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<ul><li><p>CLEANER PRODUCTION IN CHEMICAL INDUSTRY:THE INDIAN PERSPECTIVE</p><p>SANTANU ROY, Assistant Director&amp;</p><p>Dr. A.K. SAXENA, DirectorENVIRONMENT DIVISION</p><p>NATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY COUNCILINDIA</p><p>1.0 INTRODUCTION</p><p>The rapid industrilisation of India in the recent past has been the striking featureof Indian economic development. The common indicators of economic welfare, suchas national product and income have reflected the growth of the industry as a majorindicator for the development of the nation. But the other angle of industrializationhas been the serious damage to the surrounding environment due to the wastes andpollutants generated from the industries. The irreparable damage to the surface andground water, air and soil; the growing emergence of hazardous and toxic wastesfrom the production processes; the uncontrolled dumping of highly contaminatedhazardous wastes or even the growing number of formerly unknown diseases and theover exploitation of natural resources are some of the shocking landmarks of ourprogress.</p><p>1.1 INDIAN INDUSTRIAL SCENARIO</p><p>India has been predominantly an agricultural economy and it has only sinceearly eighties that the industrial sector has almost become at par with agriculture. Theshare of the industry has increased from 15 % in 1950-51 to 28 % in 1990-91. Amajor feature of the industrial scenario of India has been the growth of Small andMedium Enterprises (SMEs). The major thrust area in Industrial development of Indiahas been the small scale sector. Presently, there are more than three million SmallScale Industries (SSIs) in India. A major attraction of SMEs is the low investmentrequirement for the creation of a job. The promotion also fitted well the industrialpolicies where public sector was assigned the lead role in large industries. In order toorganise the small and medium scale industries, in 1955, industrial estate programwas launched by Government of India. The aim was to group the industries oneconomic scale in suitable sites with facilities of water, transport, electricity, bank, etc.and provide with special arrangement for technical guidance and common facilities.</p></li><li><p>SSIs have been developed by the Government of India (GoI), under an artificial fiscalregime. The SME's scenario is characterised by the continued growth, ruralorientation, wider geographical dispersion on one hand and on the other by theirtendency to concentrate in the industrial estates, falling productivity or efficiencylevels, growing sickness, etc.. All the factors have a direct impact on theenvironmental angle of the SMEs, which is so far been grossly under rated. Althoughthe pollution from a single unit may not create severe environmental damage but theircollective discharge from an industrial estate causes significant damage to the humanhealth and environment. It is estimated that SMEs in India contribute to 65 % of thetotal industrial pollution. The incorrect notion that environmental protection alwaysmakes the production of goods more costly and is therefore a luxury whichdeveloping countries cannot afford is deeply rooted in the industries in developingcountries likeIndia. Most of the industries in the SMEs are export oriented. With the recent ensuinginternational standards ISO - 14000, the Indian industries have to compete in theinternational market.</p><p>1.2 THE CHEMICAL SECTOR IN INDIA</p><p>The chemical sector in India has been registering the highest growth rate inthe country since independence. The sector has the distinction of achieving a positivegrowth rate even when the economy was in recession. The chemical industry accountsfor the highest industrial weighting of 12.51 percent in the index of industrialproduction. The industry also makes the largest contribution to the gross industrialproduction that is about 15 %.</p><p>The chemical industry has been growing at a rate of 10 % in the ninetiesoutstripping the manufacturing growth rate of 8.8 %. The industry contributed toabout 20 % to the gross revenue as indirect taxes. The industry achieved a turnover ofaround US $ 15 billion, which is expected to double by the turn of the century. In thetotal exports of the country the chemical industry contributes to a remarkable 7 %(including allied products) which is third in the total product group exported from thecountry.</p><p>The chemical sector in India is predominantly based in the small and mediumscale sector. More than 60 % of the production of the sector comes from these SMEs.The industries in the SME category are ridden by many problems. The scale ofoperations is very small that, in a capital intensive industry, translates into higher</p></li><li><p>costs of production per unit. The fragmentation of the industry has led to inconsistentquality of the product, due to lack of coordinated research and development. Inaddition the problems are of scarcity of knowledge of hazardous chemicals &amp;technical knowledge and financial resources. The Indian plants operate at a capacityutilisation of 70 % which is far lower than that in the western countries where it isaround 85 to 95 %.