chemmat: adaptive multimedia courseware for chemistry
Post on 06-Aug-2016
Embed Size (px)
Journal of Science Education and Technology, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1997
CHEMMAT: Adaptive Multimedia Courseware forChemistry
Sun-Teck Tan1 and Lian-Kuan Tan2
The trend towards Multimedia technology in Education is exemplified by the growing num-ber of "multimedia ready" classrooms. Besides using the conventional computer-based train-ing techniques, courseware has included multimedia capabilities, such as graphics, sound,animation, and video clips. This paper illustrates the development of such multimedia course-ware. Additionally, this courseware employs sound instructional and learning strategies;thereby making the courseware not only educational, but also captivating. The other uniquefeature of the courseware is its adaptability. Teachers who are not computer experts can usethe "Teacher" module to modify and add content to the courseware. By selecting the pre-defined objects, and/or filling in a form, the teachers can create simple animation by usingthe module. Another good feature is the ease of customizing the content in different lan-guages. This is illustrated by the translation of a module in CHEMMAT into Chinese.KEY WORDS: Multimedia; CAI; adaptive; chemistry.
In Singapore, the importance which our societyplaces on education today is evident in many ways.Perhaps, it is best illustrated by the amount of fundswhich governing bodies set aside for education eachyear. Since 1993, most secondary schools and poly-technics in Singapore have been busy buying CD-ROM drives and are looking seriously at using mul-timedia to make learning more exciting and enter-taining (Liew, 1995). They are investing money tomake classrooms "multimedia ready" as the countrymoves towards being an intelligent island. Schoolsuse multimedia for several reasons: it is used tostimulate students' interest in some subjects and asa supplement to classroom teaching; the graphics andanimation make the subject come alive, so that learn-ing the subject is much easier; animation, voice andvideo clips are used to implement various teaching
1Dept. of Information Systems and Computer Science, NationalUniversity of Singapore.
2Mathematics and Science Centre, Negee Ann Polytechnic, Singa-pore.
strategies such as tutorials, activities, and games; CD-ROM collection is used as a research tool for thestudents; and a multimedia presentation can makeclass and school projects so much more fun. Thesefactors also motivated the authors to develop a mul-timedia coursewareCHEMMAT
The computer is a tool that can present knowl-edge to students in ways that have not previously beenpossible. In part, this is a matter of logistics and scale.Nevertheless, the computerin particular the multi-media computeroffers new ways in which ideas canbe represented to students and new models of inter-action. It may take quite some time for these changesto be fully realized, but they can be anticipated asgenuine contributions to education. At the same time,it is important to understand that in the end, the com-puter is only a tool, just as the book and the pencilare tools. In education tools can be used with positiveor negative results. Education is, after all, one of thesubtlest of human activities. Whether the potentialbenefits that the computer seems to offer are actuallyachieved depends largely on the teachers who use it.Therefore, teachers should be encouraged to use thiseducation tool, or even be involved in the develop-
711059-0145/97/0300-007U12.50/0 1997 Plenum Publishing Corporation
72 Tan and Tan
ment of the tool. In CHEMMAT, this is promoted bythe "Teacher" module.
Multimedia involves students in active, ratherthan passive, learning through physical interactionand cognitive engagement. Active learning can serveto maintain attention, create new knowledge, and im-prove achievement. Research in learning styles indi-cates that some students learn better through specificmodalities, such as visual, audio, or kinaesthetic.Some students are visual learners, some learn throughhearing, and some learn by touch. Multimedia pro-vides instruction through multiple sensory channels,allowing students to use the sensory modes that theyprefer. Another advantage of multimedia trainingprograms is that they can be non-linear and allow stu-dents to explore the content form multiple perspec-tive, for example, by using the hypertext. Multimediaprograms that employ this methodology can "helpstudents develop rich mental models as the basis forfuture learning; create environments that permit sus-tained exploration by students and teachers; and de-velop integrated knowledge structures that helpstudents transfer knowledge to more complex tasks"(Barron, et al., 1995). Technology can inspire studentsby making learning interactive and relevant. The factthat students enjoy working with technology and,therefore, stay on tasks for longer periods of time, isa valuable, long-term benefit. Many environments aretoo dangerous for training programs, for example, achemical reaction may cause an explosion. In thesecases, it is often possible to design a multimedia pro-gram that enables the students to interact with simu-lations of the environment without safety hazards.
