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  • Slide 1
  • Childhood Obesity Childhood Obesity
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  • 04/09/20152 Introduction. What is Overweight & Obesity? What is Overweight & Obesity? Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. The problem is global and is steadily affecting many low- and middle-income countries, particularly in urban settings. The prevalence has increased at an alarming rate. In 2007, an estimated 22 million children under the age of 5 years were overweight throughout the world. More than 75% of overweight and obese children live in low- and middle-income countries. Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. The problem is global and is steadily affecting many low- and middle-income countries, particularly in urban settings. The prevalence has increased at an alarming rate. In 2007, an estimated 22 million children under the age of 5 years were overweight throughout the world. More than 75% of overweight and obese children live in low- and middle-income countries. Causes? Causes? The fundamental causes behind the rising levels of childhood obesity are a shift in diet towards increased intake of energy-dense foods that are high in fat and sugars but low in vitamins, minerals and other healthy micronutrients, and a trend towards decreased levels of physical activity. Medical research carried out to help determine the genetic cause of obesity is yet a relatively new field of research however a medical research by Loos, et al, (2003) The fundamental causes behind the rising levels of childhood obesity are a shift in diet towards increased intake of energy-dense foods that are high in fat and sugars but low in vitamins, minerals and other healthy micronutrients, and a trend towards decreased levels of physical activity. Medical research carried out to help determine the genetic cause of obesity is yet a relatively new field of research however a medical research by Loos, et al, (2003) Consequences? Consequences? Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop noncommunicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. Overweight and obesity, as well as their related diseases, are largely preventable. Prevention of childhood obesity therefore needs high priority. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop noncommunicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. Overweight and obesity, as well as their related diseases, are largely preventable. Prevention of childhood obesity therefore needs high priority. World Health Organization (2009). World Health Organization (2009).
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  • 04/09/20153 Recent Trends. Prevalence within different nations, socio- economic, cultural, gender issues, Prevalence within different nations, socio- economic, cultural, gender issues, Back this up with graphs and statistics. (last 20 year developments) Back this up with graphs and statistics. (last 20 year developments) Hypotheses involved in assessing childhood obesity (set-point / fat cell theory) Hypotheses involved in assessing childhood obesity (set-point / fat cell theory) Somatotypes. Somatotypes. UK Statistics : UK Statistics : In 2006, 16% of children aged 2 to 15 were classed as obese. This represents an overall increase from 11% in 1995. Despite the overall increase since 1995, the proportion of girls aged 2 to 15 who were obese decreased between 2005 and 2006, from 18% to 15%. There was no significant decrease among boys aged 2 to 15 over that period. Among children aged 2 to 10, 15% were classed as obese in 2006. Boys were more likely than girls to be obese (17% compared to 15%). Which is not a common finding Of children aged 8 to 15 who were classed as obese, two thirds (66%) of girls and 60% of boys thought that they were too heavy. (NHS, 2006)
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  • 04/09/20154 National Statistics. In 2006, boys were more likely than girls to meet the recommended levels of physical activity with 70% of boys and 59% of girls reporting taking part in 60 minutes or more of physical activity on all 7 days in the previous week. During 2006/07, 86% of pupils took part in at least two hours of high quality PE and sport a week, a gradual increase since 2003/04 when the figure was 62%. (HSE, 2006) Summary Increasing obesity from 1995-2006 whilst overweight has remained similar. (2006 3/10 children obese or obese) Girls in the lowest income quintile were two and half times more likely to obese than high income counterparts. Children in households where the reference person had a semi-routine or routine occupations were nearly twice as likely to be obese compared with those in managerial and professional households. Girls living in overweight or obese households more likely to be overweight or obese. Parental BMI does not correlate as well with boys. Scotland found a higher rate of obesity among boys than in England, little difference found in girls.
