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  • Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

  • 1650s Archbishop JamesUssher proposes the date4004 BC for the beginning of the universe

  • 1758 Linnaeus publishedthe 10th edition of Systema Naturae (biol. classification)

    1785 Hutton publishes The Theory of the Earth (gradualism) - the earth is shaped by geological forces that took place over very long periods of time

  • 1809- Lamarck argues acquired characteristics are passed from parents to offspring

  • 1) Use and Disuse: parasites and other organisms lost parts because they did not use them - like the missing eyes and digestive system of the tapeworm, or the vestigial femur of marine mammals2) Perfection with use and need: the constant use of an organ leads that organ to increase in size, like the muscles of a blacksmith or the large ears of a night-flying bat.3) Inheritance of Acquired Traits: an animal who altered itsbody structure during its lifetime would pass these traits on to its offspring: Ex: Arnold S. would pass on his physique to his kids

  • Lamarcks Giraffe

  • 1830 Lyell publishes Principles of Geology advocating an old earth(Uniformitarianism)

    1831 The H.M.S. Beagle leaves England

  • Charles Darwin (1809 1882)HMS Beagle (1831-36)

  • The main mission of the five-year voyage of the Beagle was to chart poorly known stretches of the South American coastline.Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFig. 22.5

  • 1838 Darwin reads Malthusessay on Principle of Population

    1858 Darwin receives a letterfrom Alfred Wallace

  • Then, in 1858, Darwin received a letter that changed everything..

  • Darwin wrote to Wallace: "Your words have come true with a vengeance ... I never saw a more striking coincidence ... so all my originality, whatever it may amount to, will be smashed."

  • 22 of the 29 species of birds on the Galapagos are endemic (found only on these islands).Darwin collected specimens of each of the species. At first, he paid little note to a series of small but distinctive birds.Some of these animals seemed woodpecker-like, some warbler-like, and some finch-like.

  • 14 Species of Darwins Finchesbred in the early 80s

  • Succession of types.Armadillos are native to the Americas, with most species found in South America.

  • Many islands show distinct local variations in tortoise morphology. . . .. . . . perhaps these are the first steps in the splitting of one species into several?

  • Darwin made two points in The Origin of Species:Todays organisms descended from ancestral species. (descent with modification) Natural selection provided a mechanism for evolutionary change in populations.Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

  • Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFig. 22.7This evolutionary tree of the elephant family is based on evidence from fossils.Descent WithModification

  • (1) Variation exists in natural populations.

    (2) Many more offspring are born each season than can possibly survive to maturity.(3) As a result, there is a struggle for existence.Darwins Theory of Natural Selection

  • (4) Characteristics beneficial in the struggle for existence will tend to become more common in the population, changing the characteristics of a species.

    (5) Over time, and given a steady input of new variation into a population, these processes lead to the emergence of new species.

  • ArtificialSelection

  • Where did Darwin observe the finches for which he is famous?

    Name two geologists who proposed that the earth is older than6000 years. (They had a big impression on Darwin).

  • 3) What was the real significanceof the title What Darwin NeverSaw?

  • The majority of events that youplaced on the timeline on Frioccurred within the last _____million years.

    How long was the earth in existence before life was here?

  • Name two key points in Darwins theory of natural selection.

    Place the following organismsin evolutionary order fromfirst to evolve to the most recent: mammals, birds, amphibians,reptiles, fish.

  • Darwin had two theories:Natural Selection and Descent _________ __________.

    Name two major points of Darwins Theory of Natural Selection (p. 386 Biology Textbook)