cinematography 2015


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Page 1: Cinematography   2015


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Shot Types

ELS: This type of shot is often used to introduce setting (setting the scene as an establishing shot) or to indicate the overwhelming nature of that setting

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LS: These shots are often used to show the relationship between a character, or group of characters, to a particular setting.

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MS: Perhaps the most widely used shot distance in film is the medium shot. Characters are usually shown from the knees/waist up enabling viewers to read the body language of a character.

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CU: Close-ups frame the entire head, hand or foot of a character or part of an object. They can be used to draw the viewer’s attention to a significant facial expression or to an object that might have significance within the narrative

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Over the shoulder: Usually follows a shot reverse shot pattern to show the reactions of 2 characters during a conversation.

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Low angle shots involve the camera being positioned low down so it looks up at the character or setting. This can have a number of effects, making a character look menacing or dominant as they loom large in the frame, making a building look daunting or towering, making a hero look powerful, brave or statuesque.

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High Angle Shots look down on a character, place or object. This shot usually suggests weakness, vulnerability or loss of power.

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• Furthermore framing can be open or closed.

• In an open frame the character will be surrounded by a lot of open space, possibly suggesting that the character is free, whilst if the frame is closed the character will be boxed in, prompting feelings of entrapment.

Closed framing – character appears boxed into the frame. Trapped and imprisoned.

Open framing – it’s easy to imagine what is beyond the frame. They may appear free and carefree.

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The Rule of ThirdsThe basic principle behind the rule of thirds is to imagine breaking an image down into thirds (both horizontally and vertically) so that you have 9 parts. As follows.

Eyeline can help to convey the emotions of a character and their psychological state of mind, their status and power and finally their relationship with the viewer (encouraging or discouraging identification and empathy)

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Depth of Field• DOF is how sharp images are within a frame.

The frame for this purpose can be divided into the foreground, middle ground and background.


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Standard focus as the flowers in the BG are slightly out of focus.

Shallow focus making the flowers the main focal point and ensuring that the viewers attention is focussed on them

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Activity 1. Access the cinematography document in google classroom

and on the sheet identify;

• The shot types• Angle – if appropriate• Framing issues – if appropriate• Depth of field

Turn the assignment in for marking when you’re finished.