Cloud Computing for Education and Learning

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<ul><li><p>8/13/2019 Cloud Computing for Education and Learning</p><p> 1/6</p><p>Cloud Computing for Education and Learning:Education and Learning as a Service (ELaaS)</p><p>Mohssen M. Alabbadi</p><p>Computer Research Institute (CRI)King Abdulaziz City for Science &amp; Technology (KACST)</p><p>Riyadh, Saudi</p><p>AbstractCloud computing, despite its hype, is being widely</p><p>deployed, with its dynamic scalability and usage of virtualized</p><p>resources, in many organizations for several applications. It is</p><p>envisioned that, in the near future, cloud computing will have a</p><p>significant impact on the educational and learning environment,</p><p>enabling their own users (i.e., learners, instructors, and</p><p>administrators) to perform their tasks effectively with less cost by</p><p>utilizing the available cloud-based applications offered by the</p><p>cloud service providers. This paper discusses the use of cloudcomputing in the educational and learning arena, to be called</p><p>Education and Learning as a Service (ELaaS),emphasizing its</p><p>possible benefits and offerings. It is essential for an educational</p><p>and learning organization, with its budget restrictions and</p><p>sustainability challenges, to use the cloud formation best suited</p><p>for a particular IT activity. The Jericho Forum proposes a cloud</p><p>computing formation model, called the Cloud Cube Model</p><p>(CCM), which is based on 4 criteria. To preserve the symmetry of</p><p>the cube, a new cloud computing formation model, called the</p><p>Complete Cloud Computing Formations (C3F), is proposed. The</p><p>IT activities in the educational and learning organizations are</p><p>then classified with respect to the two criteria: mission criticality</p><p>and sensitivity. Each class is then mapped into the appropriate</p><p>position in the C3F, creating ELaaS Quadrant. This essentially</p><p>establishes a general conceptual framework for ELaaS.</p><p>Keywords- Cloud Computing; Cloud Computing Formations;</p><p>Education and Learning as a Service (ELaaS); Grid Computing;</p><p>Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in</p><p>Education; Virtualization; Web Services; Utility Computing</p><p>I. INTRODUCTIONCloud computing is an emerging Internet-based computing</p><p>paradigm, with its built-in elasticity and scalability, fordelivering on-demand information technology (IT) services tousers in a pay-per-use basis, in similar fashion as already donefor other utilities (i.e., water, electricity, etc.). It is a confluence</p><p>of business developments and the following existing ITtechnologies:</p><p> Virtualization: It enables the creation of a virtual (asopposed to actual) version of an IT resource (e.g., anoperating system, a server, a storage device, ornetwork). This allows data center consolidation and</p><p>provides separation and protection;</p><p> Grid Computing: It enables the execution of tasksover multiple computers dispersed over geographicalareas, forming a seemingly supercomputer capability;</p><p> Utility Computing: It refers to the packaging andprovisioning of computing resources in the form ofmetered service with some pricing scheme, thus withvirtualization, IT resources can be provisioned as anon-demand service available on a subscription basis1</p><p>[14];</p><p> Web Services:Web services, in particular those basedon the Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) whichis an XML-based open source message transport</p><p>protocol, allows software delivery, where pieces of thesoftware can be developed and then published on aregistry to be dynamically discovered and consumed</p><p>by other client applications over different transportprotocols (e.g., HTTP, TCP/IP, etc.) irrespective of theprogramming language and platform. Web serviceshave created the foundation for the Service OrientedArchitecture (SOA) paradigm and, most importantly,SOAP-based Web services are now being used in thedelivery of some aspects of cloud computing which notonly deliver software remotely but also other IT-related functionality [20].</p><p>Three trends have contributed to the emergence of cloudcomputing: the Internet and its technologies, in particular,World Wide Web (WWW) and Web 2.0 functionality; thecatch up of telecommunications with hardware and software,where open standards were leveraged, resulting in low cost of</p><p>broadband and wide availability of accessible high-speedwireless networks; and the falling cost of storage andcomputing devices, first led by mainframes and minicomputersthen PCs, and, more recently, by Internet-enabled handheldmobile devices.</p><p>All these technologies and trends made computing moredistinctively distributed, thus migrating back to huge data</p><p>centers. Networks of these computing plants, called ITfactories [1], with commercial realization, form cloudcomputing [7]. Cloud computing provides users a power ofchoice among less expensive (or free) competing services thatare user-friendly, accessible from any location, and morereliable [1]. It marks the reversal of a long-standing trend,where end users and organizations are now willing to surrender</p><p>1The provision of software programs and applications to users as a service viathe Internet by application service providers (ASPs) during the 1990s couldnot succeed because of insufficient bandwidth [20] and importability due tothe use of proprietary technologies.