Cleaner production in Romanian textile industry: a case study
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Cleaner production in Romanian textileindustry: a case studyIuliana Dumitrescu a , Ana Maria Mocioiu a & Emilia Visileanu aa The National R&D Institute for Textile and Leather , LucretiuPatrascanu 16, Bucharest, RomaniaPublished online: 11 Aug 2008.
To cite this article: Iuliana Dumitrescu , Ana Maria Mocioiu & Emilia Visileanu (2008) Cleanerproduction in Romanian textile industry: a case study, International Journal of EnvironmentalStudies, 65:4, 549-562, DOI: 10.1080/00207230802263610
To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207230802263610
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International Journal of Environmental Studies,Vol. 65, No. 4, August 2008, 549562
International Journal of Environmental StudiesISSN 0020-7233 print: ISSN 1029-0400 online 2008 Taylor & Francis
Cleaner production in Romanian textile industry: a case study
IULIANA DUMITRESCU*, ANA MARIA MOCIOIU AND EMILIA VISILEANU
The National R&D Institute for Textile and Leather, Lucretiu Patrascanu 16, Bucharest, RomaniaTaylor and FrancisGENV_A_326528.sgm
(Received 11 June 2008)10.1080/00207230802263610International Journal of Environmental Studies0020-7233 (print)/1029-0400 (online)Original Article2008Taylor & Francis0000000002008IulianaDumitrescuiuliana.email@example.com
This paper reports the changes resulting from adopting environmentally sensitive criteria in NovatextilePitesti, Romania. The changes have improved the operation of the production plant and reduced costsat the same time.
Keywords: Cleaner production; Yarns; Pre-treatment
Rising costs to the environment and to the business sector have forced companies to seekclean, eco-friendly technologies. A clean production technology requires the implementationof an environmental preventive strategy, integrated and distributed through processes, prod-ucts and services. This approach increases the process efficiency and decreases the environ-mental risks.
Some of the benefits of implementing a cleaner production are: the reduction of raw mate-rials used in the process, reduction of production costs, removal of dangerous raw materials,reduction of quantity and toxicity of wastes, the improvement of the overall quality of theproducts and processes .
In Romania the issue of clean process implementation has become more urgent followingentry to the EU. Companies that do not follow the European law on the prevention of integralcontrol of pollution (Directive 96/61/CE) and have not secured the integral medium permit,risk closure.
Many Romanian textile enterprises (Dacia Textile, Vastex, Carpatex, Zefir and Pobac), inorder to prevent collapse while meeting the excessively high costs of replacing the old tech-nologies and equipment (during 19601975), when the worst problems of pollution appeared,involved themselves in projects of international collaboration, taking advantage of massiveinvestment in clean technologies.
Dacia Textile, as part of the Danish Romanian bilateral project Cleaner Technologies inthe Romanian textile industry, completely replaced the fabric preparation section, the one with
*Corresponding author. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
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the highest degree of pollution. The total investment (EUR 913,000) of the complete line forcold pre-treatment, including an impregnation compartment with a dosing system for the addi-tion of chemicals, a dispenser and a reaction station, a washing line and a drying line wassupported by the Danish Government EUR 427,726 and Textila Dacia EUR 485,274 .
Besides, the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs (The Project Sustainable Rehabilitationof the Print Technology at Textila Dacia), financially supported Textila Dacia to implementmodern print technology, by which the pigment discharging into water was drasticallyreduced, and the printing paste and energy and water consumption were diminished . Manyenterprises, have tried, with their own resources, to reduce pollution and improve productivity.
Such an enterprise is NOVA TEXTILE, Pitesti, Romania, which introduced the clean tech-nology of 100% cotton yarns pretreating-dyeing.
2. The implementing of the clean technology of 100% cotton yarns pretreating-dyeing
2.1. The reason for change
NOVA TEXTILE produces cotton and cotton type yarns and fabrics, and is structured asfollows:
spinning, which produces 1960t/year carded and combed yarns; weaving, which has the capacity of 10,000,000 m2/year cotton and cotton type woven
fabrics; finishing (boiling-bleaching; dyeing, printing, sizing) with a capacity of 12,000,000 m2/year; clothing (interior decorations, coverings, furniture cushions, bed linen, working and
protection equipment; padded products) 220,000 pieces/year.
The high consumption levels for raw material, water, natural gas, electricity, the costs ofpollution, and the low profit made it necessary to increase efficiency and reduce pollution.The wet pretreating-dyeing of the yarns was the first process to be improved. This process,essential for a high textile material quality, is among the biggest consumers of raw materialsand utilities, responsible for 1025% of the effluent .
Any impurity left on the material interfered with the subsequent processes of dyeing andfinishing. Big quantities of chemical auxiliaries and water are used to remove these (yarns,fats, waxes, pectin, etc.), during the conventional cleaning processes. All the impuritiesremoved from the yarns, as well as over 90% of the chemical auxiliaries (sodium hydroxide,surfactants, sodium silicate, carbonate, etc.) are to be found in the waste waters.
During the bleaching process, the hydrogen peroxide, which is used in large quantities toensure high quality whiteness, may lead to degrading and increasing the hydrolysis of the reactivedyes. The peroxide residues also have a negative influence. The residues from the bleachingbaths have to be removed from the material and the equipment before adding the dyestuff. Asa rule, the successive washing of the material with water diminishes the concentration of theresidual bleaching agent and improves dyeing.
This implies the use of a very large volume of water during the reducing, cold and hotwashing stages, a longer processing time or the use of certain chemical products that are toxicto the environment and lead to high costs and a bigger quantity of waste water.
