chapter 40. animal structure - explore · pdf file 2005-03-10 · organ systems...

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    2004-2005AP Biology

    Chapter 40.

    Animal Structure

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    2004-2005AP Biology

    Animal form & function reflect biology’s major themes ß Animals provide examples of biology’s themes:

    u diversity & unity of life u form & function are interwoven u evolution is the thread that ties it all together

    ß adaptations observed in a comparative study of animals evolved by natural selection

    The long, tongue-like proboscis is a structural adaptation for feeding. The moth can forage for nectar when temperatures are as low as 5°C. The moth uses a shivering-like mechanism for preflight warm-up of its muscles.

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    2004-2005AP Biology

    Hierarchy of structure ß cells Æ tissues Æ organs

    ß Tissues = groups of cells with common structure & function ßOrgans = composed of different

    tissue types

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    2004-2005AP Biology

    Tissue types ß Epithelial

    u covers body surface & lines internal body cavities

    u skin, mucous membranes, lining of digestive tract

    ß Muscle u body movement u skeletal, cardiac, smooth muscle

    ß Connective u framework of body u bone, cartilage, fibers, blood

    ß Nervous u integration & control of response to

    stimuli u neurons

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    2004-2005AP Biology

    Epithelial tissue ß Functions

    u lining, protecting & forming glands

    u protection of internal environment against external environment

    u secretion of a products

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    2004-2005AP Biology

    Epithelial tissue cell types

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    2004-2005AP Biology

    Muscle tissue ß Functions

    u facilitates movement by contraction of muscle cells (fibers)

    ß Types u skeletal ß striated

    u cardiac u smooth

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    2004-2005AP Biology

    Muscle tissue

    “power” muscles (striated)

    involuntary muscles of digestive system

    heart muscle

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    2004-2005AP Biology

    Nervous tissue ß Functions

    u integrating stimuli u response to stimuli ß Types

    u neurons, brain, spinal cord

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    2004-2005AP Biology

    Connective tissue ß Functions

    u support & binding u blood u storing fats u filling space

    ß Types u bone u blood u fibers u cartilage u adipose (fat)

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    2004-2005AP Biology

    Connective tissue

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    2004-2005AP Biology

    Cartilage & bone ß Rigid connective tissues

    u structural proteins deposited in matrix between cells

    u bone is stronger ß strength from calcium salts

    deposited in matrix w calcium reservoir

    u cartilage is softer ß forms embryonic skeleton of

    vertebrates & adult skeleton of sharks & rays ß in human body = ears, tip of

    nose & at joints

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    2004-2005AP Biology

    Organ Systems cells Æ tissues Æ organs Æ organ systems Æ organisms

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    Homeostasis ß Systems work to

    maintain a balance u integrated open &

    closed systems u requires

    monitoring, feedback & response

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    2004-2005AP Biology

    Feedback circuits ß Negative feedback

    u stimulus triggers control mechanism counteracting further change ß reverse effect

    ß Positive feedback u stimulus triggers

    control mechanism amplifying effect ß much less common

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    2004-2005AP Biology

    Control of body temperature