charlemagne unites germanic kingdoms gradual decline of the roman empire starts an era called middle...
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Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms
Charlemagne Unites Germanic KingdomsGradual decline of the Roman Empire starts an era called Middle Ages in Europe (approx. 500-1500)In the 400s, Germanic tribes invade western Rome and cause the following changes:Disruption of Trade- merchants faced invasionsDownfall of Cities- cities were abandoned Population Shifts- nobles retreated to rural areasThe decline of learning- Germanic invaders could not read or write. As noble romans flee to rural areas, many aspects of Greek culture were lostLoss of common language- as Germanic tribes mixed in with native Romans, language meshes. By 800 AD, the Latin language had evolved into different dialects that would make up Spanish, French, and other Roman based languages.Germanic Kingdoms EmergeDuring the time of political upheaval after the classical period, Germanic kingdoms replace the Roman provinces. The Church remains the only constant Concept of Government ChangesGermanic peoples lived according to unwritten laws, and considered themselves loyal to family rather than state. Germans were loyal to their commanders before any king, and in general valued personal ties rather than formal ties.
Clovis Rules the FranksThe Franks rule over Gaul (present day France and Switzerland) under ClovisClovis converts to Christianity upon his wifes request. In 496 AD he leads his warriors against a Germanic army and prays for their guidance. The Franks win, and Clovis asks for a bishop to baptize him and 3,000 warriors.The Church in Rome welcomes Cloviss conversion and supports his military campaigns against other German tribes. The union between the Frankish kingdom and the Church would start a powerful partnership.
Germans Adopt Christianity By 600 many Germanic peoples had converted to Christianity Monasteries, Convents, and ManuscriptsThe church builds religious communities called monasteries where monks and nuns devote themselves to serving GodAround 520, Benedect writes Scholastica for governing religious monasteries. Monasteries became Europes best educated communities
Papal Power Expands Under Gregory IIn 590 Gregory the Great becomes the Pope, and broadens the power of the office beyond its spiritual role The Popes palace becomes the center of Roman government, making it a secular position. In addition, he used the church revenues to raise armies, repair roads, and help the poor.Gregory felt that he controlled all the land from Italy to England, and from Spain to Germany. He strengthens the idea of Christendom, which is the idea of a churchly kingdom ruled by a pope that expands its rule outward from Rome.An Empire EvolvesAfter the Roman Empire dissolves, small kingdoms sprang up all over Europe.Charles Martel EmergesBy 719, Charles Martel held more power than the king (major domo mayor of the palace)He defeated the Muslim raiders at the Battle of Tours in 732, which was highly significant for Christian Europeans this makes him a Christian heroAfter his death, he passes his power to his son Pepin the Short. Pepin wants to become king, and works alongside the pope. In exchange, the pope names Pepin king by the grace of GodThis begins the Carolingian Dynasty (751-987)
Charlemagne Becomes EmperorPepin the Short died in 768 AD, leaving the kingdom to his two sons, Carloman and ChalesCarloman died in 771, and Charles rules by himself for 47 years Charlemagne or Charles the GreatCharlemagne Extends Frankish RuleBuilds an empire greater than any known since ancient RomeThrough conquests, Charlemagne spreads Christianity and unites western Europe for first time since Roman empireIn 800, he puts down a mob attacking the pope. As a result the pope crowns him emperor pope assumes the power to confer the title Roman emperor on a European king. Joining of Germanic power, the Church, and Rome.Charlemagne leads a revivalStrengthens his power by limiting authority of noblesRegularly visited each part of the kingdomHe encouraged learning by opening a palace schoolOrdered monasteries to open schools to train monks and priestsCharlemagnes HeirsA year before Charlemagne dies in 814, he crowned his son Louis the Pious as emperor proved to be an ineffective rulerAfter Louis, his three sons fight for power and sign a peace treaty in 843 (Treaty of Verdun), which divided the kingdom into three sectionsCentral authority broke down, leading to a new system of governing and landholding feudalism
