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  • CHAPTER II

    SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITIES: AN OVERVIEW

    2.12.12.12.1 Learning DisabilityLearning DisabilityLearning DisabilityLearning Disability

    2.22.22.22.2 Historical PHistorical PHistorical PHistorical Perspectiveserspectiveserspectiveserspectives

    2.32.32.32.3 GroupGroupGroupGroups s s s of Theoristof Theoristof Theoristof Theoristssss of Learning D of Learning D of Learning D of Learning Disabilityisabilityisabilityisability

    2.42.42.42.4 Theories on Learning DisabilityTheories on Learning DisabilityTheories on Learning DisabilityTheories on Learning Disability

    2.52.52.52.5 Theories on Specific Learning DisabilityTheories on Specific Learning DisabilityTheories on Specific Learning DisabilityTheories on Specific Learning Disability

    2.62.62.62.6 Causes of LCauses of LCauses of LCauses of Learning Disorderearning Disorderearning Disorderearning Disorder

    2.72.72.72.7 DiscrepaDiscrepaDiscrepaDiscrepancy in Diagnosing Learning Disabilityncy in Diagnosing Learning Disabilityncy in Diagnosing Learning Disabilityncy in Diagnosing Learning Disability

    2.82.82.82.8 Over view of Learning DisabilityOver view of Learning DisabilityOver view of Learning DisabilityOver view of Learning Disability

    2.92.92.92.9 Key facts about Learning DisabilityKey facts about Learning DisabilityKey facts about Learning DisabilityKey facts about Learning Disability

    2.102.102.102.10 Specific Learning DisabilitiesSpecific Learning DisabilitiesSpecific Learning DisabilitiesSpecific Learning Disabilities

    2.112.112.112.11 Characteristics of Specific Learning DisabilitiesCharacteristics of Specific Learning DisabilitiesCharacteristics of Specific Learning DisabilitiesCharacteristics of Specific Learning Disabilities

    2.122.122.122.12 Causes of Specific Learning DisabilitiesCauses of Specific Learning DisabilitiesCauses of Specific Learning DisabilitiesCauses of Specific Learning Disabilities

    2.132.132.132.13 PPPPrevalence of Specific Learevalence of Specific Learevalence of Specific Learevalence of Specific Learning Disabilitiesrning Disabilitiesrning Disabilitiesrning Disabilities

    2.142.142.142.14 Types of STypes of STypes of STypes of Specific Learning Disabilitiespecific Learning Disabilitiespecific Learning Disabilitiespecific Learning Disabilities

    2.152.152.152.15 Educational Implications of SEducational Implications of SEducational Implications of SEducational Implications of Specific Learning Disabilitiespecific Learning Disabilitiespecific Learning Disabilitiespecific Learning Disabilities

    2.162.162.162.16 FFFFactors associated with positive out comesactors associated with positive out comesactors associated with positive out comesactors associated with positive out comes

    2.172.172.172.17 ParentsParentsParentsParents’ ’ ’ ’ P P P Perspectiveserspectiveserspectiveserspectives

    2.182.182.182.18 Role of Role of Role of Role of Teachers Teachers Teachers Teachers

    2.192.192.192.19 TTTTips for Teachers ips for Teachers ips for Teachers ips for Teachers

    2.202.202.202.20 Principles to Motivate LPrinciples to Motivate LPrinciples to Motivate LPrinciples to Motivate Leaeaeaearning Stylerning Stylerning Stylerning Stylessss

    2.212.212.212.21 TypeTypeTypeTypessss of L of L of L of Learning Stylesearning Stylesearning Stylesearning Styles

    2.222.222.222.22 AAAAdvantages and Disadvantages of Learning Styledvantages and Disadvantages of Learning Styledvantages and Disadvantages of Learning Styledvantages and Disadvantages of Learning Stylessss

  • Specific Learning Disabilities: An Overview 17171717

    SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITIES: AN OVERVIEW

    2.1 LEARNING DISABILITY

    A neurobiological disorder in which a person’s brain works or is structured

    differently affecting one or more of the basic processes involved in understanding or

    using spoken or written language. Such a disability may result in a problem with

    listening, thinking, speaking, reading, writing, spelling, or doing mathematical

    calculations. Experts believe that children with learning disabilities have a problem with

    the way the brain handles information, which in turn hinders the normal learning process.