To overcome these problems (water pollution, high consumption levels for electricity,steam, water, etc.), improvements to the cotton yarn pretreating-dyeing technological processwere proposed.
Cleaner production in Romanian textile industry 551
2.1.1. The improving of the cotton yarn pretreating-dyeing technological process. Theold cotton yarn pretreating-dyeing technological process comprises the stages of yarnpreparation. The spools (400 pieces 200 yarn kilos), placed on a creel, are introduced intoa 3000 l capacity Thies dyeing apparatus where the cleaning-bleaching process takes place.Within the same container, the reducing, hot and cold washing processes also take place,being followed by dyeing with reactive dyes. After dyeing, the fabric washing is done onthe same apparatus, the washing waters being discharged in 30 minutes. Finally, the dyedyarns are softened and steam dried. The spool creel stays in the drying container for aboutthree hours.
The clean technological process contains the same stages as the previous one, but nowthe cleaning-bleaching stage is done with chemical auxiliaries having a high efficiency and aminimum impact on the environment; and the stages of reducing, cold and hot washing havebeen replaced by the neutralizing stage.
During the cleaning-bleaching stage, the following auxiliaries have been replaced:
The T Auxiliary (a surfactant with a relatively low wetting power) was replaced bySandoclean JSF which has these advantages: it is a good wetting, emulsifying, dispersingand low foaming agent; it can be used as a detergent for all fibre types; it is biodegradable,it does not contain APEO and nitrogen, phosphorus, silicone compounds.
The sequestering agent (Heptol ESW a phosphoric one with eutrophication effects whendischarged) was replaced by Sirrix SB, which is a pH regulator for the processes ofbleaching with hydrogen peroxide. Sirrix SB ensures a quicker and more economicprocess as compared to the conventional bleaching processes; it gives advanced hydrophi-licity to the textile material, a high quality whiteness; it does not need rinsing after bleach-ing, and so water is saved; it reduces the treating time, leading thus to more profitable useof equipment; it is biodegradable and does not contain APEO and compounds based onphosphorus and nitrogen.
In the new process, the reducing, cold and hot washing stages have been replaced by only oneneutralizing stage. Thus, the water consumption is substantially reduced. The water and,simultaneously, energy, time and manual labour component were all reduced, owing to theuse of the catalyses (BACTOSOL ARL was used in our process). BACTOSOL ARL  is abiocatalyst used to decompose the hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen, without degrad-ing the substrate or the dyes.
The efficient and precise adjusting of the pH of the enzyme containing (Bactosol ARL)bath is effected with the help of the neutralizing liquid agent Sirrix NE. It is biodegradableand does not contain APEO and compounds based on phosphorus and nitrogen.
Moreover, in order to make efficient the whole activity of the enterprise and to ensureclean, non-polluting technological processes, the thermal power station was modernized.New boilers replaced the old. The new boilers, equipped with automatic measuring apparatus(flow meter), allowed proper monitoring of gas consumption.
Important reductions in consumption of the thermal energy and natural gas, at the level ofthe whole enterprise, as well as low CO2 emissions have thus been obtained.
2.2. The benefits of implementing the cleaner technology
By implementing the changes, it was possible to reduce: the quantities of chemical auxiliariesused to prepare the material; the electric and heat energy; the operating time and manual
552 I. Dumitrescu et al.
labour component; the effluent costs; the water and air pollution. There was also a saving inclean water. The quantifying of the results was done by:
effecting the raw material and electric and heat energy balances; quantifying the quality indicators of the waste water coming from all the technological
process steps; analysing the characteristics of the yarns obtained by the two processes; calculating the economic effects as a consequence of the changes.
3. Results and discussions
3.1. Material balance
The stages and the chemical auxiliaries used in both technological processes are presented intable 1. In order to demonstrate the economic effects of the new process, only the stages thatare different in the case of the two processes were taken into account, that is the cleaningbleaching and the reducing/cold/hot washing ones, for the initial process and the cleaning-bleaching and neutralizing ones for the optimized (cleaner) process (table 2).
Table 2 shows that, in the new process:
the Sandoclean JSF quantity is 3 times smaller than the Auxiliary T one (4.8 kgs of AuxiliaryT versus 1.6. kgs of Sandoclean JSF);
Sirrix SB leads to water savings of at least 1/3 as compared to the conventional procedure; reductions of specific chemical auxiliary consumption 0.1315 kg/kg of yarns and 28 L
water/kg of yarns can be obtained.
By introducing minimum measures (the replacing of the reducing/cold/hot washing processesby one neutralizing stage; the use of chemical auxiliaries with a high efficiency and a lowpolluting effect) it is possible to obtain a reduction by 73% of the chemical auxiliaryconsumption and by 50% of the water consumption.
3.2. The general energy balance for the cotton yarn preparing process
The reducing of the thermal requirement was done by:
1) replacing the old measuring apparatus (gas flow meter-type recorder) with counter-typemodern measuring apparatus. Such an initiative by itself does not lead to improving thecombustion function, but it permits the accurate monitoring of fuel consumption. Thischange had an extremely favourable economic effect. The old gas flow meter gave bigerrors and the consumption invoiced by the supplier (and paid by the enterprise) was byalmost 30% higher than the correctly measured consumption.
2) Replacing old boilers with modern, automated ones of 10 t saturated steam/h, under apressure of 8 bar and a yield of 92%. It is notable that in the initial configuration, whichcomprised three old boilers; only two boilers were permanently in function. Thepronounced physical wear of the boilers did not allo...