Cloud computing and education
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- 1.CLOUD COMPUTING AND EDUCATIONBy Zaid daoodNEAR EAST UNIVERSITY January 20, 2013
2. 4. CLOUD COMPUTING AND EDUCATION4.1. Introduction4.2. Knowledge on E-Learning4.2.1. Definition4.2.2. History4.3. How to Develop an E-Learning System?4.4. Virtual and Personal Learning Environments4.4.1. Virtual Environments4.5. Using Cloud Computing for E-learning Systems4.5.1. Web 2.0 and Web 3.0 Tools4.6 An E-learning System Architecture Based on Cloud Computing4.6.1. System initiation process group4.6.2. System planning process group4.6.3. System execution process group4.6.4. System monitoring and controlling process group4.6.5. System closing process group 4.7. Cloud Computing Benefits for E-learning Solutions 4.8. Conclusion 4.9. References: 3. 4. CLOUD COMPUTING AND EDUCATION4.1. Introduction The purpose of this chapter is discuss the cloud techniques that could use in e-learningsystems, lets take this realist example as an introduction taking some problems and discus it ,Over the years software and (internal transaction network)ITN education industry haveevolved, these days students faculty and staff have new expectations in addition to computersthey expect IT services to work on a wide array of devices like phones and web browsers, toserve this demand IT departments are all augmenting their on premises software, withsoftware delivered over the internet what many call cloud computing if this combination of onpremises software and cloud solutions they give the education industry choice and how theyreact to the needs of the education community to help explain this further lets meet toeducation leaders this is David he runs a large school district that depends on software Davidpurchases software has installed on the school districts computers his success depends onsoftware that uniquely developed for his district and the hardware that runs it David isconcerned about making sure school districts data are secure and accessible now this team isdistributed he needs to collaborate and share data more frequently with other groups withinthe school district and now hes thinking about creatively engaging parents and thecommunity on the internet David likes the familiarity of on premises software but hesworried about the flexibility to meet his school districts evolving needs in the future withshrinking resources across the country is our second education leader Nancy her universityhas a lot in common with David school district but she is already thinking differently abouther software instead of installing it on the universitys local computers she use softwaredelivered over the internet Nancy depends on the internet to what usually connect theuniversity and its students faculty and staff anywhere she also values that cloud computinghelps eliminate many of her IT worries whether its employees working remotely or makingsure her computers have the latest updates but she worries with all the data in the cloud whosprotecting it where is it being stored whos managing what if theres a problem or a serviceoutage plus because internet services are sometimes designed to work similarly for every usershe can tailor them to meet her universities specific requirements when David and then seemeat it finally becomes clear what David sees limitations with on premises software ourstrengths for the internet services Nancy is using and vice versa they agree the best solutioncan be a combination of both on premises software in addition to cloud services David andNancy illustrate a powerful and growing trend todays educator shouldnt be limited schooldistricts and higher education institutions need flexibility and choice from a technologypartner this prepared to grow and adapt to their ever evolving needs Microsoft and its partnershave worked closely with the education community from more than twenty-five years fifteenof which delivering clown based services were dedicated to meeting the needs of theeducation community in the cloud and from the cloud or on premises with a commitment tosecurity standards and enterprise reliability and flexibility that software plus services.We will see in this chapter everything about cloud computing related with e-learning trying tocollect all information that any organization need to manage an e-learning system with thecloud computing lets see. 4. 