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CINEMATOGRAPHY Presentation by: Amaljith NK 15386040 2 nd MA Mass communication

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CINEMATOGRAPHY

CINEMATOGRAPHY Presentation by:Amaljith NK153860402nd MA Mass communication

INTRODUCTIONCinematography is the act of capturing photographic images in space through the use of a number of controllable elements. These include thequalityof the film stock, the manipulation of thecamera lens,framing,scaleandmovement. Some theoreticians and film historians (Bordwell, Thompson) would also includeduration,or the length of the shot,but we discuss the long take in our editing page.Cinematography is a function of the relationship between the camera lens and a light source, the focal length of the lens, the cameras position and its capacity for motion.

CINEMATOGRAPHY: LIGHTING

LIGHTINGQuality

Placement

Contrast

QualityHard Vs Soft

QualitySoft, Diffused

Placement

ContrastHigh key =Low contrast

ContrastLow key =High contrast

FRAMINGCharacter position within a frame can say a lot about their status, power and personality.

Because we read from left to right characters who, usually, occupy screen left or are positioned centrally are seen as the most dominant at that moment of time.

The same rule applies to characters who are positioned higher in the frame.

Furthermore framing can be open or closed.

In an open frame the character will be surrounded by a lot of open space, possibly suggesting that the character is free.

If the frame is closed the character will be boxed in, prompting feelings of character.

Closed framingCharacters appears boxed to the frame.Open framingIts easy to imagine what is beyond the frame.

DEPTH OF FIELDDOF is how sharp images are within a frame. The frame for this purpose can be divided into the foreground, middle ground and background.

TV drama's usually adopt a standard depth of field (FG & MG sharp) or deep focus where everything in the frame (FG, MG, BG) is sharp and in focus.

Doing this allows the viewer to register everything in the frame as important in the process of making meaning.

However, on occasions a shallow DOF may be adopted where only the FG is sharp, focussing the viewers attention on something particular.

Standard focus as the flowers in theBG are slightly out of focus.Shallow focus making the flowers the main focal point and ensuring that the viewers attention is focussed on them.

CAMERA SHOTS

Long shotA long shotis essentially the same as awide shot.

When referring to a person, a long shot means they take up almost the full frame height.

In other situations it means a wide shot of the whole scene, placing the subjects in their environment.

Medium shotA camera shot in which the subject is in the middle distance, permitting some of the background to be seen.

A value of framing in which the subject is a bit smaller than a medium close-up; a human figure from the waist up.

Close-up shotClose up shots typically contain just the face and shoulders of a subject, with a little head room above. This prevents 'floating head syndrome' as the shoulders suggest to the brain that there is a body below.

These shots are the most common of all as they can convey a real sense of emotion and help the audience to connect with the subject.

Extreme close-up shotAnextreme close upis a shot used in filmmaking, television production and photography in which the camera focuses on a particular detail of the subject.

Extreme closeups are extremely intimate and are best used sparingly, according to Serif Ltd.

CAMERA ANGLES

Birds-eye-viewAbird's-eyeview is an elevated view of an object from above, with a perspective as though the observer were abird, often used in the making of blueprints, floor plans and maps.

It can be an aerial photograph, but also a drawing.

High level high angleAhigh-angleshot is a cinematic technique where the camera looks down on the subject from ahigh angleand the point of focus often gets "swallowed up.

High-angleshots can make the subject seem vulnerable or chicken when applied with the correct mood, setting, and effects.

Eye level shotAneyelevelangle is the one in which the camera is placed at the subject's height, so if the actor is looking at the lens, he wouldn't have to look up or down.

Eyelevel shotsare incredibly common because they are neutral

Low angle shotLow-angle shot, is ashotfrom a cameraanglepositionedlowon the vertical axis, anywhere below the eye line, looking up.

Psychologically, the effect of thelow-angle shotis that it makes the subject look strong and powerful.

CAMERA LENS

Deep focusDeep focusis a style or technique ofcinematographyand staging with great depth of field, using relatively wide-angle lenses and small lens apertures to render in sharpfocusnear and distant planes simultaneously.

Adeep-focusshot includes foreground, middle-ground, and extreme-background objects, all infocus.

Shallow focusShallow focusis a photographic and cinematographic technique incorporating a smalldepth of field. Inshallow focusone plane of the image is infocuswhile the rest is out offocus.

Shallow focusis typically used to emphasize one part of the image over another.

Racking focusArack focusinfilmmakingandtelevision productionis the practice of changing thefocusof thelensduring a shot. The term can refer to small or large changes of focus.

If thefocus is shallow, then the technique becomes more noticeable

Zoom shotZoominginfilmmakingand television production refers to the technique of changing the focal length of azoomlens (and hence theangleof view) during a shot this technique is also called azoom

CAMERA MOVEMENTS

Crane shotIn filmmaking and video production, acrane shotis ashot taken by a camera on acraneor jib.

The most obvious uses are to view the actors from above or to move up and away from them, a common way of ending a movie.

Steadicam shotsSteadicam is mostly used to track actors as they move around obstacles or rough ground. Typically, the operator will walk ahead of the actors, shooting them from the front as they walk and talk.

For this sort of shot, the operator may walk backward through the scene, with the help of other crew members. Or he or she may walk forward, with the camera pointing behind him or her.

PAN shotsA pan shot is a camera movement which follows the action, or reveals previously unframed space, as it moves horizontally. Pans occur in varying speeds for dramatic purposes.

Although the most basic concept of a panning shot adheres to the movement below, a pan can also incorporate zooms, tracking of action shots and/or movement of the camera base itself

Tilt shotsA tilt shot is essentially a vertical pan, where the camera moves up and down rather than from one side to another. Tilt shots often heighten an audiences level of suspense as they are unaware what the shot will uncover.

Tilt shots, like pans, serve to reveal some previously unseen space to the viewer. These shots may include zooms, tracking of action shots and/or movement of the camera base itself.

Tracking shotsA tracking shot follows action through space in a variety of directions. As the action, or character, moves along the screen the tracking shot enables the audience to feel as if they are moving with the action through space.

This sensation is achieved by mounting the camera on a track, dolly, or moving vehicle to smoothly follow the action along a choreographed course.

Whip PAN shotsA whip pan follows all the same rules as a normal pan. However, a whip pan involves a quicker movement that may momentarily blur the images onscreen.

Whip pans are often abrupt and imply a rapid unfolding events (i.e. action movies).

ANALYSING CINEMATOGRAPHYFraming: Where is the camera? Is it moving?Lighting: How do colour and light effect the image?Focal depth: What is in focus? How deep or shallow is the image?

SUMMARYThe art of cinematography has evolved since the birth of cinema to become a dynamic and essential part of any film.

The cinematic language developed alongside camera technology and enables audiences to read a form of storytelling shorthand- filmmakers can convey lots of information in a short space of time through visuals alone.

Establishing shots are a part of the cinematic language and are used to switch locations in a film and inform the audience of where the action is taking place.

THANK YOU