Cloud Computing in the Enterprise: A Question of Computing in the Enterprise •Background •Defining the Cloud •Cloud Architecture •Cloud Governance •Adoption Issues of Cloud in the Enterprise

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<ul><li><p>Cloud Computing in the Enterprise: A Question of Control .. And who has it . </p><p>INF5210 </p><p>Ben Eaton </p><p>12/11/2013 </p><p>1 </p></li><li><p>The Cloud We all use it as consumers </p></li><li><p>But Im going to talk about cloud computing in an enterprise setting </p><p> Background </p><p> Defining the Cloud </p><p> Cloud Architecture </p><p> Managing the Cloud in organisations </p><p> Adoption &amp; Issues of Cloud in the Enterprise </p><p>3 </p></li><li><p>Cloud Computing in the Enterprise </p><p> Background </p><p> Defining the Cloud </p><p> Cloud Architecture </p><p> Cloud Governance </p><p> Adoption &amp; Issues of Cloud in the Enterprise </p><p>4 </p></li><li><p>Emerging Phenomenon </p><p>In Public Discourse </p><p>5 </p></li><li><p>Emerging Phenomenon </p><p> Forecast growth in industry revenues associated with Cloud Computing (Forrester): </p><p> $61Bn for 2012 (Kirsker, 2012) </p><p> Growing to $241Bn by 2020 (Dignan, 2011) </p><p> Cloud represents a $3.3 trillion transformation thats going on in the computing world </p><p> Microsoft are betting the company on cloud (Steve Ballmer CEO Microsoft 2011) </p><p>6 </p></li><li><p>Gartners Hype Cycle for 2012 </p><p>7 </p></li><li><p>There really is substance to the Cloud </p><p>The public cloud services market is forecast to grow 18.5 percent in 2013 to total $131 billion </p><p>worldwide, up from $111 billion in 2012 </p><p> Source: </p><p>Gartner Newsroom </p><p> Gartner 28/02/2013 http://www.gartner.com/newsroom/id/2352816 </p><p>8 </p></li><li><p>Cloud Computing in the Enterprise </p><p> Background </p><p> Defining the Cloud </p><p> Cloud Architecture </p><p> Cloud Governance </p><p> Adoption &amp; Issues of Cloud in the Enterprise </p><p>9 </p></li><li><p>Technical Origins of Cloud Computing </p><p> Computing as a service and accessing remote and distributed hardware and software resources over a network is not a new concept. </p><p> 1960's notions of : "computing utilities" (Cafaro &amp; Aloisio, 2011; Kleinrock, 2005) Virtualisation (Graziano 2011) </p><p> Gradual development over next forty years, e.g. </p><p> Distributed IT infrastructures in the 80's and 90's Application Service Provision (ASPs) in the 90's and 00s </p><p> However they were all constrained by a lack of computing power and </p><p>network bandwidth. </p><p>(Venters &amp; Whitley 2012) </p><p>10 </p></li><li><p>Technical Origins of Cloud Computing </p><p>Factors conspired at the turn of the millennium to facilitate Cloud Computing: </p><p> Rise of cheap computing power and network bandwidth </p><p> The rise of large scale computing architectures and enabling technologies around Grid computing enabling affordable high power computing tasks </p><p> Adaptation of these architectures for large data centres of commodity hardware to service the IT business needs of organisations such as Google, Amazon and Microsoft </p><p> Commercialisation of their computing architectures in ways that could be sold as the first Cloud Computing services. </p><p>(Venters &amp; Whitley 2012) </p><p>11 </p></li><li><p>In its most Basic Form </p><p>It is a means of: </p><p> outsourced shared-computing where resources </p><p> are virtualised, distributed and pooled amongst external data centres </p><p> accessed by users through the internet </p><p> (Venters &amp; Whitley 2012) </p><p>12 </p></li><li><p>Virtualisation &amp; Virtual Machines </p></li><li><p>Cloud Computing Definition </p><p>U.S. National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST): </p><p>Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, ondemand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g. networks, servers, storage, applications and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction </p><p> (Mell &amp; Grance, 2011) </p><p>14 </p></li><li><p>Key Components of Cloud </p><p>15 </p></li><li><p>What it delivers Service Models </p><p> Customers may purchase: </p><p> Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) </p><p> Platform as a Service (PaaS) </p><p> Software as a Service (SaaS) </p><p>16 </p></li><li><p>Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) </p><p> Virtualisation of physical Compute Assets Storage Processing </p><p> No control over underlying cloud infrastructure </p><p> Control over ability to deploy and run software </p><p> operating systems and applications </p><p> E.g. Amazon Web Services (AWS) </p><p> Used for: </p><p> File Backup Temporary Processing Campaigns, Product Design </p><p>17 </p></li><li><p>Platform as a Service (PaaS) </p><p> Virtual development environment </p><p> Develop &amp; deploy applications for the Cloud </p><p> No control over underlying Cloud infrastructure </p><p> Control over deployed application e.g. provisioning and access </p><p> E.g. Google App Engine, Microsoft Azure </p><p> Used for: </p><p> Startups quick way of deploying Cloud apps Enterprise productivity - apps for internal to the org Enterprise storefronts means of developing interface between business and public </p><p>18 </p></li><li><p>Software as a Service (SaaS) </p><p> Access to Service Providers Applications that execute on the Cloud </p><p> Accessed via thin client interface such as a web browser (or smartphone app) </p><p> No control over underlying Cloud infrastructure </p><p> Minimal control over application settings </p><p> E.g. Gmail, Google Docs, DropBox, Facebook, Evernote etc </p><p> Uses: You name it </p><p>19 </p></li><li><p>Scope of Control </p><p>Source: Liu et al (2011) NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture </p><p>20 </p></li><li><p>Essential Characteristics </p><p> On Demand Self Service Commoditised </p><p> Measured Service </p><p> Variable Cost Model, pay for capacity you use </p><p> Resource Pooling </p><p> High Utilisation &amp; Economies of scale </p><p> Rapid Elasticity </p><p> Commission / Decommission Capacity </p><p> Broad Network Access </p><p> Accessibility over internet </p><p>21 </p></li><li><p>Which meets Organisations desires to </p><p> Simplify the management of their IT resources (hardware, middleware and software) resources </p><p> Scale up (or down) available resource capacity dynamically on demand </p><p> Reduce and simplify their costs </p><p> Whilst ensuring levels of data security, service latency and service availability are at least maintained and preferably improved. </p><p>22 </p></li><li><p>Deployment Models </p><p> So far so good but Cloud can be deployed in different ways </p><p> Public </p><p> Private </p><p> Hybrid </p><p> Community </p><p> Which have implications on the organisation . control! </p><p>23 </p></li><li><p>Public Cloud </p><p>Source: Liu et al (2011) NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture </p><p>24 </p></li><li><p>Public Cloud </p><p> Multi-tenancy architecture open to all </p><p> E.g: Amazon AWS, Google App Engine, Microsoft 365 etc </p><p> Benefits of computing with: Significant Cost Savings (Economies of Scale, PAYG, Low Overheads) Hi Performance (Super computer power,Latency) Very Flexible (switching on &amp; off Virtualised Hardware and Software) </p><p> Popular with Small Medium Businesses = Access to Power </p><p> Comes at cost of loss of control </p><p> Lack of transparency Sharing of computing assets Your competitor could be using the neighbouring VM how secure? </p><p>25 </p></li><li><p>Private Cloud </p><p>Source: Liu et al (2011) NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture </p><p>26 </p></li><li><p>Private Cloud </p><p> Not shared - operated solely for a single organization. </p><p> Hosted / Non Hosted Solutions </p><p> Benefit: Under enterprise control </p><p> Whilst VM architecture essential, it will lack benefits of sharing: </p><p> Cost; Scalability; Performance </p><p>27 </p></li><li><p>Community Cloud </p><p>Source: Liu et al (2011) NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture </p><p>28 </p></li><li><p>Hybrid Cloud </p><p>Source: Liu et al (2011) NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture </p><p>29 </p></li><li><p>Cloud Computing in the Enterprise </p><p> Background </p><p> Defining the Cloud </p><p> Cloud Architecture </p><p> Cloud Governance </p><p> Adoption &amp; Issues of Cloud in the Enterprise </p><p>30 </p></li><li><p>(NIST) Cloud Reference Architecture </p><p>Resource Abstraction </p><p>Resource Control </p><p>Hardware </p><p>Facility </p><p>Service Orchestration </p><p>Clo</p><p>ud</p><p> Ser</p><p>vice</p><p> M</p><p>anag</p><p>emen</p><p>t </p><p>Secu</p><p>rity</p><p>Pri</p><p>vacy</p><p>Cloud Provider Cloud </p><p>Consumer </p><p>Cloud Auditor </p><p>Cloud Broker </p><p>Cloud Carrier </p><p>Ph</p><p>ysic</p><p>al </p><p>Laye</p><p>r Se</p><p>rvic</p><p>e </p><p>Laye</p><p>r R</p><p>eso</p><p>urc</p><p>e </p><p>Laye</p><p>r </p><p>Source: Liu et al (2011) NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture 31 </p></li><li><p>Cloud Service Orchestration Architecture </p><p>Service Layer (s/w) </p><p>Resource Abstraction &amp; Control Layer (m/w) </p><p>Physical Resource Layer (h/w) </p><p>Resource Abstraction </p><p>Resource Control </p><p>Hardware </p><p>Facility </p><p>Web, HTTP (REST / SOAP) </p><p>32 </p></li><li><p>Service Layer </p><p>Service Layer (s/w) </p><p>Resource Abstraction &amp; Control Layer (m/w) </p><p>Physical Resource Layer (h/w) </p><p>Resource Abstraction </p><p>Resource Control </p><p>Hardware </p><p>Facility </p><p>Web, HTTP (REST / SOAP) </p><p>33 </p></li><li><p>Physical Resource Layer </p><p>Service Layer (s/w) </p><p>Resource Abstraction &amp; Control Layer (m/w) </p><p>Physical Resource Layer (h/w) </p><p>Resource Abstraction </p><p>Resource Control </p><p>Hardware </p><p>Facility </p><p>Web, HTTP (REST / SOAP) </p><p>34 </p></li><li><p>Virtualisation &amp; Virtual Machines </p></li><li><p>Resource Abstraction &amp; Control Layer </p><p>Service Layer (s/w) </p><p>Resource Abstraction &amp; Control Layer (m/w) </p><p>Physical Resource Layer (h/w) </p><p>Resource Abstraction </p><p>Resource Control </p><p>Hardware </p><p>Facility </p><p>Virtual Machines &amp; Virtual Storage </p><p>Resource Allocation </p><p>Access Control </p><p>Usage Monitoring </p><p>APIs Web </p><p>Hypervisors </p><p>36 </p></li><li><p>Single Tenancy vs Multi Tenancy </p><p>Single Tenancy </p><p>Multi Tenancy </p><p>User A @ Company 1 </p><p>User B @ Company 1 </p><p>User C @ Company 1 </p><p>User A @ Company 1 </p><p>User B @ Company 2 </p><p>User C @ Company 3 </p></li><li><p>Multi Tenancy &amp; Risk </p><p>On-Premises Data Centre (e.g. Private Cloud) </p><p>Off-Premises Data Centre (e.g. Public Cloud) </p><p>From: Cloud Security Alliance - https://wiki.cloudsecurityalliance.org/guidance/index.php/Cloud_Computing_Architectural_Framework </p><p>Security Concern? Independent organisations sharing the same hypervisor 38 </p></li><li><p>Public Cloud Service Orchestration: e.g. Amazon </p><p>Service Layer (s/w) </p><p>Resource Abstraction &amp; Control Layer (m/w) </p><p>Physical Resource Layer (h/w) </p><p>Xen Hypervisor </p><p>Proprietary </p><p>Proprietary </p><p>Proprietary </p><p>= Closed Standards </p><p>= Open Standards </p><p>39 </p></li><li><p>Private Cloud Service Orchestration: e.g. Cloudstack </p><p>Service Layer (s/w) </p><p>Resource Abstraction &amp; Control Layer (m/w) </p><p>Physical Resource Layer (h/w) </p><p>Xen </p><p>CloudStack Management Server </p><p>Open </p><p>Open </p><p>KVM vSphere </p><p>= Closed Standards </p><p>= Open Standards </p><p>40 </p></li><li><p>Comparison of Service Orchestration Stacks </p><p>Amazon </p><p>Amazon </p><p>Amazon </p><p>Amazon </p><p>Amazon AWS </p><p>Ph</p><p>ysic</p><p>al </p><p>Laye</p><p>r Se</p><p>rvic</p><p>e </p><p>Laye</p><p>r R</p><p>eso</p><p>urc</p><p>e </p><p>Laye</p><p>r Open </p><p>Cloudstack </p><p>Open </p><p>Open </p><p>Cloudstack </p><p>HTTP (REST/SOAP) </p><p>Resource Abstraction Resource Control </p><p>Hardware </p><p>Facility </p><p>Amazon Open </p><p>HTTP (REST/SOAP) </p><p> Monolithic Black Boxed Closed Cloud Service Provider </p><p>Has Control </p><p> Open Layered Modular Enterprise/Outsourcer </p><p>Has Control </p><p>Public Private </p><p>41 </p></li><li><p>Wider Cloud Ecosystem </p><p>Resource Abstraction </p><p>Resource Control </p><p>Hardware </p><p>Facility </p><p>Service Orchestration </p><p>Clo</p><p>ud</p><p> Ser</p><p>vice</p><p> M</p><p>anag</p><p>emen</p><p>t </p><p>Secu</p><p>rity</p><p>Pri</p><p>vacy</p><p>Cloud Provider Cloud </p><p>Consumer </p><p>Cloud Auditor </p><p>Cloud Broker </p><p>Cloud Carrier </p><p>Ph</p><p>ysic</p><p>al </p><p>Laye</p><p>r Se</p><p>rvic</p><p>e </p><p>Laye</p><p>r R</p><p>eso</p><p>urc</p><p>e </p><p>Laye</p><p>r </p><p>42 </p></li><li><p>Wider Cloud Ecosystem NIST Reference Architecture </p><p>SaaS CSP e.g. Microsoft </p><p>PaaS CSP e.g. Google </p><p>IaaS CSP e.g. Amazon </p><p>Hardware Vendor e.g. HP </p><p>Facility Provider e.g. Rackspace Cloud Carrier </p><p>e.g. Akamai </p><p>Cloud Service Management e.g. Vordel </p><p>Cloud Security &amp; Privacy e.g. Level 7 </p><p>Cloud Broker e.g. Jamcracker, Liaison </p><p>43 </p></li><li><p>Cloud Computing in the Enterprise </p><p> Background </p><p> Defining the Cloud </p><p> Cloud Architecture </p><p> Cloud Governance </p><p> Adoption &amp; Issues of Cloud in the Enterprise </p><p>44 </p></li><li><p>Governance of Enterprise Cloud </p><p> Concerns how enterprise IT department manages cloud services with different stakeholders such as:- </p><p> With rest of the enterprise organisation </p><p> With the State </p><p> With Suppliers (Cloud Service Providers &amp; Vendors) </p><p>45 </p></li><li><p>Managing the Cloud : vis--vis the rest of the organisation </p><p> Management of cloud = sourcing purchasing integration with portfolio usage When to get rid of </p><p> Who manages Cloud services? The IT Department . Or Departments themselves (e.g. marketing, sales, finance etc) </p><p> LOBS provisioning their own services .. DropBox security Enterprise Cloud Service Broker </p><p> Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) </p><p> The changing role and skill sets of the IT department in a Cloud based </p><p>enterprise This will effect you! </p><p>46 </p></li><li><p>Governance of Enterprise Cloud: vis--vis the state (national &amp; EU law) </p><p> Compliance with local laws &amp; regulation Act No. 31 relating to the processing of personal data (Personal Data Act) (14 April 2000) </p><p> Data laws and regulations increasingly by industry vertical E.g. retail banking - Bankenes Standardiseringskontor (BSK) </p><p> Compliance with international laws EU Directive 