Feudalism in EuropeAfter the Treaty of Verdun, the Carolingian Empire was divided into three sections which would make invasions more easy than before. Political turmoil and warfare lead to feudalism political/economic system based on personal loyalty and land ownershipInvaders Attack Western Europe800-1000 AD invasions destroyed the Carolingian Empire (Muslims from south, Vikings from north, Magyars from east)Vikings Invade from the NorthIn search of better land for farmingTraveled from Scandanavia (Denmark, Sweden, Norway)Attacked on warships, moved swiftly, and got back out to sea before locals could build defense. Leif Ericson travels across Atlantic to the Americas around 1000 ADMagyars and Muslims from the East and the SouthCame from around the Carpathian Mtns.Magyars are superior horsemen who sweep across the Danube River in the late 800sMagyars didnt settle conquered lands; they took captives to sell as slavesMuslims originate back to Spain, Middle East, and N. AfricaAble to attack settlements on the Mediterranean Sea due to their expertise in sea warfare
As a result of these invasions, kings could no longer protect their empires. People turned to local rulers who had their own armies.New Social Order: FeudalismIn 911, Charles the Simple (France) and Rollo (Viking) reach agreement to give Vikings a piece of French land in return for loyalty Normandy or Northmens LandFeudalism Structures SocietyDuring the worst years of invasions, European lords granted vassals land for military protectionFeudalism is a two-sided bargain that depends on landFeudal PyramidKingVassalsKnightsPeasantsWell-Defined Social ClassesSocial class was usually inheritedClassified into 3 groupsThose who fought (nobles and knights)Those who prayed (men and women of the church)Those who worked (peasants)Most peasants are serfs, which are people who arent slaves but who also are bound to a piece of land. The labor they produced belonged to their lord.
Manors: The Economic Side of FeudalismManor- lords estateLords provided serfs with housing, land, and protection. Serfs provided lord with tending the land, caring for animals, and other tasks to maintain the estate.Peasants and serfs owed the lord at least a few days labor each weak, and a portion of their grainsSelf-Contained World15-30 families lived on the manors typically, and they were self-sufficient Produced nearly everything they needed (crops, milk and cheese, fuel, cloth, lumber). Only outside purchases were salt, iron, and a few other unusual objects like millstonesHarshness of Manor LifeIn return for living lords estate, peasants paid tax on grain, marriage, and titheSerfs lived in cottages used pigs to warm dirt floorsDiet consisted of vegetables, cheese, bread, and soupIllness and malnutrition crumble life expectancy 35For the most part, they accepted their role in society b/c they believed God determined a persons place in society
Age of ChivalryKnights: Warriors on HorsebackKnights become valuable during the reign of Charlemagnes grandfather, Charles Martel Technology ChangesLeather saddles and stirrups change warfare in European 8th century both developed in Asia around 200 BCWarriors Role in Feudal SocietyWarriors were given fiefs from feudal lords $ from the land gained was used for weapons, armor, and warhorsesKnights main obligation was to serve in battle (40 days a year)Knights hunted and wrestled to hone skills they would need on the battlefield
Knighthood and the Code of ChivalryBy the 1100s, the code of chivalry demanded a knight fight bravely in defense of 3 mastersHis feudal lordHis heavenly LordHis chosen ladyKnights were expected to protect the weak and the poorIn reality, most knights failed to meet chivalric expectationsA Knights TrainingAt 7, a boy would be sent off to a castle of another lord page- boy who waits on hosts and begins fighting skillsAt age 14, the page becomes a squire- a servant to a knightAt 21, the squire becomes a full fledged knight
After becoming a knight, most young men travel for 1-2 years battling in tournamentsBrutal Reality of WarfareSmall-scale violence of tournaments didnt match actual warfareDefenders of a castle often poured boiling water, molten lead, or hot oil on intrudersArchers stood atop the castle walls and shot down enemiesLiterature of ChivalryStories downplayed actuality of warfare and idealized castle lifeSongs and poems about knights love for ladies were popularEpic PoemsRecounted a heros deeds and adventures Many epics on King Arthur and CharlemagneLove Poems and SongsLove for ones lady became as important as love for ones lordTroubadors compose short songs about loveThe code of chivalry promoted a false idea of knights as loving rather than brutal, and a false idea of noblewomen as beautiful and pureWomens Role in Feudal SocietyWomen seen as inferior to men, but played important roles
NoblewomenCould inherit an estate from her husbandCould send knights to war with lords requestWhen husband was off fighting, the lady may act as military commander (fired arrows and hurled rocks in battle)In general, however, women were confined to the home or the conventPeasant WomenFor women of lower class, they performed labor in the home and fieldsBore children and took care of the familyPeasant girls learned hospitality skills while noble girls were educated by tutorsPower of the ChurchWhile these feudal governments were relatively weak in Europe during the