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  • 04/09/20155 National Statistics (2). Boys were more likely than girls to meet the recommended levels of physical activity. Participation levels amongst boys remained broadly consistent with age while for girls participation generally decreased with age. Information on participation rates showed that for boys active play (biking, football, running etc) was the most common reported activity, whilst for girls walking was the most common activity. Parental physical activity levels were associated with childrens physical activity levels. Seven in ten pupils achieved at least 2 hours of physical activity a week as part of their curriculum. Those in years 10 and 11 were the least likely to participate in 2 hours of PE as part of the curriculum. (HSE, 2006) These findings correlate well with other findings such as the National Statistics Survey (2005). Again using the UK National BMI percentile classification. Which is based upon six countries averaged data The limitations of the international definitions, due to averaging data from different countries and the choice of reference age, need to be known. The UK cut-off points here presented are compatible with the current UK reference curves.
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  • 04/09/20156 UK BMI Table for Children.
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  • 04/09/20157 Socio-demographics www.dh.gov.ukwww.dh.gov.uk (2009)
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  • 04/09/20158 Across the Globe. (BBC, 2009)
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  • 04/09/20159 Main Body. What is overweight & obesity? What is overweight & obesity? - Overweight and obesity are defined as ''abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that presents a risk to health''. - Children aged 0 -5 years. (WHO Child Growth Standards) - WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study (MGRS) developed 1997-2003. (The MGRS collected primary growth data and related information from approximately 8500 children from widely different ethnic backgrounds and cultural settings (Brazil, Ghana, India, Norway, Oman and the USA). - How can this be quantified? - - :: Length/height-for-age :: Weight-for-age :: Weight-for-length :: Weight-for-height :: Body mass index-for-age (BMI-for-age) :: Head circumference-for-age :: Arm circumference-for-age :: Sub scapular skinfold-for-age :: Triceps skinfold-for-age :: Motor development milestonesLength/height-for-ageWeight-for-ageWeight-for-lengthWeight-for-heightBody mass index-for-age (BMI-for-age)Head circumference-for-ageArm circumference-for-ageSub scapular skinfold-for-ageTriceps skinfold-for-ageMotor development milestones 5 19 years. (Growth Reference Data). Methods Methods Data from the 1977 National Centre for Health Statistics (NCHS)/WHO growth reference (124 years) were merged with data from the under-fives growth standards cross-sectional sample (1871 months) to smooth the transition between the two samples. State-of-the-art statistical methods used to construct the WHO Child Growth Standards (05 years), i.e. the Box-Cox power exponential (BCPE) method with appropriate diagnostic tools for the selection of best models, were applied to this combined sample. Data from the 1977 National Centre for Health Statistics (NCHS)/WHO growth reference (124 years) were merged with data from the under-fives growth standards cross-sectional sample (1871 months) to smooth the transition between the two samples. State-of-the-art statistical methods used to construct the WHO Child Growth Standards (05 years), i.e. the Box-Cox power exponential (BCPE) method with appropriate diagnostic tools for the selection of best models, were applied to this combined sample. Findings Findings The merged data sets resulted in a smooth transition at 5 years for height-for-age, weight-for-age and BMI-for-age. For BMI-for-age across all centiles the magnitude of the difference between the two curves at age 5 years is mostly 0.0 kg/m to 0.1 kg/m. At 19 years, the new BMI values at +1 standard deviation (SD) are 25.4 kg/m for boys and 25.0 kg/m for girls. These values are equivalent to the overweight cut-off for adults (> 25.0 kg/m). Similarly, the +2 SD value (29.7 kg/m for both sexes) compares closely with the cut-off for obesity (> 30.0 kg/m). The merged data sets resulted in a smooth transition at 5 years for height-for-age, weight-for-age and BMI-for-age. For BMI-for-age across all centiles the magnitude of the difference between the two curves at age 5 years is mostly 0.0 kg/m to 0.1 kg/m. At 19 years, the new BMI values at +1 standard deviation (SD) are 25.4 kg/m for boys and 25.0 kg/m for girls. These values are equivalent to the overweight cut-off for adults (> 25.0 kg/m). Similarly, the +2 SD value (29.7 kg/m for both sexes) compares closely with the cut-off for ob

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