</p><p>978-1-4577-1747-5/11/$26.00 2011 IEEE</p><p>14th International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning (ICL2011) 11th International Conference Virtual University (vu'11)</p><p>2123 September 2011, Pieany, Slovakia</p><p>Page 589</p></li><li><p>8/13/2019 Cloud Computing for Education and Learning</p><p> 2/6</p><p>a large measure of control to 3rd-party service providers [8] togain several advantages such as redirecting resources, focusingon long-term strategic business development, and businesscontinuity [15].</p><p>When compared to the existed traditional IT servicesprovisioning models, cloud computing has many advantagessuch as reduced upfront investment (i.e., software, hardware,</p><p>and professional staff to maintain servers and upgradesoftware [15]), reduced launching time, where days becomehours [15], expected performance, high availability, infinitescalability, tremendous fault-tolerance capability [22], andenhanced collaboration, accessibility, and mobility, allowingusers to use any device, such as a personal computer (PC), or amobile phone, etc. [8]. Therefore, the use of cloud computingwill have a profound positive impact on the cost structure ofall the industries using IT resources by lowering the total costof ownership (TCO) [8], resulting in an indirect crucial impacton business creation and the macroeconomic performance atnational levels [6], extending to a global level. This benefitsthe private as well as the public sectors, including healthcare,</p><p>education (especially for e-learning) [5], and the activities ofgovernment agencies.In both academia and industry, cloud computing has been</p><p>recently attracting significant momentum and attention as oneof those opportunities that could prove to be of immense</p><p>benefits and empowering in some situations, due to itsflexibility and pay-per-use cost structure, for organizations. Inthe educational and learning arena, this will be calledEducation and Learning as a Service (ELaaS).</p><p>Cloud computing was in the list of the top 10 strategictechnologies and trends identified by Gartner, the US analystfirm, consecutively in the previous years. In 2008, it was listedas Web Platform &amp; Web Oriented Architecture (WOA) due</p><p>to the success of Software as a Service (SaaS) model and itthen became pronounced as cloud computing in the years2009 through 20112.</p><p>The Horizon reports, resulted from collaboration betweenthe New Media Consortium (NMC) and EDUCAUSELearning Initiative (ELI), a program of the influentialEDUCAUSE, a non-for-profit US organization, aim to providean educational-orientated perspective on expected keyemerging technologies for higher education as well as K-12education published as separate reports by identifying theemerging technologies likely to have a large impact onteaching, learning, research, or creative expression withinlearning-focused organizations. The higher education and K-12</p><p>editions do not differ in terms of the technologies featured butin terms of the adoption Horizons because K-12 education lagsbehind higher education in using IT technologies. Cloudcomputing was placed as a unifying technology supportingother emerging technologies in the year 2008 [11]. Then it</p><p>2 See Gartner, Inc., Press Releases, Gartner Newsroom, Retrieved online, onAug. 30, 2011, at the year2008), (for the year 2009), (for the year 2010), andfinally, (for the year 2011).</p><p>appeared as an emerging technology to be adopted in 1-2 yearsfor 2009 [11] and 2010 [12] but it gained the power of a keytrend in 2011 [13]. IDC, a US market research firm, estimatedthe IT spending on cloud computing services to reach US$42</p><p>billion by 2012 [15].</p><p>There are several successful deployments of cloudcomputing within educational and learning organizations,utilizing both commercial and non-commercial cloudcomputing solutions [9,14,18,19,21]. However, there areseveral cloud formations (i.e., forms of cloud computing)and it is essential for an educational and learning organization,with its budget restrictions and sustainability challenges, to usethe cloud formations best suited to its IT activities. TheJericho 3 Forum [10] has established a cloud computingformation model, called the Cloud Cube Model (CCM) whichis based on 4 criteria (i.e., dimensions) [10]. The use of a cube,a 3-dimensional object, to represent the 4 criteria eliminates thesymmetry inherited in the cube. Thus a new cloud computingformation model, called the Complete Cloud ComputingFormations Model (C3F), is proposed. The IT activities in theeducational and learning organizations are then classified with</p><p>respect to the two criteria: mission criticality and sensitivity.Each class of the IT activities is then mapped into theappropriate position in the C3F, thus creating ELaaS. Thisessentially establishes a general conceptual framework foradopting and deploying ELaaS.