Chapters 1-11 (Part I) Wrap Up To Kill a Mockingbird By Harper Lee.
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Chapters 1-11 (Part I)Wrap UpTo Kill a MockingbirdBy Harper Lee
Point of View and ScoutThe novel is told from first person point of view.The narrator uses I and Me to describe events in the novel.The narrator: Jean Louise Scout Finch, a 6 year old girl.Scout is the adult narrator in the novel, but Scout, the child, takes part in the action of the novel and engages in the dialogue.The narrator is an ADULT, but she retells the events as she remembers experiencing them as a child.
Harper Lee is ScoutHarper Lee, the author, is a woman.Scout represents the author as a little girl although the story is not strictly autobiographical.The novel is shaped by a young girl who sees the story from a position of nave acceptance.
Advantages and Disadvantages of First Person Point of ViewAdvantages:Draws reader/viewer into story and character when one who is a part of the story tells it.Makes story and narrator believable.Interesting combination of Scout as the narrator and as the child protagonist.Disadvantages:Her perspective is limited to what she saw and felt at the time.Scout, the child, does not understand the full meaning of what she observes, but her childlike perceptions are a source of humor.Atticus was feeble: he was nearly 50 (Lee 89).
John Hale FinchUncle JackAtticus brother10 years younger than AtticusStudies medicineAtticus invested in his education
Alexandra FinchAtticus sisterRemained at Finchs LandingMarried a taciturn man who spent time lying in his hammock
Atticus FinchGrew up in Finchs LandingWas taught at home by his fatherAttended law school and practiced law in MaycombTown lawyerRepresented his county in State LegislatureHe liked Maycomb, he was Maycomb county born and bred (Lee 5).Related to nearly everyone in Maycomb.WidowerFather to Scout and JemHe played with us, read to us, and treated us with courteous detachment (Lee 6).
Atticus Wife15 years younger than AtticusShe died from a heart attack when Scout was 2 and Jem was 6Jem remembered her clearly and missed her, Scout did not
CalpurniaAtticus black cook/housekeeperWas all angles and bonesNearsighted; she squintedWide, hard hand which she used to discipline ScoutTyrannical presence (Lee 6).Always ordering Scout aboutShe always won the battles with Scout because Atticus always took her side (Lee 6).Mother-figure to Jem & Scout
Charles Baker Harris DILLSeven years oldFrom Meridan, MississippiSpends every summer with his aunt, Ms. Rachel (Finch neighbor)His mothers a photographer; does not have a fatherWon $5 in a photo contest; used it to see the same movie twenty timesDill was a curiosity (Lee 7).Plays with his cowlickSpent the summer playing with Jem and ScoutThey improved their tree house They produced plays they wrote, based on books they readFascinated by the Radley place and Boo RadleyGave them the idea of making Boo Radley come out (Lee 8).
The Radley Place3 doors south of the FinchesLow house; once white but darkened to a slate-grayRain-rotted shinglesOak trees kept the sun awayUnswept yard filled with weedsMalevolent phantom (Lee 8) lived inside the house; Jem/Scout have never seen himMany people fear the Radley Place and cross the street to avoid itAny lost ball in the Radleys yard remains there.
The RadleysLived with their two childrenKept to themselves; unforgivable in Maycomb (Lee 9).Did not go to church; principle recreation in Maycomb; worshiped at homeMrs. Radley never had coffee with her neighbors nor did she take part in missionary workTheir shutters and doors were closed every Sunday; kept their shades drawn to discourage visitors Never participated in Sunday formal afternoon visiting
Mr. RadleyThin, leathery manColorless eyes; did not reflect lightSharp cheekbones; wide mouthRamrod straight postureMade a living doing nothing; bought cotton (Lee 9)Walked to town at 11:30 am every morning and returned home exactly at 12 pm carrying a brown paper bagNever spoke to Jem and ScoutCalpurnia refers to him as, the meanest man ever God blew breath into (Lee 12).Kept his son, Boo, out of sightJem figured he kept his son chained to the bed, but Atticus felt it wasnt that sort of thing, that there were other ways of making people into ghosts (Lee 11).After his death Mr. Nathan Radley, Boos brother, returned from Pensacola and took his place
Arthur Radley (BOO)According to JemHe was 6 and a half feet tallAte raw squirrels and catsHad blood-stained handsLong jagged scar on his faceYellow, rotten teethDrooled
BOO Radley People in Maycomb said Arthur goes out at night after the town is asleepHe was responsible for any crimes committed in townHe peeped into windows at nightHe breathed on azaleas (flowers) and froze them
Boo RadleyThe Real StoryGot into trouble with a wrong crowd of boys; came before a judge for disorderly conductRather than being sent to a state school by the judge, Arthur was released in his fathers care Mr. Radley guaranteed that [he would see to it] that Arthur gave no further trouble (Lee 10).As a result Arthur was not seen again for 15 yearsAs a result the doors of the Radley house closed on weekdays as well as Sundays
BOO: The Real Story (continued)At age 33, Arthur reportedly drove the scissors into his fathers legMrs. Radley ran outside and started to scream, Arthur was killing [us] all (Lee 11)Boos reaction: He continued to cut the newspaper like nothing was wrongAfter being temporarily locked up in the courtroom basement for a while, he was taken home by his fatherFrom that day on people said the [Radley] house died (Lee 12).
