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1 Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeleton Appendicular Skeleton = Everything that is not the Axial Skeleton, i.e., pelvis and limbs Goal: Learn and locate the bones and markings of the appendicular skeleton Developed by John Gallagher, MS, DVM

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Page 1: Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeletonlpc1.clpccd.cc.ca.us/lpc/jgallagher/anat1/Ch8ApSkKN.pdf · Appendicular Skeleton = ! Everything that is not the Axial Skeleton,

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Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular SkeletonAppendicular Skeleton = !Everything that is not the Axial Skeleton, i.e., pelvis and limbs

Goal: Learn and locate the bones and markings of the appendicular skeleton

Developed by John Gallagher, MS, DVM

Page 2: Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeletonlpc1.clpccd.cc.ca.us/lpc/jgallagher/anat1/Ch8ApSkKN.pdf · Appendicular Skeleton = ! Everything that is not the Axial Skeleton,

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The Girdles

Pectoral Girdle ■ Supports the Arms ■ Clavicle and Scapula Pelvic Girdle

■ Supports the Legs ■ Pelvis

Ilium, ischium, pubic bone

Page 3: Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeletonlpc1.clpccd.cc.ca.us/lpc/jgallagher/anat1/Ch8ApSkKN.pdf · Appendicular Skeleton = ! Everything that is not the Axial Skeleton,

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Clavicle (collarbone)

•Manubrium to Acromion

•S-shaped

•Frequently fractured

Page 4: Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeletonlpc1.clpccd.cc.ca.us/lpc/jgallagher/anat1/Ch8ApSkKN.pdf · Appendicular Skeleton = ! Everything that is not the Axial Skeleton,

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Scapula (shoulder blade)

❖Origin of biceps brachii muscle: ❖Coracoid Process ❖Supraglenoid tubercle

❖ Glenoid ❖ Spine ❖ Acromion ❖ Acromioclavicular joint ❖ Inferior and Superior

Angles

Page 5: Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeletonlpc1.clpccd.cc.ca.us/lpc/jgallagher/anat1/Ch8ApSkKN.pdf · Appendicular Skeleton = ! Everything that is not the Axial Skeleton,

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The Arm

Synonym: Upper limb ■ Upper Arm = Brachium ■ Forearm = Antebrachium Humerus, Radius and

Ulna Carpus (wrist) Hand (manus)

Page 6: Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeletonlpc1.clpccd.cc.ca.us/lpc/jgallagher/anat1/Ch8ApSkKN.pdf · Appendicular Skeleton = ! Everything that is not the Axial Skeleton,

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Humerus

Head Greater and Lesser

Tubercles Intertubercular Sulcus

■ Biceps tendon Coronoid Fossa Olecranon Fossa Trochlea Medial and Lateral

Epicondyles

Page 7: Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeletonlpc1.clpccd.cc.ca.us/lpc/jgallagher/anat1/Ch8ApSkKN.pdf · Appendicular Skeleton = ! Everything that is not the Axial Skeleton,

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Radius UlnaHead, neck, shaft Insertion of biceps

brachii: ■ Radial Tuberosity Radial Styloid Process

Olecranon Trochlear notch Coronoid Process Ulnar Styloid Process

Interosseous Membrane (between radius and ulna)

Note how the two bones can cross

“Funny bone”

Page 8: Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeletonlpc1.clpccd.cc.ca.us/lpc/jgallagher/anat1/Ch8ApSkKN.pdf · Appendicular Skeleton = ! Everything that is not the Axial Skeleton,

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Carpus (Wrist)

Four Proximal ■ Scaphoid, lunate,

triquetrum, pisiform Four Distal

■ Trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate

Scaphoid is frequently fractured

Page 9: Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeletonlpc1.clpccd.cc.ca.us/lpc/jgallagher/anat1/Ch8ApSkKN.pdf · Appendicular Skeleton = ! Everything that is not the Axial Skeleton,

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Hand = Manus

Five metacarpal bones (1-5)

Five fingers Labeled 1-5 Thumb = Pollex = digit 1

Two phalangeal bones Fingers = phalanges = digits 2-5

Three phalangeal bones Proximal, middle, distal

Page 10: Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeletonlpc1.clpccd.cc.ca.us/lpc/jgallagher/anat1/Ch8ApSkKN.pdf · Appendicular Skeleton = ! Everything that is not the Axial Skeleton,

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The Girdles

Pectoral Girdle ■ Supports the Arms ■ Clavicle and Scapula Pelvic Girdle

■ Supports the Legs ■ Pelvis (os coxae)

Page 11: Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeletonlpc1.clpccd.cc.ca.us/lpc/jgallagher/anat1/Ch8ApSkKN.pdf · Appendicular Skeleton = ! Everything that is not the Axial Skeleton,

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Pelvis = os coxae = hip bone = (innominate bone)

Three bones: Ilium, Ischium, Pubis Anterior and posterior iliac spines

meet to form the iliac crest Greater and Lesser Sciatic

Notches Ischial Tuberosity Acetabulum ■ Acetabular fossa Obturator Foramen

Page 12: Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeletonlpc1.clpccd.cc.ca.us/lpc/jgallagher/anat1/Ch8ApSkKN.pdf · Appendicular Skeleton = ! Everything that is not the Axial Skeleton,

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More Pelvis

Articular Surface for Articulation with Sacrum

Difference between male and female

Pelvic (or pubic) symphysis ■ Fibrocartilage ■ Stretches at childbirth

(Relaxin?)