</p><p>The structure of the rest of the paper is as follows. SectionII properly defines cloud computing. C3F is explained in detailsin Section III. The classification of the IT activities ineducational and learning organizations is discussed in SectionIV. Section V shows the mapping of these IT activities intoC3F, creating ELaaS. Finally, the concluding remarks are givenin Section VI.</p><p>II. CLOUD COMPUTINGCloud computing is a nascent business and highly</p><p>disruptive technology concept with different meanings fordifferent IT professionals. For application and IT users, it is ITas a service (ITaaS), delivering computing, storage, andapplications over the Internet from centralized data centers, andfor Internet application developers, it is an Internet-scalesoftware development platform and runtime environment,whereas for infrastructure providers and administrators, it ismassive, distributed data center infrastructure connected by IPnetworks [15]. These different views are clearly reflected in theviews of cloud computing for some providers such as Amazon,Microsoft, and Google [2]. Furthermore, the abstracted</p><p>definition of cloud computing [19] does not distinguish it fromother paradigms such as grid computing; this abstracted viewcan be used for comparing cloud computing with other</p><p>3 Jericho (called r, in Arabic, meaning fragrant, driven from the wordReah and called yrio in Hebrew) is a city located near the Jordan River inthe West Bank of the Palestinian territories. It is situated well below sea levelnorth of the Dead Sea, thus it is the lowest permanently inhabited site onearth. It is also believed to be the oldest continuously inhabited city in theworld (Wikipedia, Jericho, May 21, 2011, Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., SanFrancisco, CA, USA, Retrieved, online. on Aug 30, 2011, at</p><p>978-1-4577-1747-5/11/$26.00 2011 IEEE</p><p>14th International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning (ICL2011) 11th International Conference Virtual University (vu'11)</p><p>2123 September 2011, Pieany, Slovakia</p><p>Page 590</p></li><li><p>8/13/2019 Cloud Computing for Education and Learning</p><p> 3/6</p><p>computing paradigms as done in [17] when cloud computingwas compared, based on computer architecture model, withservice computing and pervasive computing. The disparity ofcloud computing definition is even extended to organizationssuch as EDUCAUSE, which views cloud computing as thedelivery of scalable IT resources over the Internet, as opposedto hosting and operating those resources locally, such as on acollege or university network [4]; this definition clearly lacks</p><p>the service concept and pay-per-use aspect of cloud computing.Unfortunately, there is abundance of definitions forcloud</p><p>computing in the literature, with hype and divergentviewpoints, leading to a non-standard definition; the JointInformation Systems Committee (JISC) confirm the confusionabout the terms cloud and cloud computing [1]. In this</p><p>paper, the U.S National Institute of Standards andTechnology (NIST) definition is adopted. NIST defines cloudcomputing as a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient,on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurablecomputing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage,applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned andreleased with minimal management effort or service provider</p><p>interaction. This cloud model promotes availability and iscomposed of five essential characteristics, three servicemodels, and four deployment models [16].</p><p>The five essential characteristics are [16]: on-demand self-service, where a consumer can unilaterally provisioncomputing capabilities as needed automatically withoutrequiring human interaction from each service's provider;broad network access, where the capabilities are availableover the network and accessed through standard mechanisms,</p><p>promoting the use of heterogeneous thick or thin clientplatforms such as mobile phones, laptops, and PDAs; resourcepooling, where the provider's computing resources are pooledto serve multiple consumers using a multi-tenant model, with</p><p>different physical and virtual resources dynamically assignedand reassigned according to consumers demands; rapidelasticity, where the capabilities can be rapidly and elastically</p><p>provisioned, in some cases automatically, to quickly scale out,and rapidly released to quickly scale in; and measured service,where the cloud service providers automatically control andoptimize resource use by leveraging a metering capability atsome level of abstraction appropriate to the type of service.</p><p>There are three service models of cloud computing, wherein all models the consumer does not manage or control theunderlying cloud infrastructure including network, servers,operating systems, storage, or applications. The three servicemodels are Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a</p><p>Service (PaaS), and Software as a Service (SaaS) [16...</p></li></ul>


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