# chapter 3: matter and energy. define and describe energy. identify and convert among energy units

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Section 3: Energy Chapter 3: Matter and Energy

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Section 3: EnergyChapter 3: Matter and Energy

Learning ObjectivesDefine and describe energy.Identify and convert among energy units.

EnergyEnergy: the capacity to do work

Work: the result of a force acting on a distance

The behavior of matter is driven by energy.

EnergyLike matter, energy is conserved. The law of conservation of energy states that energy is neither created nor destroyed. The total amount of energy is constant.

EnergyEnergy can be changed from one form

to another.Energy can be transferred from one

object to another. Energy cannot be created out of

nothing, and it does not vanish into nothing.

EnergyThe total energy of a sample of matter

is the sum of its kinetic energy and its potential energy Kinetic Energy: the energy associated

with motion

Potential Energy: the energy associated with position or composition

EnergyExamples of kinetic energy:

Electrical energy: The energy associated with the flow of electrical charge

Thermal energy: The energy associated with the random motions of atoms and molecules in matter

EnergyExamples of potential energy:

Gravitational potential energy: stored energy associated with the height of an object above the surface of the earth

Chemical energy: stored energy associated with the positions of the particles that compose a chemical system

Units of Energy The SI unit of energy is the

joule (J), named after the English scientist James Joule (1818–1889), who demonstrated that energy could be converted from one type to another as long as the total energy was conserved.

Units of EnergyA second unit of energy is the calorie (cal)

1 calorie is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 °C.

A calorie is a larger unit than a joule.

A related energy unit is the nutritional or “capital C” Calorie (Cal) equivalent to 1000 “little c” calories.

Units of EnergyThe kilowatt-hour (kWh) is 1 kJ per second times 3600 seconds in an hour. The average cost of residential electricity in the United States is about \$0.12 per kilowatt-hour.

Energy Conversion Factors

1 calorie (cal) 4.184 joules (J)

1 Calorie (Cal) 1000 cal

1 kilowatt-hour (kWh)

3.60 x 106 J

PracticeA candy bar contains 225 Cal of

nutritional energy. How many joules does it contain?

Practice The complete combustion of a small

wooden match produces approximately 512 cal of heat. How many kilojoules are produced?

Check-in: Suppose a salesperson wants to make an appliance

seem as efficient as possible. In which units does the yearly energy consumption of the appliance have the lowest numerical value and therefore seem most efficient?

a) J

b) cal

c) Cal

d) kWh

Energy and ReactionsA weight lifted off the ground has a high potential and will tend to fall toward the ground to lower its potential energy.

Energy and ReactionsSystems with high potential energy have a tendency to change in a way that lowers their potential energy. Objects or systems with high potential energy tend to be unstable.

Energy and ReactionsSome chemical substances, such as the

molecules that compose TNT (trinitrotoluene), have a relatively high potential energy The energy is concentrated in those substances

TNT molecules tend to undergo rapid chemical changes that lower their potential energy, which is why TNT is explosive.

Energy and ReactionsWhen chemicals undergo a reaction, there is often a transfer of energy occurring.

That transfer of energy can be described as exothermic or endothermic.

Energy and ReactionsExothermic change

A chemical system releases or loses energy

Energy is being released into the surroundings

Energy and ReactionsEndothermic change

A chemical system that absorbs energy

Energy is being absorbed from the surroundings

PracticeClassify each change as exothermic

or endothermic. wood burning in a fire

ice melting

water freezing into ice

natural gas burning