since it is relatively free from corrosive effects and has a high melting point. Suppose at 20.0C the resistance of a platinum resistance thermometer is 164.2 . When placed in a particular solution, the resistance is 187.4. What is the temperature of this solution?
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- I Power, as in kinematics, is the energy transformed by a device per unit time: 25-5 Electric Power or
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- I The unit of power is the watt, W. For ohmic devices, we can make the substitutions: 25-5 Electric Power
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- I Example 25-8: Headlights. Calculate the resistance of a 40-W automobile headlight designed for 12 V.
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- I What you pay for on your electric bill is not power, but energy the power consumption multiplied by the time. We have been measuring energy in joules, but the electric company measures it in kilowatt- hours, kWh: 1 kWh = (1000 W)(3600 s) = 3.60 x 10 6 J. 25-5 Electric Power
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- I Example 25-9: Electric heater. An electric heater draws a steady 15.0 A on a 120-V line. How much power does it require and how much does it cost per month (30 days) if it operates 3.0 h per day and the electric company charges 9.2 cents per kWh?
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- I The wires used in homes to carry electricity have very low resistance. However, if the current is high enough, the power will increase and the wires can become hot enough to start a fire. To avoid this, we use fuses or circuit breakers, which disconnect when the current goes above a predetermined value. 25-6 Power in Household Circuits
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- I Fuses are one-use items if they blow, the fuse is destroyed and must be replaced. 25-6 Power in Household Circuits
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- I Circuit breakers, which are now much more common in homes than they once were, are switches that will open if the current is too high; they can then be reset. 25-6 Power in Household Circuits
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