Miss Caroline Fisher
Scouts teacher21 years oldBright auburn hairPink cheeksCrimson nail polishWore high heels and a dressShe looked and smelled like a peppermint drop (Lee 16).Lived in a room at Miss Maudies houseJem has a crush on herFrom Winston County in North AlabamaBeliefs much different form Maycomb CountyWhen Alabama seceded from the UnionWinston County seceded from Alabama, and every child in Maycomb County knew it (Lee 16).
Conflict with Miss CarolineWith ScoutSeemed unaware that the children were, immune to imaginative literature.Tells Scout to tell Atticus not to teach her how to read anymore.Scout gives in to Miss Carolines accusationsShe is introducing a new way of teaching (Lee 18).
With Walter CunninghamOffers him a quarter to eat downtown.Walter refuses.Scout tries to explain the Cunninghams and gets herself in troubleScout gets hit on the palm with a ruler for being disrespectful
Think about this My sojourn in the corner was a short one. Saved by the bell, Miss Caroline watched the class file out for lunch. As I was about to leave, I saw her sink down into her chair and bury her head in her arms. Had her conduct been more friendly toward me, I would have felt sorry for her. She was a pretty little thing (Lee 22).How do you think that Miss Caroline is feeling at the end of Chapter 2? Why?Was Scouts first day of school all she thought it was going to be?What proof can you find in the text to support your answer?
Conflict Caused by WalterBetween Jem and Scout
Between Calpurnia and Scout
Between Scout and AtticusAt the schoolyard, resulting in Jem inviting Walter for dinnerAt dinner when Walter covers everything in syrupScout wants Atticus to fire Calpurnia, but he says that he never will
The same afternoonConflict between
Burris EwellMiss CarolineChuck LittleEvents of the dayBurris has creatures crawling out of his hairMiss Caroline tells him to go home and wash with lye and keroseneChuck Little gets involved, knowing that he is a Ewell -foreshadowingBurris leaves, but not before making Miss Caroline cry in front of the class
Maycombs Societal ConflictsAlthough every member of the Finch family understands the way Maycomb society works, they do not conform to Maycombs rules of class. Walter is welcomed into the home by Atticus. The Ewell family, on the other hand, in no way fits into Maycomb society. They even live on the edge of town. Burris and his father refuse to obey the school attendance rules and the hunting regulations of Maycomb. Society elects to turn a blind eye on these activities.
Burris Ewell vs. Walter CunninghamA childs behavior can be explained by his familys last name.He was the filthiest human I had ever seen (Lee 26).Dark grey neckRusty handsBlack fingernailsCooties in his hairComes to class the first day every year and then leavesHas repeated first grade three times = illiterateNo mother, drunk fatherHes a mean one, a hard-down mean one (Lee 27).Rude to the teacher; made her cryHe looked as if he had been raised on fish food (Lee 23).Thin because he has hookworms - shoelessRed-rimmed and watery eyesNeat and clean appearanceDoesnt take money offered by Miss Caroline because , hes a Cunningham (Lee 20).Illiterate due to family obligations on the farm.
Social Class: Poor WhitesThe CunninghamsPoor country farmers; The crash hit them the hardest (Lee 21).They never took anything off of anybody, they get along on what they have (Lee 20).They do not take what they cannot pay back; they wont accept handouts - Ex: WelfareWalter wont take lunch money even though he is starving because he cannot repay it.Pride: Came from a set breed of men (Lee 21); remain honorable despite situation; cannot pay Atticus with money for his legal services, so they pay him with farm crops.
