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Cloud Computing Economies of Scale. MIX 2010 James Hamilton, 2010/3/15 VP & Distinguished Engineer, Amazon Web Services email: James@amazon.com web: mvdirona.com/ jrh /work blog: perspectives.mvdirona.com. Agenda. Follow the money in infrastructure Infrastructure cost breakdown - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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EX01: Cloud Computing Economies of Scale

Cloud Computing Economies of ScaleMIX 2010

James Hamilton, 2010/3/15VP & Distinguished Engineer, Amazon Web Servicesemail: James@amazon.comweb: mvdirona.com/jrh/workblog: perspectives.mvdirona.com1

AgendaFollow the money in infrastructureInfrastructure cost breakdownWhere does the power go?Power Distribution EfficiencyMechanical System EfficiencyServer Design & UtilizationCloud Computing EconomicsWhy utility computing makes sense economicallySummary

22010/3/15http://perspectives.mvdirona.com

Background & Biases2010/3/153

15 years database core engine dev.Lead architect on IBM DB2Architect on SQL ServerPast 6 years in servicesLed Exchange Hosted Services TeamArchitect on the Windows Live PlatformArchitect on Amazon Web ServicesTalk does not necessarily represent positions of current or past employershttp://perspectives.mvdirona.com3Economies of ScaleLarge block h/w purchases significantly more economicLarge weekly purchases offer significant savingsH/W Manufacturers willing & able to do custom designs at scaleAutomation & custom s/w investments amortize well at scaleSummary: scale economics strongly in play11/10/2009http://perspectives.mvdirona.com4Large Service [$13/Mb/s/mth]: $0.04/GBMedium [$95/Mb/s/mth]: $0.30/GB (7.1x)2006 comparison of very large service with mid-size: (~1000 servers):Large Service: $4.6/GB/year (2x in 2 Datacenters)Medium: $26.00/GB/year* (5.7x)Large Service: Over 1.000 servers/adminEnterprise: ~140 servers/admin (7.1x)

4Power & Related Costs [Will] DominateAssumptions:Facility: ~$88M for 8MW facilityServers: Roughly 46k @ $1.45k eachServer power draw at 30% load: 80%Commercial Power: ~$0.07/kWhrPUE: 1.5

5http://perspectives.mvdirona.comObservations:34% costs functionally related to power (trending up while server costs down)Networking high at 8% of costs & 19% of total server cost2010/3/15Updated from: http://perspectives.mvdirona.com/2008/11/28/CostOfPowerInLargeScaleDataCenters.aspx5PUE & DCiEMeasure of data center infrastructure efficiencyPower Usage EffectivenessPUE = (Total Facility Power)/(IT Equipment Power)Data Center Infrastructure EfficiencyDCiE = (IT Equipment Power)/(Total Facility Power) * 100%2010/3/15http://perspectives.mvdirona.com6http://www.thegreengrid.org/en/Global/Content/white-papers/The-Green-Grid-Data-Center-Power-Efficiency-Metrics-PUE-and-DCiE

Where Does the Power Go?Assuming a good data center with PUE ~1.5Each watt to server loses ~0.5W to power distribution losses & coolingIT load (servers & storage): 1/1.5 => 67%Network gear 22%Observations:Utilization & server efficiency improvements very highly leveragedNetworking gear very power inefficient individually but not big problem in aggregateCooling costs unreasonably highPUE improving rapidly72010/3/15http://perspectives.mvdirona.com

AgendaFollow the money in infrastructureInfrastructure cost breakdownWhere does the power go?Power Distribution EfficiencyMechanical System EfficiencyServer Design & UtilizationCloud Computing EconomicsWhy utility computing makes sense economicallySummary

82010/3/15http://perspectives.mvdirona.comPower Distribution2010/3/15http://perspectives.mvdirona.com9

13.2kv115kv13.2kv13.2kv480V208V0.3% loss99.7% efficient2% loss98% efficient2% loss98% efficient6% loss94% efficient, ~97% available~1% loss in switchgear & conductorsUPS:Rotary or BatterySub-stationTransformersTransformersHigh VoltageUtility DistributionIT Load (servers, storage, Net, )2.5MW Generator (180 gal/hr)11% loss in distribution.997*.94*.98*.98*.99 = 89%UPS & Genoften on 480v

Power Distribution Efficiency SummaryTwo additional conversions in server:Power Supply: often