cicero to atticus iii (loeb)
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DESCRIPTIONCicero's letters to his friend Atticus
THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARYFOUNDED BY JAMES LOEB,EDITED BYfT. E. PAGE,t E.C.H., LITT.D.
PH.D., LL.D. L.H.D.
W. H. D. ROUSE,
LETTERS TO ATTICUSIII
CICEROLETTERS TO ATTICUSWITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY E. (). WliNSTEDT, M.A.OF MAGDALEN COLLEGE, OXFORD
WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTDCAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS
HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESSilCMLSl
First printed 1918 Reprinted 1925, 1945, 1953, 1961
IPrinted in Qreal Britain
CONTENTSIntroductionLetters to Atticus
Book XIIBook XIII
Letters to Atticus Letters to AtticusLetters to Atticus
Letters to Atticus
Chronological Order of the Letters
Index of Names
INTRODUCTIONcontained in this volume begin with one after Caesar's final victory over the remains of the Pompeian party at Thapsus in April, 46 B.C., and cover three of the last four years of When they open, Cicero was enjoying Cicero's life. a restful interval after the troublous times of the He had made his peace with Caesar and Civil War. reconciled himself to a life of retirement and literary In the Senate he never spoke except to activity. deliver a speech pleading for the return from e.xile and his only other public of his friend Marcellus appearance was to advocate the cause of another In both he was successful and, friend, Ligarius. indeed, so he seems also to have been in private appeals to Caesar on behalf of friends. But their relations were never intimate,^ and Cicero appears always to have felt ill at ease in Caesar's society,disliking and fearing him as a possible tyrant or at least an anomaly in a Republican state. He evidently felt, too, some natural qualms at being too much of a turn-coat, as he dissuaded his son from joining Caesar's expedition to Spain at the end of the year on that ground, and persuaded him to go to Athens No doubt he considered that to study instead.3 it was more consonant with the dignity which he was always claiming for himself to take no part in public affairs at all than to play a secondary part where he had once been first. Consequently he spent the year 46 peacefully engaged in writing and in liislettei's
and even of those we hearthe
he was at
greater part of the time. Somewhat under protest he wrote, apparently at the suggestion of the Caesarian party,^ with most of whom he was on good terms, a work on Cato, which satisfied neither friend nor foe, as Brutus thought it necessary to write another himself, and Caesar composed an Anti-Calo. Of his other writings, two rlietorical works, the Brutus and the Orator, and one philosophical, the Paradoxa, fall in this In the early part of it he divorced Terentia, year. and at the end of it married his rich and youthful ward Publilia but he soon separated from her. The;
his daughter Tullia and her profligate husband, Dolabella, was dissolved at much the same time, but she only survived for a few months. Her death, which occurred in February, 45 B.C., seems to have prostrated Cicero with grief, and a long series of daily letters, from March to August of that year, are largely filled with reiterations of his grief and projects for the erection of a They are interesting for the shrine in her honour. ligiit they cast on Atticus' treatment of Cicero when he was unstrung and excited. Atticus evidently but from disapproved entirely of the project Cicero's answers one infers that he kept on humouring him and at the same time delaying action on his part by continual suggestions of a fresh site for the shrine, knowing that Cicero's ardour would cool and the scheme drop through, as it did. Much is said, too, in these letters about the literary work to which Cicero turned with more eagerness than ever to assuage his grief; and the output was enormous. A book on consolation in;
unhappy marriage between
INTRODUCTIONtimes of sorrow, a general introduction to the philosophical works which followed, the De Finibus, the
three times ^ and a small the Partitiones Oraioriae, were published during the year, while the Tusculanae Disputationes, the De Nattira Deorum and the De Se7ieclute were projected and begun. Certainly Cicero was right in saying that he had no lack of words ^ Of political affairs little is said indeed, in Caesar's absence there was not much to say. But there are occasional sneers at the honours paid to him ^ and at his projected extension of Rome.* For the latter part of the year, after Caesar's return from Spain, there are no letters in this collection except two amusing letters in December, one describing a conversation with his nephew, who was trying to make peace with his relatives after a violent quarrel,^ and the other Cicero's entertainment of Caesar at
Not long afterwards came the murder of Caesar, which Cicero to his regret was not present, though he was in Rome and hastened to the Capitol to lend
the murderers. He found, however, the cold Brutus hard to stir into action, and after Antony's speech at the funeral he thought it wiser to retire from Rome. The letters written at the time are full of rejoicing at the death of a man, towards whom he never seems to have felt any attraction, in spite of the kindness he had received at his hands. But he soon realised the hopelessness of the Republican cause, which lacked both a leader and a following. He himself regained somethinghis support to1
xiTi. 13 XII.
xii. 52. xiii. 35.xiii. 52.
27 and 44.
INTRODUCTIONof his old position, and we find him not only consulted by Brutus and the rest of his party, but politely addressed by Antony in a note, askiiij^ his permission to recall Cicero's old enemy Clodius.^ Cicero, taking the request as a demand, returned an equally polite note of assent ^ but what he thought of the request and of Antony is shown by a letter sent to Atticus simultaneously.^ For a while there are occasional bursts of hope in a revival of the old constitution, for instance when Dolabella threw down the column erected in the forum in honour of Caesar;* but despair at the inactivity of Brutus;
and his friends and at Antony's growing influence and the respect shown for Caesar's enactment after and Cicero contemplated crossing his death prevail to Greece to visit his son and escape from the war he foresaw. Octavian's arrival and opposition to Antony did not comfort him much, in spite of attentions paid to himself by the future emperor, as he mistrusted Octavian's youth, his abilities and his in;
just on the ]K)int of sailing,
news reached him that there was a chance of Antony giving way and peace with something of the old conditions being restored and he hurried bac-k to Rome to take his part in its restoration.^ There;
he found little chance of peace, but, once returned, he recovered sufficient courage to take the lead in the Senate and deliver his first Philippic against Antony. After that there are only a few letters written towards the end of the year. In them he still expresses great mistrust for Octavian, wlio was continually appealing to him for his support;^ and, in spite of his renewed entry into public affairs, one1
* XIV. 15.
XIV. 13b. XVI. 7.
XIV. 13. XVI. 9 and 11.
INTRODUCTIONis ratlier surprised to find that he was still working at his philosophical treatises, writing the De Officiis
to dedicate to his son/ and even eager to turn to history at the suggestion of Atticus.'-^ Such is the
glimpse we get of him in the Letters to Atticus. Shortly afterwards he returned to Rome, and for some six months led the senatorial party in its opposition to Antony but, when Octavian too turned against the party and the struggle becamelast;
Tusculum, where he lived he was proscribed by the I'riumvirs early in December. Then he contemplated flight to Greece, but was killed at Astura before he had succeededuntilin leaving Italy.I must again acknowledge ray indebtedness in preparing the translation to Tyrrell's edition of the Letters and to Shuckburgh's translation, from both of which I have "conveyed" many a phrase. The text is as usual based on the Teubner edition, and textual notes have been mainly confined to passages where a reading not found in that edition was adopted. In those notes the following abbreviations
hopeless, he retired to
Codex Mediceus 49, 18, written in the year and now preserved in the Laurentian Library at Florence. M^ denotes the reading of the first hand, and M^ that of a reviser. == the reading of when supported by that of the Codex UrUnas 322, a MS. of the fifteenth century, preserved in the Vatican Library. = Codex 1, 5, 34 in the University Library at Turin, written in the fifteenth century. 0^ denotes the reading of the first hand, and (fi that of a reviser.A.D.,
INTRODUCTIONC = theZmarginal readings in Cratander's edition of