</p><p>Power consumption in Indian plants is high in comparison to that in thedeveloped countries. This is due to the obsolete technologies in use. The technologiesalso lead to higher consumption of raw material and higher generation of wastes. TheSMEs do not make sufficient investments in pollution control systems due to the non-productive expense, scarcity of land and also lack of adequate knowledge. With thegrowing concern on environment in the world, the world wide players are downingtheir shutters. This has given the developing countries, like India to emerge asprominent players in the global chemical market.</p><p>The major categories of chemical industries in India are:Drugs &amp; PharmaceuticalsFine chemicalsDyes and Dye IntermediateBasic Inorganic and organic chemicalsPesticides and InsecticidesFertilizer</p><p>2.0 THE INDUSTRY AND ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS &amp; POLICIES</p><p>The environmental management program in India started in the year 1972 withthe setting up of the National Committee on Environmental Planning and coordination(NCEPC). The idea was to coordinate and integrate the environmental policies andprograms. This was followed by environmental regulations to enforce strict vigil onthe discharge of pollutants.</p><p>In 1974 the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act was enacted.Followed by Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act in 1981. These acts aim atcontrolling the pollution at source. The Government of India also promulgated acomprehensive umbrella act - namely Environment (Protection) Act in 1986. For themanagement of hazardous wastes Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling)Rules were enforced in 1989.</p></li><li><p>Besides above the Government has also taken numerous steps to incorporateenvironmental considerations in the policies and procedures of industrilisation. A listof highly polluting industries have been drawn. The chemical industries featuring inthis list are:</p><p>Pesticides/ insecticidesFertilizersDyesSodium/ potassium cyanideBasic DrugsAcids/ alkalis</p><p>Although adequate pollution control legislations exists in the country, theimplementation has been poor. This has been mainly due to the existence ofunorganised sector. Of late judicial activism has seen the beginning of a new era. InAugust 1996, the high court of Gujarat, a western state of India, ordered the closure of756 units of the state of which 90 % of the units are manufacturing chemical. Similarorder was passed by the Delhi high court. The judicial decisions have left theindustries with the option of putting up non-productive pollution control systems or toensue the approach of cleaner production.</p><p>The Government of India in 1992 came up with a policy to promote cleanerproduction. To achieve the objective it was decided to make use of the mixedinstruments as:</p><p>legislation and regulationsfiscal incentivesvoluntary agreementseducational programs andinformation campaigns.</p><p>A policy level decision to revise the existing norms based on concentrationof pollutants in effluents and in emissions to mass based standards is awaited. Thiswill encourage the minimisation of waste, promote recycling and reuse of materials,as well as conservation of natural resources, particularly water.</p><p>The Government of India provides assistance for demonstration projects andthe initial target industries include the chemical sector. The products listed underthe 17 restricted category gets the fore most attention.</p></li><li><p>3.0 THE CLEANER PRODUCTION METHODOLOGY</p><p>The small and medium Indian Chemical Industries where the adoption ofCleaner Production (CP) has been the target area is one where the industry on its ownis unable to procure the advanced technologies and render facilities for research anddevelopment. The methodology developed for an effective Cleaner Productionprogram for these industries is discussed here. The methodology is based on anorganised approach so that the industries can take up the program on their own.The methodology is flexible enough to adapt itself to unexpected circumstances.The step-by-step approach ensures the exploitation of the maximum CP opportunities.The Cleaner Production Methodology discussed here enables to establish the CPprogram as a continuous activity.</p><p>The Methodology is flow charted below:STEP 1 : GETTING STARTED</p><p>Task 1 : Cleaner Production Team FormationTask 2 : List process stepsTask 3 : Identify and select wasteful process steps</p><p>Selection of Cleaner Production focus</p><p>STEP 2 : ANALYSING PROCESS STEPSTask 4 : Preparation of process flow chartTask 5 : Material and Energy Balance preparationTask 6 : Cost assignment to waste streamsTask 7 : Review of process to identify waste causes</p><p>Listing of process waste sources</p><p>STEP 3 : GENERATING CLEANER PRODUCTION OPPORTUNITIESTask 8 : Developing cleaner production OpportunitiesTask 9 : Selection of workable opportunities</p><p>Listing of Cleaner Production opportunities</p><p>STEP 4 : SELECTING CLEANER PRODUCTION SOLUTIONSTask 10: Assessment of Technical feasibilityTask 11: Assessment of Economic ViabilityTask 