chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive issues

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  • 1.Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and Explosive Issues CBRNEfor Veterinary Professionals Module 3 Colorado Veterinary Medical Reserve Corps

2. CO VMRC Training Program

  • Unit 1:Overview of animal emergency management for veterinary professionals
  • Unit 2:Biodefense and biological risk management
  • Unit 3: Overview of CBRNE Hazards for Veterinary Professionals
  • Unit 4:Personal preparedness and contingency planning

Each module lasts approximately 90 minutes, with 15 minute breaks and 1 hour for lunch 3. Learning objectives

  • Define CBRNE and terrorism
  • Describe the potential impacts of CBRNE events on animals/agriculture
  • Identify the classes of chemical hazards
  • Identify antidotes for nerve agents
  • Identify Biological hazards
  • Identify radiological and nuclear threats
  • List the classes of radioactive particles
  • List key challenges related to animals in radiological events
  • List basic animal decontamination needs and challenges

4. Objectives, continued

  • Identify the basic physiology of explosive blast injuries
  • List the four levels of personal protective equipment
  • Briefly describe foreign animal disease threats
  • Identify the key operational branches in a FAD response
  • Describe the basic biosecurity concerns for FAD emergency responders
  • Describe how to don and doff basic biological PPE
  • List the core issues for use of respiratory PPE

5. CBRNE

  • C hemical
  • B iological
  • R adiological
  • N uclear
  • E xplosive

6. Terrorism

  • The unlawful use of force or violence committed by a group or individual against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.
  • --U.S. Department of Justice

7. Terrorism: animal impacts

  • Secondary animal/ag impacts in general attack
  • Primary attack on livestock/animals
  • Attack on a specific company or industry
    • Domestic terrorism
  • Targeting animal or human food supply in a covert attack
    • Public health threats
    • Public confidence in food supply
    • Economic impacts
    • Illustrated in general by recent pet food contamination incident

8. Chemical threats

  • Military chemical weapons
    • Nerve agents
      • Tabun, Sarin, VX,
    • Vesicant or blistering agents
      • Mustard gas, Lewisite
    • Blood agents (cyanide compounds)
  • Industrial/other chemicals
    • Chlorine, phosgene, ammonia, cyanide, nitric acid
    • Pesticides
  • Misc.
    • Methamphetamine byproducts, mace, tear gas

1 2 4 9. Tokyo subway attack, 1995

  • Sarin (nerve agent)
  • AUM Shinrikyo group

Shoko Asahara

  • 12 deaths
  • 990 treated
  • 9000 panic

10. Treatment of OP Poisoning

  • Antidotes
    • Atropine
    • 2-PAM Cl
    • Diazepam

11. Canine nerve agent antidotes

  • Atropine:
    • 0.2 - 2 mg/kg IM.
    • 30 kg (66#) canine, IM = 6 to 60 mg
    • Mark I injector containsonly2 mg!
  • 2-PAM Chloride:
    • 10 - 20 mg/kg IM
    • 30 kg canine = 300 to 600 mg.
    • The Mark I injector contains 600 mg (The LD50 for dogs is 190 mg/kg, so the injector dose should be relatively safe for dogs over 10kg)
  • Diazepam:
    • 0.2 - 2 mg/kg IV for seizure control, used to effect.
    • The CANA injector contains only 2 mg for IM use
    • IM diazepam in dogs unpredictably absorbed

12. Chemical agents: Agriculture

  • Wisconsin 1996
  • National By-Products, Inc.
  • Deliberate contamination of product with chlordane (insecticide)
  • Perpetrator was a business rival

13. Natural CBRNE-like event Wyoming/CO border, 2004

  • 600 elk dead or dying with signs of paralysis
  • No other species
  • Eventual ID as:
    • Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa
    • Lichen intoxication

Walter Cook, Merl Raisbeck, Todd Cornish, Elizabeth Williams, Benge Brown, Greg Hiatt, and Terry Kreeger (in press): Paresis and death in elk ( Cervus elaphus ) due to lichen intoxication in Wyoming.Journal of Wildlife Diseases 14. Melamine ???

  • Wednesday, May 23, 2007
  • On March 16, 2007, Menu Foods recalled more than 60 million cans and pouches of pet food that it are marketed under a variety of brand names.
  • The company acted after receiving reports from owners that their pets had become ill.

New York Times 15. Should you enter a building with this on the door? 3 1 0 16. National Fire Protection Association NFPA Hazardous Material Diamond 17. Material Safety Data Sheets

  • MSDS forms contain the following:

Section 16 - Other InformationSection 8 - Exposure Controls & Personal ProtectionSection 15 - Regulatory InformationSection 7 - Handling and StorageSection 14 - MSDS Transport InformationSection 6 - Accidental Release MeasuresSection 13 - Disposal ConsiderationsSection 5 - Fire Fighting MeasuresSection 12 - Ecological InformationSection 4 - First Aid MeasuresSection 11 - Toxicological InformationSection 3 - Hazards Identification Including Emergency OverviewSection 10 - Stability & Reactivity DataSection 2 - Composition/Information on IngredientsSection 9 - Physical & Chemical PropertiesSection 1 - Product and Company Identification 18. Anhydrous Ammonia 3 1 0 19. Biological Agents 20. History of bio-warfare: examples

  • Examples
    • 1346:Caffa (Crimea) human plague cadavers catapulted into castle under siege
    • Infected defenders fled, helped to trigger Black Death 1763:Fort Pitt, Pennsylvania, smallpox infected blankets given to Delaware Indians
    • WWII: Japanese test anthrax, typhoid, cholera and plague as weapons in China
    • US (2001):Use of anthrax spores through the mail

21.

    • WWI:German use of glanders against 3500 horses in US bound for Europe
    • Afghanistan (1980s):Soviet Union suspected of using glanders against Mujaheddin horses

Livestock Disease Agents as Bioweapons 22. Bio-weapons programs

  • United States:Discontinued offensive program in 1969
    • 1972:US and 100+ nations sign treaty banning biological weapons
  • Former Soviet Union
    • Massive program
  • Iraq (?)
  • Al Qaeda in Afghanistan
    • 200+ documents found in caves related to bioterrorism

Pandora (Dante Gabriel Rossetti, 1869) 23. Animal agricultural vulnerabilities

  • Pre-production
    • Water, medications
    • Feed, fertilizers
  • Production
    • Farms & ranches
    • Concentrated operations
  • Exhibits
  • Transportation and markets
  • Processing

24. Significant disease agents

  • Foot and Mouth Disease
  • Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
  • Classical Swine Fever
  • Rift Valley Fever
  • Burkholderia (Glanders, melioidosis)
  • Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza
  • Exotic Newcastle Disease

25. Foot and Mouth Disease

  • Cloven-hoofed animals (ungulates)
    • Cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, wildlife
  • Virus:One of the most contagious diseases known
    • Incubation 4-5 days
    • Fever, vesicles (blisters)
    • Mouth, nose, teats, feet

26. FMD outbreaks

  • Great Britain, 2001
    • Over 3 million animals culled
    • Over 8000 infected premises
    • Cost over $5 billion US + tourism impacts
  • Uruguay, 2000

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