95/46/EC Data Protection Directive </p><p> processing of personal data </p><p> free movement of personal data </p><p> Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 </p><p> Complexity of competing jurisditions (customer, CSP, host) </p><p> Audits E.g. SAS 70 </p><p>47 </p></li><li><p>Governance of Enterprise Cloud: vis--vis suppliers (&amp; contracts) </p><p> Contractual relationship Can have similarities to outsourcing contract </p><p> Tensions between the different parties </p><p> Enterprises desire tight &amp; tailored contracts offering Equivalence to In house systems </p><p> Measures to minimise perceived risk (see next page) </p><p> Commitment to detailed levels of service allowing enterprises to retain control </p><p> Outsourcing style contracts </p><p> Public CSPs desire loose &amp; general contracts reflecting Commoditised XaaS style services </p><p> Risk Avoidance </p><p> Minimum SLAs (a la Amazon) </p><p>48 </p></li><li><p>Example Risks Geographic Risk </p><p> e.g. Whose Jurisdiction? Data Security Risks </p><p> e.g. What happens when you move Cloud Service Provider? </p><p> Contractual Risks e.g. Can supplier change terms without me knowing? </p><p> Architectural Risk </p><p> e.g "Lock in" to vendors integrated cloud stack </p><p> Ecosystem Risk e.g. Long supply chain in Cloud your service is as strong as the </p><p>weakest link </p><p>49 </p></li><li><p>Cloud Computing in the Enterprise </p><p> Background </p><p> Defining the Cloud </p><p> Cloud Architecture </p><p> Cloud Governance </p><p> Adoption &amp; Issues of Cloud in the Enterprise </p><p>50 </p></li><li><p>Architectural Integration in the Cloud </p><p> Integration at the level of: Infrastructure; Data; Applications; Service Management </p><p> Integration with: </p><p> Existing legacy systems Between public &amp; private </p><p> Cloud Bursting </p><p> Between different public cloud services Advanced Cloud Service Brokerage </p><p> An issue of Cloud architecture: </p><p> At the level of design rules and interfaces such as APIs A debate concerns whether interfaces need to be standardised or not </p><p> An emerging issue </p><p> Not yet experienced Globally / Norway But it is bound to become an issue </p><p>51 </p></li><li><p>Standardisation in the Cloud </p><p> Standardisation of What? Interoperability, Security &amp; Privacy, Data Portability </p><p> Formal Standardisation </p><p> Efforts slow to take off Cultural difference in Europe vs US A break on innovation &amp; fast tracking commoditisation? Dominant (US) platform owners see it as a threat/opportunity? </p><p> Informal de Facto standards </p><p> Based on emerging dominant platforms Closed Standards . e.g. Amazon Open Standards .e.g. Cloudstack Increasing adoption of Amazon standards in other platforms (e.g. Cloudstack) </p><p>as an attractor to build installed base </p><p>52 </p></li><li><p>CSPs evolving portfolios </p><p> Public CSPs adding private cloud capabilities to their portfolios Amazon Virtual Private Cloud Still not adopting outsourcing contract model Attracting large customers .. e.g. the CIA! </p><p> Private-&gt;Public </p><p> VMware vCloud Hybrid Service Launched in early 2013 Oriented towards Cloud Bursting </p><p>53 </p></li><li><p>Global adoption of cloud in the enterprise </p><p> Enterprise adoption of cloud is still immature In Norway adoption is more cautious still less economic incentives </p><p> Enterprises Still Sceptical of Public cloud </p><p> Perceived loss of control &amp; increased levels of risk Outweigh the benefits of public cloud Prefer to deploy on private clouds with increasing interest in "hybrid models" </p><p> Much greater Public Cloud adoption within SMEs </p><p> Dec...</p></li></ul>