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Learning Objective:To understand key terms to describe camera shotsTo be able to describe shots using key termsTo be able to evaluate how different shots affect the audience.
There are three key things you can alter about cinematography:
• Focal length (how far the camera is from the subject)
• Camera angles• Camera movement
Focal length• Establishing Shot (ES)• An establishing shot is usually the first
shot of a new scene. It is usually an Extreme long shot but not always, and tells the audience where the scene is set.
Extreme Long Shot (ELU)• In the Extreme Long Shot (ELS), also
known as the Wide Shot (WS), the subject is small in the overall image. A significant amount of the scene is visible.
Long Shot (LS)
• In the Long Shot (LS) the whole subject is in frame. The usual convention of the Long Shot (LS) is the character's head and feet are nearly touching the top and bottom of frame.
Medium Shot (MS)
• The convention of the Medium Shot (MS), is (when framing a person) approximately half of their body is in shot, ie. from waist up.
Close Up (CU)• The Close Up Shot (CU) shows a detail of the
overall subject or action- ie. the head or hands if it is a person.
Extreme Close Up(ECU)
• With the Extreme Close Up (ECU), a small detail of the subject is framed, often enlarged more than life size, creating a distortion of scale.
• Bird’s-Eye View (aerial shot): Used to look directly down on a whole scene.
• Worm’s-Eye View: Used to look directly up at a whole scene.
Worm’s Eye Canted (Dutch) shot Bird’s Eye
Camera movement• Tilt – Camera head moves up and down• Dolly (in or out) Camera moves towards, away from or alongside the subject• Pan – Camera head swivels left or right
Watch the opening sequence from a film. See if you can identify the shot types used.
During the second screening, explain why a director may chose to use certain shot types.
Fill in the blank squares on your task sheet illustrating examples of the different shot types you have learnt today.