    Learning disabilities affect one in seven people, and represent a national problem

    of enormous proportions. Every year, 120,000 additional students are diagnosed with

    learning disabilities a diagnosis now shared by 2.4 million school children in the United

    States. Many thousands more are never properly diagnosed or treated, or don’t get

    treatment because they are not considered eligible for service.

    The most common learning disability is difficulty with language and reading. A

    recent National Institute of Health study showed that 67 % of young students identified

    as being at risk for reading difficulties were able to achieve average or above-average

    reading ability when they received help early.

    All children learn in highly individual ways. Children with learning disabilities

    simply process information differently, but they are generally of normal or above-

    average intelligence.

    Sometimes overlooked as ‘hidden handicaps,’ learning disabilities are often not

    easily recognized, accepted or considered serious once detected. The impact of the

    disability, which often runs in families, ranges from relatively mild to severe. Learning

    disabilities can be lifelong conditions that, in some cases, affect many parts of a person’s

    life: school or work, daily routines, friendship, and family life. In some people, many

    overlapping learning disabilities may be apparent, while others may have a single,

    isolated learning problem that has little impact on other areas of their lives.

    LD are not the same as mental retardation, autism, deafness, blindness, or

    behavioural disorders. Nor are learning disabilities caused by poverty, environmental

    factors, or cultural differences. LD are not curable, but individuals can learn to

  • Specific Learning Disabilities: An Overview 18181818

    compensate for and even overcome areas of weakness. Attention deficit and

    hyperactivity sometimes appear with LD, but not always.

    Common Learning Disabilities include:

    Dyslexia: A language based disability in which a person has trouble in understanding

    words, sentences, or paragraphs.

    Dysgraphia: A writing disability in which a person finds it hard to form letters correctly

    or write within a defined space.

    Dyscalculia: A mathematical disability in which a person has difficulty in solving

    arithmetic problems and grasping math concepts.

    Auditory and visual processing disabilities: A sensory disability in which a person has

    difficulty in understanding language despite normal hearing and vision.

    More than one in six children will experience a problem in learning to read

    during the first three years in school, according to US Department of Education.

    Currently, more than 2.8 million school-age children receive special education services

    as students with learning disabilities, which represents about 5 % of all children in public

    schools. However, these statistics don’t include the tens of thousand of students who

    attend private and religious schools not do they include the scores of students, who may

    have serious problems with learning, but who may not meet the criteria established by

    school districts to receive special education services.

    Symptoms

    The earlier a LD is detected, the better chance a child will have of succeeding in

    school and in life. Parents are encouraged to understand the warning signs of a learning

    disability as early as preschool, since the first years in school are especially crucial for a

    young child.

    However, the very definition of “Learning Disability” hinders its identification

    with young children. The crucial element in identifying learning disabilities is to collect

    their academic performance. How can a LD in reading be identified when a child is too

    young to be taught to read? With young children, the range of what is “normal” is so

    wide that it is extremely difficulty in most cases, and impossible in others, to tell the

    difference between simple developmental immaturity and a learning disability.

  • Specific Learning Disabilities: An Overview 19191919

    There is no one indication of Learning Disabilities. Although most children have

    an occasional problem with learning or behaviour, a consistent pattern of the following

    problems may suggest the need for further testing.

    Disabilities

    If an individual does not benefit from a regular education programme and is not

    socially disadvantaged, intellectually limited, Pedagogically deprived, and shows no

    evidence for hard sign Neuro physiological dysfunction, that individual is characterised

    as learning disabled. If an individual has difficulty in communicating either expressively

    or receptively, and can not read or do mathematics within the criterion range established

    by the school district, that individual is similarly considered to be learning disabled.

    The lack of precision in evidence fo

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