CharlesDarwin(1809-1882). 1650s – Archbishop James Ussher proposes the date 4004 BC for the beginning of the universe

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<ul><li><p>Charles Darwin (1809-1882)</p></li><li><p>1650s Archbishop JamesUssher proposes the date4004 BC for the beginning of the universe</p></li><li><p>1758 Linnaeus publishedthe 10th edition of Systema Naturae (biol. classification)</p><p>1785 Hutton publishes The Theory of the Earth (gradualism) - the earth is shaped by geological forces that took place over very long periods of time</p></li><li><p>1809- Lamarck argues acquired characteristics are passed from parents to offspring</p></li><li><p>1) Use and Disuse: parasites and other organisms lost parts because they did not use them - like the missing eyes and digestive system of the tapeworm, or the vestigial femur of marine mammals2) Perfection with use and need: the constant use of an organ leads that organ to increase in size, like the muscles of a blacksmith or the large ears of a night-flying bat.3) Inheritance of Acquired Traits: an animal who altered itsbody structure during its lifetime would pass these traits on to its offspring: Ex: Arnold S. would pass on his physique to his kids </p></li><li><p>Lamarcks Giraffe</p></li><li><p>1830 Lyell publishes Principles of Geology advocating an old earth(Uniformitarianism)</p><p>1831 The H.M.S. Beagle leaves England</p></li><li><p>Charles Darwin (1809 1882)HMS Beagle (1831-36)</p></li><li><p>The main mission of the five-year voyage of the Beagle was to chart poorly known stretches of the South American coastline.Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFig. 22.5</p></li><li><p>1838 Darwin reads Malthusessay on Principle of Population</p><p>1858 Darwin receives a letterfrom Alfred Wallace</p></li><li><p>Then, in 1858, Darwin received a letter that changed everything..</p></li><li><p>Darwin wrote to Wallace: "Your words have come true with a vengeance ... I never saw a more striking coincidence ... so all my originality, whatever it may amount to, will be smashed."</p></li><li><p>22 of the 29 species of birds on the Galapagos are endemic (found only on these islands).Darwin collected specimens of each of the species. At first, he paid little note to a series of small but distinctive birds.Some of these animals seemed woodpecker-like, some warbler-like, and some finch-like.</p></li><li><p>14 Species of Darwins Finchesbred in the early 80s</p></li><li><p> Succession of types.Armadillos are native to the Americas, with most species found in South America.</p></li><li><p>Many islands show distinct local variations in tortoise morphology. . . .. . . . perhaps these are the first steps in the splitting of one species into several?</p></li><li><p>Darwin made two points in The Origin of Species:Todays organisms descended from ancestral species. (descent with modification) Natural selection provided a mechanism for evolutionary change in populations.Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings</p></li><li><p>Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin CummingsFig. 22.7This evolutionary tree of the elephant family is based on evidence from fossils.Descent WithModification</p></li><li><p>(1) Variation exists in natural populations.</p><p>(2) Many more offspring are born each season than can possibly survive to maturity.(3) As a result, there is a struggle for existence.Darwins Theory of Natural Selection</p></li><li><p>(4) Characteristics beneficial in the struggle for existence will tend to become more common in the population, changing the characteristics of a species.</p><p>(5) Over time, and given a steady input of new variation into a population, these processes lead to the emergence of new species.</p></li><li><p>ArtificialSelection</p></li><li><p>Where did Darwin observe the finches for which he is famous?</p><p>Name two geologists who proposed that the earth is older than6000 years. (They had a big impression on Darwin). </p></li><li><p>3) What was the real significanceof the title What Darwin NeverSaw?</p></li><li><p>The majority of events that youplaced on the timeline on Frioccurred within the last _____million years.</p><p>How long was the earth in existence before life was here?</p></li><li><p>Name two key points in Darwins theory of natural selection.</p><p>Place the following organismsin evolutionary order fromfirst to evolve to the most recent: mammals, birds, amphibians,reptiles, fish.</p></li><li><p>Darwin had two theories:Natural Selection and Descent _________ __________.</p><p>Name two major points of Darwins Theory of Natural Selection (p. 386 Biology Textbook) </p></li></ul>