Poor Whites ContinuedThe EwellsDisgrace of Maycomb for three generationsNone of them had done an honest days work in their livesThey were people, but lived like animalsFather spends relief checks on whiskeyLived outside local and national laws because they are poor and ignorant - children do not attend school and father hunts out of seasonMaycombians allow this because of their name: Ewell
Lessons Scout LearnsCalpurnia teaches Scout that when people differ, Scout is not called on to contradict em. . . (Lee 24).Scout also learns from Calpurnia that guests in her home should be treated as such. Atticus teachers her to consider things from another persons point of view in order to understand that person. He indicates that sometimes it is better to bend the law a little in special cases. Find the quote in chapter 3 that exemplifies this.He also tells Scout that at times it is best to ignore things. He reminds her that Maycomb overlooks Burriss skipping school and Robert Ewells hunting out of season. He applies this to Jem in the tree house; if Scout will ignore Jem, Jem will come down.
Stylistic Devices in Chapter 3The repetition of sounds, or alliteration, is used often. For instance, the reader finds words like snorted and slouched and snot-nosed slut. Scout uses an idiom when she says that Walter made her start off on the wrong foot. Walters dialect is apparent as he says, Almost died first year I come to school and et them pecansfolks say he pizened em and put em over on the school side of the fence.
Theme of BraveryOnce again the children must prove their bravery in the face of many threats. Often, this is easier in a group. The children walk by the Radley Place when they are together, but go by at a full gallop when they are alone. The children fake bravado in front of their peers, but they allow free rein to their feelings when they are unobserved. Bravery versus cowardice also occurs with the confrontation of Little Chuck Little and Burris in the classroom. Little Chuck Little, one of the smallest children in the class, displays bravery and is able to confront Burris, a hard-down mean one.
Questions:Why do the children make Boos story into a game? Whose idea is it?What do they do in this game? What scene do they seem to enjoy the most? Do you think the game is an accurate version of what happens in the Radleys home?What might be the cause of laughter from inside the house?
Answers.The three of them act out scenes from the stories they have heard about the Radleys.The scene they enjoy play acting the most concerns the rumors that Boo once stabbed his father with a pair of scissors.
Significance of their games..Are the children listening to Atticus advice about trying to understand other peoples ways or have they forgotten?The games of Scout, Jem, and Dill have a childish innocence, but they can be cruel.Do you think the Radleys would appreciate having their private problems dramatized for the entire neighborhood?
Atticus and the RadleysSo thats what your doing, wasnt it? Makin fun of him? No said Atticus, Putting his lifes history on display for the edification of the neighborhood. Jem seemed to swell a little. :I didnt say we were doin that, I didnt say it! Atticus grinned dryly. You just told me, he said. you stop this nonsense right now, every one of you. Atticus is rarely stern with his children.The fact that he is being stern shows that his opinions toward the Radleys differ from the childrens opinions.Atticus does not believe the Radleys are bad people.
MISS MAUDIEWidowed lady who lives next door; a benign presence (Lee 42).Hates her house; spends as much time as possible working outdoors in her gardenObsessed with her flowerbeds; tends to them despite the disapproval of the foot washing Baptists (Lee 44), who accuse her of spending too much time in such vain earthly pursuitsReligious; she finds a relationship between maintaining beautiful things in the world and connecting with GodGrew up with Uncle Jack Finch; teases him
Miss Maudie continued.Forms a special friendship with Scout (Why?)Youre the best lady that I know (Lee 45).Believes in the importance of pleasure and the enjoyment of lifeKind, gentle person (Proof)Allowed Scout and Jem to play in her yard; baked them cakes; never told on them
What does Miss Maudie tell Scout about Boo Radley?Knows that Arthur is still alive because [she has not] seen him carried out yet (Lee 43).Says that legends about Arthur are three fourths colored folk and one fourth Stephanie Crawford (Lee 45).She knew Arthur as a boy; He always spoke nicely to me, no matter what folks said he did (Lee 46).Tries to make Scout see that Boo is a real human being who deserves her sympathySuggests Arthurs family hold strict religious beliefs, which have affected the way they treat him
What does Miss Maudie mean in the following statement that she makes to Scout?Sometimes the Bible in the hand of one man is worse than a whiskey bottle in the hand of someone else (Lee 45).
Objects in The TreeScout and Jem find more objects in the tree:
Figurines carved in soap (a boy and a girl)A pack of chewing gumA spelling contest medalA pocket watch and an aluminum knife
Jem writes a thank-you noteDear Sir,
We appreciate everything which you have put into the tree for us.
Yours very truly, Jem Finch Jean Louise Finch (Scout)
When Jem and Scout go to deliver the letter they are horrified to discover that the tree has been plugged up. Mr. Radley claimed the tree was dying.The children ask Atticus about the tree and he tells them it is healthy. However, when they tell him w...