cinematography 1

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    How would you define a good picture??

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    Shall we say a good picture is one

    that can hold your attentionfor a longer duration???

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    DSCs cost as little as Rs 4000.

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    Body: A light-tight compartment to house the recording medium (filmor CCD).

    Lens: A transparent element to focus light rays onto the recordingmedium.

    Aperture: A method of controlling how much light reaches therecording medium.

    Shutter: A method of controlling how long the recording medium isexposed to the incoming light.

    Viewfinder: A way to see the image that is to be captured. Transport: In film cameras, a method of moving the film and holding

    it in the correct position.

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    A beginner can very well do with a 5 MPDSC (digital still camera) with which youcan print pictures measuring up to 10 x 12inches (A4 size).

    The cost of a 5MP camera now is about Rs

    3500. A memory card of 1GB (about 750pictures) costs about Rs. 400.

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    An invertedimage is formed

    inside thecamera on thelight-sensitivesurfaceLens Subject

    Invertedimage formed

    on the chip

    he chip

    http://../Local%20Settings/Temp/Focal%20plane_converted.flv
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    Small iris lets less Bigger iris letslight in more light in

    http://../Local%20Settings/Temp/IRIS_converted.flv
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    The iris is located in between the lenselements.

    The iris blades inbetween the lens elements

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    A shutter opens for a brief duration andcloses to make an exposure.

    1 sec 2 sec 4 sec 8 sec

    1/2 sec 1/4 sec 1/8 sec 1/16 sec

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    A slow shutter speed means the shutter isopen for a longer duration. Very loosely ifthe shutter is open for a longer period than1/15th of a second, it is working at slowspeed. The shutter can also be open forlonger durations like 1,2,3, or even 30

    seconds in order to make sufficientexposure.

    http://../Local%20Settings/Temp/Shutter%20speeds_converted.flv
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    At slower shutter speeds, the image can getblurred if it is moving. Also, the entireimage will look blurred due to the instability

    of the camera while taking hand-heldpictures.

    It is possible to get sharp/crisp images atslower shutter speeds if the camera ismounted on a tripod and if the subject isstill, like an inanimate object.

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    The exposure is a combination of the irisand the shutter. In other words, it is thecombination of intensity and duration.

    The exposure can work in differentcombinations. Lesser intensity can beexposed for a longer duration to getsufficient exposure or more intensity can

    be exposed for a shorter period to get thesame exposure.

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    The camera lens focuses the image on thechip depending upon the distance from thecamera. If the lens has focused a subject

    which is at a distance of say 10ft, then thesubjects which are closer or farther fromthe 10ft mark will be out of focus.

    http://../Local%20Settings/Temp/Focus_converted.flv
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    The DSCs are capable of adjusting thefocus as well as the exposure when theshutter release button is pressed half way

    down. The digital display also tells you atwhat shutter/iris combination the picturewill be taken.

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    The photographer has to check for theshutter speed in order to get sharp images.Any shutter speed which is more than

    1/15th of a second will be end inblurred/unsharp images.

    REMEMBER The higher the number, the

    sharper the picture is.

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    Slower shutter speeds are needed whenthe light is insufficient. Moving the subjectto a brighter area will lead to faster shutter

    speeds. You can also increase the ISO attimes.

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    Do not take a picture of the subject themoment you see it. Just go around andsee where it looks best from. Every

    subject will look better from one anglecompared to another.

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    A well composed picture makes a goodimpact. Remember there can be anyamount of automation in cameras but

    composing a picture is creative which canonly be done by the photographer.

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    International organization for standards. Earlierknown as ASA (American Standards Assn.).ISO refers to the sensitivity of the film or the

    CCD/CMOS. In other words, a higher ISOnumber (400 compared to 100) will be able toget pictures in lesser light. However, as the ISOis increased, the picture quality deteriorates.

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    ISO 400

    ISO 1000

    At ISO 400, the picture is lessgrainy

    At ISO 1000, it is a very grainypicture.

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    Nikon at ISO 200

    Nikon at ISO 1600

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    Polaroid at ISO 50

    Polaroid at ISO 400

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    Nikon at ISO 200

    Nikon at ISO 1600

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    The image quality also depends on the format size.There are 3 commonly used formats.

    The full-frame format:

    36mm x 24mm

    Eg. Canon DS Mark III, 5D Mark II, Nikon D3, D3X and D700

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    The image quality also depends on the format size.There are 3 commonly used formats.

    The APS (advanced photo system) format:

    16mm x 24mm

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    The image quality also depends on the format size.There are 3 commonly used formats.

    The micro four-thirds format:

    The name is derived from the4:3 format of TV as the sensors

    are 4:3 in dimension. Size 13 x17 mm

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    Full frame APS Micro 4/3

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    Red eye reduction in cameras: The camera fires afew flashes before the actual exposure so as toconstrict the iris in the eye thus reducing

    the red eye phenomenon. However, keeping this onwill also drain the battery faster. So, it has to be used

    judiciously.

    http://../Local%20Settings/Temp/Red%20eye01_converted.flv
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    The macro feature is meant for close-up photography.A flower icon pops up when it is enabled.This enables the autofocus to focus

    on the subject that is veryclose to the camera. Rememberthat the macro option will not workat the telephoto end. The macro shouldbe disabled while taking distant pictures.

    http://../Local%20Settings/Temp/Macro%20mode_converted.flv
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    The frame should be splitinto three equal parts bothhorizontally and vertically.One-third or two-thirds

    from the right andsimilarly on the verticalwill be ideal points forcomposing in a frame. A

    subject composed heremakes better impact.

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    Make sure the background is not brighterthan the subject.

    Make sure the shutter speed is higher than

    1/30th of a second while shootinghandheld.

    Follow compositional rules before taking a

    picture.

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