4.2. Knowledge on E-Learning Many universities and learning centers are using e-learning because it can be as veryeffective at a lower cost. Developing these systems is more expensive than preparingclassroom materials and training the trainers, especially if using multimedia or highlyinteractive methods. However, delivery costs for e-learning including costs of web serversand internet techniques are much lower than those for classroom materials, instructor time,participants travel and job time lost to attend classroom sessions. For the term Online learning as used in machine learning, see online machine learning.E-learning includes all forms of electronically supported learning and teaching,including educational technology.The information and communicationsystems,whether networked learning or not, serve as specific media to implement the learningprocess. This often involves both out-of-classroom and in-classroom educational experiencesvia technology, even as advances continue in regard to devices and curriculum. Abbreviationslike CBT (Computer-Based Training), IBT (Internet-Based Training) or WBT (Web-BasedTraining) have been used as synonyms to e-learning. E-learning is the computer and network-enabled transfer of skills and knowledge. E-learning applications and processes include Web-based learning, computer-based learning, virtual education opportunities and digitalcollaboration. Content is delivered via the Internet, intranet/extranet, audio or video tape,satellite TV, and CD-ROM. It can be self-paced or instructor-led and includes media in theform of text, image, animation, streaming video and audio. It is commonly thought that newtechnologies can make a big difference in education. In particular, children can interact withnew media, and develop their skills, knowledge, and perception of the world, under theirparents monitoring, of course. Many proponents of e-learning believe that everyone must beequipped with basic knowledge in technology, as well as use it as a medium to reach aparticular goal.  Figure 1 shows some knowledge on e-learning. figur1[http://www.zythepsary.com/thesis/2-2-methodologies-2/] 5. 4.2.1. DefinitionThere are many definition on e-learning I read it before and we will read in future but Iwill present to you my opinion simple definition, that the e-learning systems can be used todevelop any type of knowledge and skills by offering effective instructional methods basedon learners needs. ELearning is a term that means something different to almost everyone who uses it.Some use the term to refer to packaged content pieces and others to technical infrastructures.Some think only of web-based self-study while others realize eLearning can encompass real-time learning and collaboration. Almost all agree that eLearning is of strategic importance.Almost all also agree that eLearning is an effective method that should be blended into acorporations current learning mix. ELearning refers to the use of internet or wireless technologies to deliver a broad arrayof training solutions. E-Learners access the learning from computers via the internet or anintranet, or through a hand held device like a palm pilot. In 2001 Marc Rosenberg suggestedthe following definition of eLearning: the use of Internet technologies to deliver a broadarray of solutions that enhance knowledge and performance. (p. 28). In less than two shortyears this definition has expanded to include wireless as well as internet technologies with thetwo technologies often working together to delivery focused learning to the job-site.The origins of the term e-Learning is not certain, although it is suggested that the termmost likely originated during the 1980s, within the similar time frame of another deliverymode online learning. While some authors explicitly dene e-Learning, others imply aspecic denition or view of e-Learning in their article. These denitions materialize, somethrough conicting views of other denitions, and some just by simply comparing deningcharacteristics with other existing terms. In particular, Ellis (2004) disagrees with authors likeNichols (2003) who dene e-Learning as strictly being accessible using technological toolsthat are web-based, web-distributed, or web-capable. The belief that e-Learning not onlycovers content and instructional methods delivered via CD-ROM, the Internet or an Intranet(Benson et al., 2002; Clark, 2002) but also includes audio- and videotape, satellite broadcastand interactive TV is the one held by Ellis. Although technological characteristics areincluded in the denition of the term, Tavangarian, Leypold, Nlting, Rser, and Voigt (2004)as well as Triacca, Bolchini, Botturi, and Inversini (2004) felt that the technology being usedwas insufcient as a descriptor. Tavangarian et al. (2004) included the constructivisttheoretical model as a framework for their denition by stating that eLearning is not onlyprocedural but also shows some transformation of an individuals experience into theindividuals knowlege through the knowledge construction process. Both Ellis (2004) andTriacca et al. (2004) believed that some level of interactivity needs to be included to make thedenion truly applicable in describing the learning experience, even though Triacca et al.(2004) added that eLearning was a type of online learning. 6. 