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    CIP

    /; .

    2004.9

    ISBN 7-5085-0456-9

    . .

    . . K87

    CIP2004018379

    31 100088

    200491

    200491

    720965 1/16

    55

    10.75

    ISBN 7-5085-0456-9/K509

    85.00

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    Contents

    CONTENTS

    Prelude................................................. 1

    1 Painted Pottery............................... 3

    2 Jade Artifacts................................. 15

    3 Bronze Ware................................... 27

    4 Figurines......................................... 43

    5 Mausoleum Sculptures of Stone... 63

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    6 Tomb Carvings and Murals............ 75

    7 Grotto Temples and Formative

    Art of Buddhism............................. 91

    8 Gold and Silver Artifacts.............. 109

    9 Porcelain....................................... 119

    10 Furniture.................................... 137

    11 Lacquer Works........................... 147

    12 Arts and Crafts.......................... 155

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    1

    Prelude

    The Chinese civilization is one of the four most

    ancient in the world. Relative to the Egyptian, Indian

    and Tigris-Euphrates civilizations, it is characterized

    by a con sistenc y and co nt inuity thr ough ou t the

    milleniums. Rooted deep in this unique civilization

    originating from the Yangtze and Yellow River

    valleys, a yellow race known as the Chinese has,

    generation after generation, stuck to a unique culturaltradition. This tradition has remained basically

    unchanged even though political power has changed

    hands numerous times. Alien ethnic groups invaded

    the countrys heartland numerous times, but in the

    end all of them became members of a united family

    called China.

    Cultural relics, immeasurably large in quantity

    and diverse in variety and artistic style, bespeak therichness and profoundness of the Chinese civilization.

    These, as a matter of fact, cover all areas of the human

    races tangible culture. This book classifies Chinas

    cultural relics into two major categories, immovable

    relics and removable relics.Immovable relics refer

    to those found on the ground and beneath, including

    Prelude

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    ChinasCulturalRelics

    ancient ruins, buildings, tombs and grotto temples. Removable relics include

    stone, pottery, jade and bronze artifacts, stone carvings, pottery figurines, Buddhist

    statues, gold an silver articles, porcelain ware, lacquer works, bamboo and wooden

    articles, furniture, paintings and calligraphic works, as well as works of classic

    literature. This book is devoted to removable cultural relics, though from time to

    time it touches on those of the first category.

    Far back in the 11th

    century, when China was under the reign of the North SongDynasty, scholars, many of whom doubled as officials, were already studying

    scripts and texts inscribed on ancient bronze vessels and stone tablets. As time

    went by, an independent academic discipline came into being in the country, which

    takes all cultural relics as subjects for study. New China boasts numerous

    archeological wonders thanks to field studies and excavations that have never

    come to a halt ever since it was born in 1949. This is true especially to the most

    recent two decades of an unprecedented construction boom in China under the

    state policy of reform and opening to the outside world, in the course of whichnumerous cultural treasures have been brought to daylight from beneath the

    ground.

    Readers may count on this book for a brief account of Chinas cultural relics

    of 12 kinds pottery, jade artifacts, bronze ware, figurines, carvings on stone

    tablets, murals, grottoes and formative art of Buddhism, gold and silver artifacts,

    porcelain, furniture, lacquer works, and arts and handicrafts articles. Well

    concentrate, however, on the most representative, most brilliant works of each

    kind while briefing you on their origin and development.Unfortunately, the book is too small to include many other kinds of cultural

    relics unique to China, for example those related to ancient Chinese mintage,

    printing and publication of Chinese classics, traditional Chinese paintings and

    calligraphy. To cite an old Chinese saying, what we have done is just a single drop

    of water in an ocean. Despite that, we hope youll like this book, from which we

    believe youll gain some knowledge of the traditional Chinese culture.

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    Prelude

    Origin of pottery art

    Development of painted pottery

    Decorative patterns on painted pottery of the

    Yangshao culture

    Painted patterns on Yangshao pottery (1)

    Painted patterns on Yangshao pottery (2)

    Painted patterns on Yangshao pottery (3)

    Prehistory pottery later than those of the

    Yangshao culture

    1Pained Pottery

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    ChinasCulturalRelics

    Among all cultural relics found in China, what we

    categorize as pottery was the first to come into being.

    Archeological documentation shows that the earliest

    pottery ware discovered so far was produced about

    10,000 years ago. It is in fact a pottery jar found in the

    Immortals Cave in Wannian County, Jiangxi Province,

    south China. The jar is also the oldest in such

    conditions as to allow a restoration in its entirety.

    Origin of poery art

    For people in the earliest stage of human

    development, it is earth on which they lived that gave

    them the earliest artistic inspiration. That may

    explains how the earliest pottery was made. The

    process seems pretty simple: mixing earth with water,

    shaping the mud by pressing and rubbing with hands

    and fingers until the roughcast of something useful

    was produced, placing the roughcast under a tree for

    air drying and then baking it in fire until it becomes

    hardened.

    Before they began producing clay ware, prehistory

    people had, for many, many milleniums, limited

    themselves to changing the shapes of things in nature

    to make them into production tools or personal

    ornaments. For example, they crushed rocks into

    sharp pieces for use as tools or weapons, and

    produced necklaces by stringing animal teeth or

    oyster shells with holes they had drilled through.

    Picture shows a white pottery vessel of the

    Longshan culture, which was unearthed at

    Weifang, Shandong Province.

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    Pained Pottery

    5Pottery making, however, was revolutionary in that

    it was the very first thing done by the human race to

    transform one thing into another, representing the

    beginning of human effort to change Nature according

    to Mans own design and conception. Prehistory

    pottery vessels are crude in shape, and the color is

    inconsistent because their producers were yet to learn

    how to control the temperature of fire to ensure

    quality of what they intended to produce. Despite

    that, prehistory pottery represents a breakthrough in

    human development.

    Regretfully, scholars differ on exactly how and

    when pottery making began. According to a most

    popular assumption, however, prehistory people may

    have been inspired after they found, by accident, that

    mud-coated baskets placed beside a fire often became

    pervious to water.

    Development of painted poery

    At first, pottery vessels were produced just for

    practical use, as their producers had no time and

    energy to spare to decorate their products for some

    sort of aesthetic taste. Among the earliest pottery ware

    unearthed so far, only a few containers have crude

    lines painted red round their necks.

    As life improved along with development of

    primitive agriculture, people came to have time to

    spare on undertakings other than for a mere

    Picture shows a pottery jar of the Yangshao

    culture that existed 5,600 years ago, which

    was unearthed at Dadiwan, Qinan County,

    Gansu Province. The upper part of the jar

    takes the shape of a human head.

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    subsistence crop farming, hunting, animal raising, etc. While still serving peoples

    practical needs, pottery became something denoting peoples pursuit of beauty

    as well. Painted pottery came into being as a result, representing a great leap

    forward in the development of potterymaking. Among prehistoric relics we have

    found, painted pottery ware are the earliest artifacts featuring a combination of

    practical use and artistic beauty.

    Painted pottery making had its heyday 7,000-5,000 years ago, during the

    mid- and late periods of the New Stone Age. The most representative painted

    pottery ware, mostly containers and eating utensils, were produced in areas on

    the upper and middle reaches of the