Page 13: Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeletonlpc1.clpccd.cc.ca.us/lpc/jgallagher/anat1/Ch8ApSkKN.pdf · Appendicular Skeleton = ! Everything that is not the Axial Skeleton,

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Male vs. Female Pelvis

Page 14: Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeletonlpc1.clpccd.cc.ca.us/lpc/jgallagher/anat1/Ch8ApSkKN.pdf · Appendicular Skeleton = ! Everything that is not the Axial Skeleton,

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The leg

AKA Lower Limb !

Femur Patella Tibia/fibula Tarsus Foot

Page 15: Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeletonlpc1.clpccd.cc.ca.us/lpc/jgallagher/anat1/Ch8ApSkKN.pdf · Appendicular Skeleton = ! Everything that is not the Axial Skeleton,

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Femur

Head and fovea capitus ■ Articulate with pelvis Neck (“fx pelvis”) Greater and Lesser

Trochanters Shaft Lateral and medial

condyles and epicondyles Intercondylar fossa Patellar Surface

Page 16: Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeletonlpc1.clpccd.cc.ca.us/lpc/jgallagher/anat1/Ch8ApSkKN.pdf · Appendicular Skeleton = ! Everything that is not the Axial Skeleton,

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Patella = knee cap

Sesamoid Bone Enclosed in the tendon

of the quadriceps group of muscles

“Skyline” MRI of patella

Page 17: Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeletonlpc1.clpccd.cc.ca.us/lpc/jgallagher/anat1/Ch8ApSkKN.pdf · Appendicular Skeleton = ! Everything that is not the Axial Skeleton,

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Tibia = shin bone

Lateral and medial condyles ■ Intercondylar eminence Tibial tuberosity Inferior articular surface Medial malleolus

■ (= ankle bone)

Interosseous Membrane

Page 18: Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeletonlpc1.clpccd.cc.ca.us/lpc/jgallagher/anat1/Ch8ApSkKN.pdf · Appendicular Skeleton = ! Everything that is not the Axial Skeleton,

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Fibula

Head Shaft Lateral malleolus

■ (= ankle bone) Not weight bearing

■ Frequent fx

Interosseous Membrane

Page 19: Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeletonlpc1.clpccd.cc.ca.us/lpc/jgallagher/anat1/Ch8ApSkKN.pdf · Appendicular Skeleton = ! Everything that is not the Axial Skeleton,

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Tarsus (7 bones)

Calcaneous Talus Navicular Cuboid Cunieform (3) Calcaneus

Talus

Cute Tillie Never Could Cooperate

Page 20: Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeletonlpc1.clpccd.cc.ca.us/lpc/jgallagher/anat1/Ch8ApSkKN.pdf · Appendicular Skeleton = ! Everything that is not the Axial Skeleton,

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Foot

Metatarsals (1-5) Phalanges (3 per

toe except big toe) Longitudinal Arches

■ Medial and lateral Transverse Arch

Dancer’s fx

Cute Tillie Never Could Cooperate

Page 21: Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeletonlpc1.clpccd.cc.ca.us/lpc/jgallagher/anat1/Ch8ApSkKN.pdf · Appendicular Skeleton = ! Everything that is not the Axial Skeleton,

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Fractures (a review)

Bleeding ■ Then clot Periosteal reaction ■ Fibroblasts ■ Osteoblasts Callus ■ New bone “collar” Remodeling

Page 22: Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeletonlpc1.clpccd.cc.ca.us/lpc/jgallagher/anat1/Ch8ApSkKN.pdf · Appendicular Skeleton = ! Everything that is not the Axial Skeleton,

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“Hip” fracture

“Grandma fell and broke her hip.” ■ More accurately, “Grandma suffered a

spontaneous fracture of her femoral neck and then fell.”

■ Sometimes the fx is at the intertrochanteric line

Diabetes, hypertension, osteoporosis 25% die from complications in first

year mostly related to immobility: ■ Anesthesia ■ Muscle Atrophy ■ Pneumonia

Decubitus ulcers ■ Depression and disorientation

Page 23: Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeletonlpc1.clpccd.cc.ca.us/lpc/jgallagher/anat1/Ch8ApSkKN.pdf · Appendicular Skeleton = ! Everything that is not the Axial Skeleton,

!23Douglas Iris