4.2.2. HistoryIn theearly 1960s, Stanford University psychology professors PatrickSuppes and Richard C. Atkinson experimented with using computers to teach math andreading to young children in elementary schools in East Palo Alto, California.Stanfords Education Program for Gifted Youth is descended from those early experiments. In1963, Bernard Luskin installed the first computer in a community college for instruction,working with Stanford and others, developed computer assisted instruction. Luskin completedhis landmark UCLA dissertation working with the Rand Corporation in analyzing obstatclesto computer assisted instruction in 1970. Early e-learning systems, based on Computer-BasedLearning/Training often attempted to replicate autocratic teaching styles whereby the role ofthe e-learning system was assumed to be for transferring knowledge, as opposed to systemsdeveloped later based on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL), whichencouraged the shared development of knowledge. As early as 1993, William D. Graziadeidescribed an online computer-delivered lecture, tutorial and assessment project usingelectronic mail. By 1994, the first online high schoolhad been founded. In 1997 Graziadei,W.D., et al., published an article entitled "Building Asynchronous and SynchronousTeaching-Learning Environments: Exploring a Course/Classroom Management SystemSolution". They described a process at the State University of New York (SUNY) ofevaluating products and developing an overall strategy for technology-based coursedevelopment and management in teaching-learning. The product(s) had to be easy to use andmaintain, portable, replicable, scalable, and immediately affordable, and they had to have ahigh probability of success with long-term cost-effectiveness. Today many technologies canbe, and are, used in e-learning, from blogs to collaborative software,ePortfolios, and virtualclassrooms. Most eLearning situations use combinations of these techniques. 4.3. How to Develop an E-Learning System? To develop an e-learning system should detect a group of developers from deferentspecialist, Any e-learning system need an analyzing as a first step to start using it and make itmore useful to the users (trainer, lecturer, students, etc.), and of course designing thesystem model to simplify the dealing with this model and make it more flexible to use anddeliver the information or can easily reaching the data as a second step , the next stepdevelopment start after collecting all data and experience to put it realistic and apply it in oursystem ,implementation is our aim to create developing system, the last step is evaluatesystem work and controlling the advantage and disadvantage, register all the positive andnegative result. Adapting existing models to match specific needs is wiser than proceedingwithout any plan. However, flexibility is needed to select and adapt a model to a givensituation. E-learning projects different in complexity and size. The process described below iscomprehensive it covers all the options that can be included in a complex learning project.However, some of the steps can be skipped or simplified according to projects objectives andrequirements, such as budget, expertise or organizational constraints. 7. 1- analyzing A needs analysis should be conducted at the start of any development effort todetermine whether. Training is required to fill a gap in professional knowledge and skills, ande-learning is the best solution to deliver the training. The needs analysis allows theidentification of general, high-level course goals. Analysis also is needed to determine thecourse content, Task analysis identifies the job tasks that learners should learn or improve andthe knowledge and skills that need to be developed or reinforced. This type of analysis ismainly used in courses designed to build specific job-related skills (also called performcourses). Topic analysis is carried out to identify and classify the course content. This istypical of those courses that are primarily designed to provide information (also calledinform courses).2- Designing The design stage includes the following activities: Putting a set of learning objectives need to achieve the general, high-level courseobjective, identifying the order in which the objectives should be achieved (sequencing), andselecting instructional, media, evaluation and delivery strategies. The results of the designingstage are A blueprint that will be used as a reference to develop the course . The blueprintillustrates the curriculum structure (e.g. its organization in courses, units, lessons, activities);the learning objectives associated with each unit; and the delivery methods and formats (e.g.interactive selfpaced materials, synchronous and/or asynchronous collaborative activities) todeliver each unit. 3-Development This step, the e-learning content is actually produced. The content can vary greatly,depending on the available resources. For example, e-learning content may consist of onlysimpler materials (i.e. those with little or no interactivity or multimedia, such as structuredPDF documents) which can be combined with other materials (e.g. audio or video files),assignments and tests. In that situation, storyboard development and the development ofmedia and electronic interactions would not be cond...