co-chairs: don depaolo (lbnl and uc berkeley) lynn orr (stanford university)

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Workshop on: Basic Research Needs in Geosciences: Facilitating 21st Century Energy Systems February 20-24, 2007. Co-chairs: Don DePaolo (LBNL and UC Berkeley) Lynn Orr (Stanford University). Organizing Committee / Panel Leads: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Workshop on:Basic Research Needs in Geosciences: Facilitating 21st Century Energy SystemsFebruary 20-24, 2007Co-chairs: Don DePaolo (LBNL and UC Berkeley) Lynn Orr (Stanford University)Organizing Committee / Panel Leads:Sally Benson (LBNL - Stanford) Michael Celia (Princeton) Andy Felmy (PNNL) Kathryn Nagy (U. Chicago-CC) Roel Snieder (Colorado Sch. Mines) Graham Fogg (U.C. Davis) Karsten Pruess (LBNL) James Davis (USGS)Julio Friedmann (LLNL) (TPRD - CCS) Mark Peters (ANL) (TPRD - NW)BES shepherds: Nick Woodward and John Miller

  • Workshop: Feb. 20-24, 2007Report published: July 10, 2007http://www.sc.doe.gov/ bes/reports/list.html

  • OutlineTechnical challengesCO2 sequestrationNuclear waste disposalWorkshop organizationSummary of results

  • Two driving objectivesMeeting energy demand in the coming centuryDrastically reducing CO2 emissionsStandard Fossil Fuel Hydrogen Economy => Sequester 10 Gt CO2/yrExpand Nuclear by 10x => Sequester SNF at 1 Yucca Mtn/Yr globally

  • Basic Research Needs for the Hydrogen Economy report...."Because both gas and coal reforming processes generate CO2 (coal generates approximately twice as much per unit H2) their value in meeting the fundamental goals of a hydrogen economy (150 million tons/yr by 2040) depends on developing safe, effective and economical methods for CO2 sequestration." (p.19)"Reliance on coal as a sole source of energy for generating hydrogen for Freedom Car transportation needs would require doubling of current domestic coal production and consumption." (p.11) (330,000 MW today)

  • Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems report....... for nuclear power to have a significant impact on energy production and at the same time reduce greenhouse gas emissions, ... Estimated needs for nuclear power production are as high as 300 EJ/year by the year 2050, .... This represents nearly an order-of-magnitude increase over the ~440 nuclear reactors that are presently in operation..... advanced waste forms will have to be designed to ensure safe performance for periods ranging from hundreds to hundreds of thousands of years... in the complex, highly coupled natural environment of the near field in a geologic repository

  • "Underground" as a long term containerAdvantagesEnormous volume (as required)Distance from the surface environmentPre-made containerChallengesDesigned by nature, only approximately fits the design criteria for containmentComplex materials => complex processesDifficult to see and monitorUncertainty about long-term performance (102-106 yr)

  • Technical PerspectivesMultiphase Fluid Transport in Geologic MediaFigure 1: Options for storing CO2 in underground geological formations. After Benson and Cook (2005).

  • CO2 trappingmechanisms

  • Technical Perspectives2 mmTypicalSandstone1 cm

  • Scale of CO2 sequestration - large footprint, large number of wells, multiple subsurface processes and ratesSleipner10 MT CO2 in 10 yrGlobal Target: 10,000 MT CO2/yr

  • Nuclear waste repositories also have large dimensions

  • Unlike CO2, with NW you know exactly where the material is placed underground....Figure 3. Schematic illustration of the emplacement drift, with cutaway views of different waste packages for Yucca Mountain design concept (from DOE, 2002b).

  • Technical PerspectivesBut it needs to be contained for a very long time

  • Interesting chemistry starts at the waste package and extends out into the surrounding rock formationsThe combination of elevated temperature, high radiation levels, different engineered and natural materials, and the long storage time presents an achievable, but nevertheless challenging simulation and prediction problem. Basic materials properties data, and models of the complex interactions need to continually improve.

  • Other countries are choosing different geologic environments, but face similar challenges in evaluating long-term performanceSwedish concept for a deep geologic repository (Lundqvist, 2006).

  • Workshop structure - 5 panelsMultiphase Fluid TransportChemical Migration ProcessesCharacterizationModeling and SimulationCross-Cutting and Grand Challenge Science Themes

  • Workshop productsGrand Challenges1.Computational thermodynamics of complex fluids and solids2.Integrated characterization, modeling, and monitoring of geologic systems3.Simulation of multi-scale systems for ultra-long times Cross cutting issues1.The microscopic basis of macroscopic complexityHighly reactive subsurface materials and environmentsThermodynamics of the solute-to-solid continuum

  • Workshop productsGrand Challenges1.Computational thermodynamics of complex fluids and solids2.Integrated characterization, modeling, and monitoring of geologic systems3.Simulation of multi-scale systems for ultra-long times Cross cutting issues1.The microscopic basis of macroscopic complexityHighly reactive subsurface materials and environmentsThermodynamics of the solute-to-solid continuum

  • Workshop productsPriority Research Directions1.Mineral-water interface complexity and dynamics2.Nanoparticulate and colloid physics and chemistry3.Dynamic imaging of flow and transport4.Transport properties and in situ characterization of fluid trapping, isolation, and immobilization5.Fluid-induced rock deformation6.Biogeochemistry in extreme and perturbed environments

  • Basic Research Needs for Geosciences, February 21-24, 2007Technology Maturation & DeploymentApplied ResearchDiscovery Research Use-inspired Basic Research Office of ScienceFE, RW, EM, EERE Microscopic basis of macroscopic complexity - scalingHighly reactive subsurface materials and environmentsThermodynamics of the solute-to-solid continuumComputational geochemistry of complex moving fluids within porous solidsIntegrated analysis, modeling and monitoring of geologic systemsSimulation of multi-scale systems for ultra-long timesMineral-fluid interface complexity and dynamicsNanoparticulate and colloid chemistry and physicsDynamic imaging of flow and transportTransport properties and in situ characterization of fluid trapping, isolation and immobilizationFluid-induced rock deformationBiogeochemical in extreme subsurface environmentsDevelop and test methods for assessing storage capacity and for monitoring containment of CO2 storage

    Develop remediation methods to ensure permanent storage

    Demonstrate procedures for characterizing storage reservoirs and seals

    Integrated models for waste performance prediction and confirmation

    Radionuclide partitioning in repository environments.

    Waste form stability and release models.

    Incorporate new conceptual models into uncertainty assessments.Develop site selection criteriaDevelop storage and operating engineering approachesStorage demonstrationsApply assessment protocols and technologies for the lifecycle of projectsEvaluate release of radionuclide inventory from the repositoryAssess corrosion/ alteration of engineered materialsLong-term safety/risk assessment for emplacement of energy system by-products.

  • SummaryThe BRN Geosciences workshop and report provide an up-to-date assessment of geoscience research needs for the coming decadesThe participants are excited by the research possibilities, committed to the technical objectives, and enthusiastic about the workshop aimsThe research described involves and depends on continued advances in theory, materials analysis, and modeling, and hence aligns with fundamental aims of DOE Office of ScienceReport conclusions are complementary to those of recent reports on the hydrogen economy, advanced nuclear energy systems, advanced computing, alternative fuels, and with the capabilities of major BES research facilities

    Four-column chart + Columns 3 and 4 are derived from the Technology Perspectives Factual Document + Column 2 is primarily filled in by Panels + Column 1 is primarily filled in by Cross-cutting Panel with lots of input from all Panels