charlesdarwin(1809-1882). 1650s – archbishop james ussher proposes the date 4004 bc for the...
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Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
1650s Archbishop JamesUssher proposes the date4004 BC for the beginning of the universe
1758 Linnaeus publishedthe 10th edition of Systema Naturae (biol. classification)
1785 Hutton publishes The Theory of the Earth (gradualism) - the earth is shaped by geological forces that took place over very long periods of time
1809- Lamarck argues acquired characteristics are passed from parents to offspring
1) Use and Disuse: parasites and other organisms lost parts because they did not use them - like the missing eyes and digestive system of the tapeworm, or the vestigial femur of marine mammals2) Perfection with use and need: the constant use of an organ leads that organ to increase in size, like the muscles of a blacksmith or the large ears of a night-flying bat.3) Inheritance of Acquired Traits: an animal who altered itsbody structure during its lifetime would pass these traits on to its offspring: Ex: Arnold S. would pass on his physique to his kids
1830 Lyell publishes Principles of Geology advocating an old earth(Uniformitarianism)
1831 The H.M.S. Beagle leaves England
Charles Darwin (1809 1882)HMS Beagle (1831-36)
The main mission of the five-year voyage of the Beagle was to chart poorly known stretches of the South American coastline.Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFig. 22.5
1838 Darwin reads Malthusessay on Principle of Population
1858 Darwin receives a letterfrom Alfred Wallace
Then, in 1858, Darwin received a letter that changed everything..
Darwin wrote to Wallace: "Your words have come true with a vengeance ... I never saw a more striking coincidence ... so all my originality, whatever it may amount to, will be smashed."
22 of the 29 species of birds on the Galapagos are endemic (found only on these islands).Darwin collected specimens of each of the species. At first, he paid little note to a series of small but distinctive birds.Some of these animals seemed woodpecker-like, some warbler-like, and some finch-like.
14 Species of Darwins Finchesbred in the early 80s
Succession of types.Armadillos are native to the Americas, with most species found in South America.
Many islands show distinct local variations in tortoise morphology. . . .. . . . perhaps these are the first steps in the splitting of one species into several?
Darwin made two points in The Origin of Species:Todays organisms descended from ancestral species. (descent with modification) Natural selection provided a mechanism for evolutionary change in populations.Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFig. 22.7This evolutionary tree of the elephant family is based on evidence from fossils.Descent WithModification
(1) Variation exists in natural populations.
(2) Many more offspring are born each season than can possibly survive to maturity.(3) As a result, there is a struggle for existence.Darwins Theory of Natural Selection
(4) Characteristics beneficial in the struggle for existence will tend to become more common in the population, changing the characteristics of a species.
(5) Over time, and given a steady input of new variation into a population, these processes lead to the emergence of new species.
Where did Darwin observe the finches for which he is famous?
Name two geologists who proposed that the earth is older than6000 years. (They had a big impression on Darwin).
3) What was the real significanceof the title What Darwin NeverSaw?
The majority of events that youplaced on the timeline on Frioccurred within the last _____million years.
How long was the earth in existence before life was here?
Name two key points in Darwins theory of natural selection.
Place the following organismsin evolutionary order fromfirst to evolve to the most recent: mammals, birds, amphibians,reptiles, fish.
Darwin had two theories:Natural Selection and Descent _________ __________.
Name two major points of Darwins Theory of Natural Selection (p. 386 Biology Textbook)