CHEMMAT, an educational software package onCHEMistry with Multimedia enhancement and anAssistant to Teachers, is a computer-aided instructionthat aims to help students who take Chemistry in theirG. C. E. 'O' level. It is developed using the AsymetrixMultimedia Toolbook (CBT Edition). It intends tocover the whole syllabus for the Cambridge 'O' levelChemistry examination. The current topics includeAtoms, Elements and Compounds; Electricity andChemistry; Chemical Reactions; Periodic Table; Bal-ancing of Equations; and Experiments. It incorporatesmultimedia capabilities, such as hypertext, sound,graphics, animation, and video clip. Multimedia alonecannot offer a more effective architecture to deliver
training. It must be based on sound instructional andlearning strategies, so that the course can be tailoredto the students' unique needs and interests. ForCHEMMAT, it has included rule of thumb of learningChemistry from experienced Chemistry teachers andbased on the software developed by students from theDepartment of Information Systems and ComputerScience of the National University of Singapore. Thematerial included in CHEMMAT are from text booksand have been adapted with the help of Chemistryteachers in several schools.
The teachers are the best persons to develop thecourse contents. However, not many teachers arecomputer-literate. It may not be cost-effective to aska Chemistry teacher to learn a new authoring tool be-fore he can make some changes or add new modulesto the courseware. For this reason, CHEMMAT pro-vides a "Teacher" module that allows the teachers tocreate or modify the contents. In addition, the moduleincludes layout formats for page design; a graphicslibrary that consists of commonly used apparatuses;commonly used scripts for buttons; scripts requiredto play sound or video; and even procedures to leadthe teacher to generate new animation. With thewidespread use of the Chinese operating system, thecourseware can be easily "translated" into Chinese sothat it can be used in Chinese speaking countries.
MULTIMEDIA CAPABILITIES FOR EFFECTIVETRAINING
Textbooks create images of chemistry by usingwords, tables, graphs, and still photos, but they aremissing the dynamic element, which is so importantin understanding chemical processes and concepts(Dori, 1995). With a simple click on the hotwords,the students will know the definition of the termi-nology. Figure 1 gives an example of using hotwordin CHEMMAT. Cartoons and photographic images areused to attract students' attention. Therefore, theyare included in CHEMMAT whenever it is appropri-ate. To give the students a quick overview of whatthe chapter is about, a video clip, an animation, ora photographic image is included in the objectivepage of each chapter. Photographic images such asthe setup of electrolysis, and titration are also in-cluded. Figure 2 shows an example of using analogyin the objective page for Chemical Reactions.
People retain more information from what theysee and hear. To increase students' impressions on
Adaptive Multimedia Courseware 73
Fig. 1. An Example on Hotword.
Fig. 2. An Example of Using Analogy.
the procedures, speech is included. Figure 3 showsthe procedure for performing flame tests when thestudents click on the word "How??". In addition tothe highlighted text, voice is also included. Video clipslet the students have the feeling that they are watch-ing the demonstrator performing the experiments. Itincludes flame tests, testing of gases, testing of cat-ions, and testing of anions. Superimposed text andsound give students better knowledge and highlightsthe important points. Figure 4 shows a snapshot ofthe video clip on adding NaOH on Cu2+ solution.Although video clips (digital formats) can be ma-nipulated easily and offer increase interactivity, a ma-jor impediment to digital systems is that digital videorequires an enormous amount of computer storage
Fig. 3. How to Perform Flame Tests.
Fig. 4. A Snapshot on Playing a Video Clip.
space and is very difficult for a computer to processdigital video at the standard display rate of analogvideo, 30 frames per second. For these reasons, in-stead of video clips, some of the experiments andconcept illustrations are presented using animations.Figure 5 shows a snapshot of an animation to explainthe procedure of titration.
INSTRUCTIONAL AND LEARNINGSTRATEGIES
Quite naturally, the student will find the courseboth informative and captivating since the informa-tion is presented at the point of needsound instruc-
74 Tan and Tan
Fig. 5. A Snapshot on Playing an Animation.
tional and learn