chapter ii specific learning disabilities: an 2018. 7. 2.آ chapter ii specific learning...
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SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITIES: AN OVERVIEW
22.214.171.124.1 Learning DisabilityLearning DisabilityLearning DisabilityLearning Disability
126.96.36.199.2 Historical PHistorical PHistorical PHistorical Perspectiveserspectiveserspectiveserspectives
188.8.131.52.3 GroupGroupGroupGroups s s s of Theoristof Theoristof Theoristof Theoristssss of Learning D of Learning D of Learning D of Learning Disabilityisabilityisabilityisability
184.108.40.206.4 Theories on Learning DisabilityTheories on Learning DisabilityTheories on Learning DisabilityTheories on Learning Disability
220.127.116.11.5 Theories on Specific Learning DisabilityTheories on Specific Learning DisabilityTheories on Specific Learning DisabilityTheories on Specific Learning Disability
18.104.22.168.6 Causes of LCauses of LCauses of LCauses of Learning Disorderearning Disorderearning Disorderearning Disorder
22.214.171.124.7 DiscrepaDiscrepaDiscrepaDiscrepancy in Diagnosing Learning Disabilityncy in Diagnosing Learning Disabilityncy in Diagnosing Learning Disabilityncy in Diagnosing Learning Disability
126.96.36.199.8 Over view of Learning DisabilityOver view of Learning DisabilityOver view of Learning DisabilityOver view of Learning Disability
188.8.131.52.9 Key facts about Learning DisabilityKey facts about Learning DisabilityKey facts about Learning DisabilityKey facts about Learning Disability
184.108.40.206.10 Specific Learning DisabilitiesSpecific Learning DisabilitiesSpecific Learning DisabilitiesSpecific Learning Disabilities
220.127.116.11.11 Characteristics of Specific Learning DisabilitiesCharacteristics of Specific Learning DisabilitiesCharacteristics of Specific Learning DisabilitiesCharacteristics of Specific Learning Disabilities
18.104.22.168.12 Causes of Specific Learning DisabilitiesCauses of Specific Learning DisabilitiesCauses of Specific Learning DisabilitiesCauses of Specific Learning Disabilities
22.214.171.124.13 PPPPrevalence of Specific Learevalence of Specific Learevalence of Specific Learevalence of Specific Learning Disabilitiesrning Disabilitiesrning Disabilitiesrning Disabilities
126.96.36.199.14 Types of STypes of STypes of STypes of Specific Learning Disabilitiespecific Learning Disabilitiespecific Learning Disabilitiespecific Learning Disabilities
188.8.131.52.15 Educational Implications of SEducational Implications of SEducational Implications of SEducational Implications of Specific Learning Disabilitiespecific Learning Disabilitiespecific Learning Disabilitiespecific Learning Disabilities
184.108.40.206.16 FFFFactors associated with positive out comesactors associated with positive out comesactors associated with positive out comesactors associated with positive out comes
220.127.116.11.17 ParentsParentsParentsParents’ ’ ’ ’ P P P Perspectiveserspectiveserspectiveserspectives
18.104.22.168.18 Role of Role of Role of Role of Teachers Teachers Teachers Teachers
22.214.171.124.19 TTTTips for Teachers ips for Teachers ips for Teachers ips for Teachers
126.96.36.199.20 Principles to Motivate LPrinciples to Motivate LPrinciples to Motivate LPrinciples to Motivate Leaeaeaearning Stylerning Stylerning Stylerning Stylessss
188.8.131.52.21 TypeTypeTypeTypessss of L of L of L of Learning Stylesearning Stylesearning Stylesearning Styles
184.108.40.206.22 AAAAdvantages and Disadvantages of Learning Styledvantages and Disadvantages of Learning Styledvantages and Disadvantages of Learning Styledvantages and Disadvantages of Learning Stylessss
Specific Learning Disabilities: An Overview 17171717
SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITIES: AN OVERVIEW
2.1 LEARNING DISABILITY
A neurobiological disorder in which a person’s brain works or is structured
differently affecting one or more of the basic processes involved in understanding or
using spoken or written language. Such a disability may result in a problem with
listening, thinking, speaking, reading, writing, spelling, or doing mathematical
calculations. Experts believe that children with learning disabilities have a problem with
the way the brain handles information, which in turn hinders the normal learning process.