12: Evaluation of Environmental aspectsTask 13: Selection of Solutions for Implementation</p></li><li><p>Listing of Cleaner Production solutions</p><p>STEP 5: IMPLEMENTATION OF CLEANER PRODUCTION SOLUTIONSTask 14: Prepare for implementationTask 15: Implementation of cleaner production solutionsTask 16: Monitoring and evaluation of results</p><p>Successfully implemented Cleaner Production solutions</p><p>STEP 6: MAINTAINING CLEANER PRODUCTIONTask 17 : Sustain Cleaner Production solutionsTask 18 : Identify and select wasteful process steps</p><p>On going cleaner production efforts</p><p>Go To Step 2</p><p>The brief explanation of each of the steps in the methodology about how theprogram is implemented is explained here:</p><p>The Step - 1 "Getting Started" begins with the formation of a study team (CPteam). The team should include the representatives of groups that will have a majorinterest in the results of the project. However the composition of the team depends onthe organisational structure. Depending on the need the team may include externalexperts. The team personnel should have the capability for continuing and sustainingthe Cleaner Production program. The first task of the CP team is to do a rapid surveyof the plant and list all process steps including utilities, waste treatment and disposalfacilities. The team then priorities the waste generating steps and selects the area fordetailed study. Instead of starting a detailed cleaner production study of the completeunit it is beneficial to start with fewer, or may be one process step.</p><p>The next step ("Analysing Process Steps") involves the detailed study of theselected process step. It starts with the flow diagram of the selected section with thepurpose of identifying the source of waste streams and emissions. The chemicalequations are used to supplement the process flow diagram. The material balance andenergy balance should involve monitoring and analytical methods. The waste streamsare then assigned cost based on the cost of raw materials, environmental cost andother tangible overheads. The study leads to identification and quantification of wastestreams and to their causes of generation. These cause analysis is then used as a toolto evolve CP measures.</p><p>Step 3 "Generating CP Opportunities" involves the creative thinking of thepeople, over the identified causes for each waste stream with an objective of</p></li><li><p>eliminating or reducing the waste streams. The techniques like brainstorming, groupdiscussions, etc. are used. The options identified are then screened to eliminate theimpractical or obviously non workable options.</p><p>The "Selection of CP Solutions" in step 4 requires the option to be technicallyfeasible, economically viable and environmentally acceptable. The technicalfeasibility encompasses the installation and processing aspects of the options and theirimpacts on product quality and productivity. The economic viability established theeconomic consequences for the company from the implementation of an option. Theenvironmental aspect encompasses the reduction in pollution load/toxicity, treatabilityof the waste, etc..</p><p>The step 5 deals with the "Implementation of the CP Solutions". Based on thetechno-economic analysis in step 4, the implementation plan is prepared. Some ofthe options may be directly implementable however for some options animplementation plan has to be developed. The task involves the layout and drawingpreparation as well as the installation and commissioning of the implemented option.The implemented solutions are then monitored for performance evaluation. Themonitoring results are then compared with the calculated performance of technicalfeasibility.</p><p>In order to "Maintain Cleaner Production", the monitoring and review of theimplemented measures should be presented and the performers be rewarded to sustainthe zeal and tempo of the CP team. After the implementation of the solutions the CPteam goes back to step 2 "Analysing Process Steps" and identify and select the nextwasteful step. The Methodology developed is based on the philosophy that CleanerProduction is an activity which has to be integrated with the culture of the industryand not be seen as a one time activity.</p><p>4.0 A SUCCESS STORY OF CLEANER PRODUCTION</p><p>Acetyl Sulfonyl Chloride (ASC) is a product having wide application in Dyesand Dye-intermediate as well as in the drugs and pharmaceutical sector. The productis one of the most polluting intermediates in the sector. The main objective of thestudy was to identify and demonstrate the techno-economically feasible CleanerProduction (CP) measures to reduce the generation of waste from theproductionprocess of ASC.The step-by-step approach, ensued to implement the methodology to achieve CleanerProduction in this factory is described here.</p></li><li><p>4.1 GETTING STARTED</p><p>The CP study started with the CP team formation. The team comprised of thefollowing plant personnel :</p><p>Managing DirectorProcess InchargeOperatorMaintenance in-chargeEnvironmental EngineerNPC Experts</p><p>The team, to begin with, had a walk-through...</p></li></ul>

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