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1 Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeleton Appendicular Skeleton = Everything that is not the Axial Skeleton, i.e., pelvis and limbs Goal: Learn and locate the bones and markings of the appendicular skeleton Developed by John Gallagher, MS, DVM

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Page 1: Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeletonlpc1.clpccd.cc.ca.us/.../anat1/Chapter8AppendicularSkeletonMarieb.pdf · 1 Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeleton Appendicular

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Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeleton Appendicular Skeleton = Everything that is not the Axial Skeleton, i.e., pelvis and limbs

Goal: Learn and locate the bones and markings of the appendicular skeleton

Developed by John Gallagher, MS, DVM

Page 2: Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeletonlpc1.clpccd.cc.ca.us/.../anat1/Chapter8AppendicularSkeletonMarieb.pdf · 1 Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeleton Appendicular

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The Girdles

!  Pectoral Girdle n  Supports the Arms n  Clavicle and Scapula

!  Pelvic Girdle n  Supports the Legs n  Pelvis ! Ilium, ischium, pubic bone

Page 3: Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeletonlpc1.clpccd.cc.ca.us/.../anat1/Chapter8AppendicularSkeletonMarieb.pdf · 1 Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeleton Appendicular

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Clavicle (collarbone)

• Manubrium to Acromion

• S-shaped

• Frequently fractured

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Scapula (shoulder blade)

v Origin of biceps brachii muscle: v Coracoid Process v Supraglenoid tubercle

v Glenoid v Spine v Acromion v Acromioclavicular

joint v Inferior and Superior

Angles

Page 5: Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeletonlpc1.clpccd.cc.ca.us/.../anat1/Chapter8AppendicularSkeletonMarieb.pdf · 1 Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeleton Appendicular

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The Arm

•  Synonym: Upper limb •  Upper Arm = Brachium •  Forearm = Antebrachium

•  Humerus, Radius and Ulna •  Carpus (wrist) •  Hand (manus)

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Humerus

•  Head •  Greater and Lesser

Tubercles •  Intertubercular Sulcus •  Biceps tendon

•  Coronoid Fossa •  Olecranon Fossa •  Trochlea •  Medial and Lateral

Epicondyles

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Radius Ulna •  Head, neck, shaft •  Insertion of biceps brachii: •  Radial Tuberosity

•  Radial Styloid Process

•  Olecranon •  Trochlear notch •  Coronoid Process •  Ulnar Styloid Process

Interosseous Membrane (between radius and ulna)

Note how the two bones can cross

“Funny bone”

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Carpus (Wrist)

n  Four Proximal n  Scaphoid, lunate,

triquetrum, pisiform n  Four Distal

n  Trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate

Scaphoid is frequently fractured

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Hand = Manus

•  Five metacarpal bones (1-5)

Five fingers Labeled 1-5 Thumb = Pollex = digit 1

Two phalangeal bones Fingers = phalanges = digits 2-5

Three phalangeal bones Proximal, middle, distal

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The Girdles

n  Pectoral Girdle n  Supports the Arms n  Clavicle and Scapula

n  Pelvic Girdle n  Supports the Legs n  Pelvis (os coxae)

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Pelvis = os coxae = hip bone = (innominate bone)

•  Three bones: Ilium, Ischium, Pubis •  Anterior and posterior iliac spines

meet to form the iliac crest •  Greater and Lesser Sciatic Notches •  Ischial Tuberosity •  Acetabulum •  Acetabular fossa

•  Obturator Foramen

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More Pelvis

n  Articular Surface for Articulation with Sacrum

n  Difference between male and female

n  Pelvic (or pubic) symphysis n  Fibrocartilage n  Stretches at childbirth

(Relaxin?)

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Male vs. Female Pelvis

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The leg

•  AKA Lower Limb

•  Femur •  Patella •  Tibia/fibula •  Tarsus •  Foot

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Femur

•  Head and fovea capitus •  Articulate with pelvis

•  Neck (“fx pelvis”) •  Greater and Lesser

Trochanters •  Shaft •  Lateral and medial

condyles and epicondyles •  Intercondylar fossa •  Patellar Surface

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Patella = knee cap

•  Sesamoid Bone •  Enclosed in the tendon of

the quadriceps group of muscles

“Skyline” MRI of patella

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Tibia = shin bone

n  Lateral and medial condyles n  Intercondylar eminence

n  Tibial tuberosity n  Inferior articular surface n  Medial malleolus

n  (= ankle bone)

Interosseous Membrane

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Fibula

n  Head n  Shaft n  Lateral malleolus

n  (= ankle bone) n  Not weight bearing

n  Frequent fx

Interosseous Membrane

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Tarsus (7 bones)

•  Calcaneous •  Talus •  Navicular •  Cuboid •  Cunieform

(3)

Calcaneus

Talus

Cute Tillie Never Could Cooperate

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Foot

•  Metatarsals (1-5) •  Phalanges (3 per toe

except big toe) •  Longitudinal Arches •  Medial and lateral

•  Transverse Arch

Dancer’s fx

Cute Tillie Never Could Cooperate

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Fractures (a review)

•  Bleeding •  Then clot

•  Periosteal reaction •  Fibroblasts •  Osteoblasts

•  Callus •  New bone “collar”

•  Remodeling

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“Hip” fracture

n  “Grandma fell and broke her hip.” n  More accurately, “Grandma suffered a

spontaneous fracture of her femoral neck and then fell.”

n  Sometimes the fx is at the intertrochanteric line

n  Diabetes, hypertension, osteoporosis

n  25% die from complications in first year mostly related to immobility: n  Anesthesia n  Muscle Atrophy n  Pneumonia n  Decubitus ulcers n  Depression and disorientation

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Douglas Iris