Learning disabilities affect one in seven people, and represent a national problem
of enormous proportions. Every year, 120,000 additional students are diagnosed with
learning disabilities a diagnosis now shared by 2.4 million school children in the United
States. Many thousands more are never properly diagnosed or treated, or don’t get
treatment because they are not considered eligible for service.
The most common learning disability is difficulty with language and reading. A
recent National Institute of Health study showed that 67 % of young students identified
as being at risk for reading difficulties were able to achieve average or above-average
reading ability when they received help early.
All children learn in highly individual ways. Children with learning disabilities
simply process information differently, but they are generally of normal or above-
Sometimes overlooked as ‘hidden handicaps,’ learning disabilities are often not
easily recognized, accepted or considered serious once detected. The impact of the
disability, which often runs in families, ranges from relatively mild to severe. Learning
disabilities can be lifelong conditions that, in some cases, affect many parts of a person’s
life: school or work, daily routines, friendship, and family life. In some people, many
overlapping learning disabilities may be apparent, while others may have a single,
isolated learning problem that has little impact on other areas of their lives.
LD are not the same as mental retardation, autism, deafness, blindness, or
behavioural disorders. Nor are learning disabilities caused by poverty, environmental
factors, or cultural differences. LD are not curable, but individuals can learn to
Specific Learning Disabilities: An Overview 18181818
compensate for and even overcome areas of weakness. Attention deficit and
hyperactivity sometimes appear with LD, but not always.
Common Learning Disabilities include:
Dyslexia: A language based disability in which a person has trouble in understanding
words, sentences, or paragraphs.
Dysgraphia: A writing disability in which a person finds it hard to form letters correctly
or write within a defined space.
Dyscalculia: A mathematical disability in which a person has difficulty in solving
arithmetic problems and grasping math concepts.
Auditory and visual processing disabilities: A sensory disability in which a person has
difficulty in understanding language despite normal hearing and vision.
More than one in six children will experience a problem in learning to read
during the first three years in school, according to US Department of Education.
Currently, more than 2.8 million school-age children receive special education services
as students with learning disabilities, which represents about 5 % of all children in public
schools. However, these statistics don’t include the tens of thousand of students who
attend private and religious schools not do they include the scores of students, who may
have serious problems with learning, but who may not meet the criteria established by
school districts to receive special education services.
The earlier a LD is detected, the better chance a child will have of succeeding in
school and in life. Parents are encouraged to understand the warning signs of a learning
disability as early as preschool, since the first years in school are especially crucial for a
However, the very definition of “Learning Disability” hinders its identification
with young children. The crucial element in identifying learning disabilities is to collect
their academic performance. How can a LD in reading be identified when a child is too
young to be taught to read? With young children, the range of what is “normal” is so
wide that it is extremely difficulty in most cases, and impossible in others, to tell the
difference between simple developmental immaturity and a learning disability.
Specific Learning Disabilities: An Overview 19191919
There is no one indication of Learning Disabilities. Although most children have
an occasional problem with learning or behaviour, a consistent pattern of the following
problems may suggest the need for further testing.
If an individual does not benefit from a regular education programme and is not
socially disadvantaged, intellectually limited, Pedagogically deprived, and shows no
evidence for hard sign Neuro physiological dysfunction, that individual is characterised
as learning disabled. If an individual has difficulty in communicating either expressively
or receptively, and can not read or do mathematics within the criterion range established
by the school district, that individual is similarly considered to be learning disabled.
The lack of precision in evidence fo