co2neutralp guidelines for decision makers

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GUIDELINES FOR DECISION MAKERS 1 THE PROJECT IS CO-FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT FUND Guidelines for decision makers Renewable Energies in Transport LOCAL ACTION TO PROMOTE THE SHIFT TOWARDS THE AGE OF SOLAR MOBILITY

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This publication is a result of the European project CO2NeuTrAlp – “CO2 Neutral Transport for the Alpine Space”. Between 2008 and 2011, a total of 15 partners from 5 countries and various sectors, among them local and provincial authorities and agencies, public utility companies, transport and city logistics companies, as well as universities and research institutions, have jointly implemented 13 pilot projects to test technologies and methodologies to promote the use of renewable energy as well as energy efficiency in transport.

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Page 1: Co2NeuTrAlp Guidelines for decision makers

G U I D E L I N E S F O R D E C I S I O N M A K E R S 1

THE PROJECT IS CO-FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT FUND

Guidelines for decision makers

Renewable Energies in TransportLOCAL ACT ION TO PROMOTE THE SH I FT TOWARDS THE AGE OF SOLAR MOB IL I TY

Page 2: Co2NeuTrAlp Guidelines for decision makers

CO2N

EUTR

ALP

- CO

2-NE

UTRA

L TR

ANSP

ORT

FOR

THE

ALPI

NE S

PACE

Lead

Par

tner

:

> B

.A.U

.M. C

onsu

lt M

ünch

en (D

E)

Part

ner:

> A

llgäu

Netz

Gm

bH &

Co.

KG

(DE)

> A

ustri

an M

obili

ty R

esea

rch

FGM

- A

MOR

(AT)

> C

omun

e di

Tor

ino

(IT)

> C

omun

e di

Pad

ova

(IT)

> D

olom

iti B

us S

pa (I

T)

> H

oldi

ng G

raz

(AT)

> H

elm

holtz

Zen

trum

Mün

chen

(DE)

> P

arco

Naz

iona

le C

inqu

e Te

rre

(IT)

> P

rovi

ncia

di B

ellu

no (I

T)

> P

rovi

ncia

di B

resc

ia (I

T)

> R

CL -

Dev

elop

men

t cen

tre L

itija

(SI)

> R

hôna

lpén

ergi

e En

viro

nnem

ent (

FR)

> U

nive

rsity

Boc

coni

CER

TeT

(IT)

> U

nive

rsity

of M

arib

or -

FCE

, ITS

(SI)

Page 3: Co2NeuTrAlp Guidelines for decision makers

G U I D E L I N E S F O R D E C I S I O N M A K E R S 3

Mobility is one of our basic requirements. We want to meet family and friends. We have to go shop-

ping and to our jobs. We want to spend holidays in far away places. And our goods need safe and

efficient means of transport. So, reducing mobility is not an easy option. However, we can make our

transport systems sustainable in ecological, economical and social terms. We must overcome the

dilemma of ever increasing demands for mobility and the negative impacts of these.

The Alpine Space is a sensitive area. It depends, maybe more than other areas, on strong as well as

environmentally and climate friendly patterns of mobility. All locals and visitors must be equally able

to have their mobility needs met. But they shall be neither allowed nor encouraged to inadvertently

pollute the air. Traffic jams shall neither affect quality of life nor jeopardise economic welfare.

In CO2NeuTrAlp, project partners in 15 cities and regions set out to test new mobility patterns. They

wanted to prove – and they did! - that it is possible to maintain flexibility and quality of life whilst

preserving a lively environment in the Alps. They used vehicles with electric systems and cars with

biogenic fuels. They tested individual modes of transport as well as intermodal systems with buses,

cars and even cable ways and boat taxis. And they started to integrate electric transport and renew-

able energy power systems.

Their main finding was that changing traditional mobility patterns and using new propulsion systems

requires a great deal of cooperation and common sense. It needs open minded decision makers in

local authorities as well as visionary leaders of transport companies and energy utility companies.

And, above all, it requires motivated people to demonstrate that a long term behavioural change in

the use of vehicles and traffic systems does not reduce but may even improve quality of life. As the

leader of the CO2NeuTralp partnership, let me express my deep respect to all our partners. They have

been pioneers and they have succeeded in overcoming multiple organisational and technological

hurdles. These guidelines are intended to give an insight in their work processes and results. It shall

allow a broad range of public and entrepreneurial decision makers to understand their rationales of

sustainable mobility and turn them into their own specific success stories.

On behalf of the entire partnership, let me say “thank you” to all funding institutions on a European,

national and regional level. We hope that all followers will have the courage and spirit to reinvent their

transport systems and trigger a long term behavioural change.

Ludwig Karg, Executive Director of Lead Partner B.A.U.M.

Foreword

Page 4: Co2NeuTrAlp Guidelines for decision makers

1

23

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

PPO-

Mob

ility

& W

aste

Col

lect

ion

Pays

de

Rom

ans

(FR)

E-M

obilit

y & S

umm

er To

urism

Tran

spor

t Sa

fari

Park

de

Peau

gres

(FR)

E-

Mob

ility

& W

inte

r Tou

rism

Tra

nspo

rtPi

P Vi

llard

de

Lans

(FR)

Biog

as &

Pub

lic T

rans

port

Flee

t Gr

az (A

T)

Eco-

sust

aina

ble

Boat

& L

ake

Tran

spor

tLa

go d

’Idro

(IT)

Elec

tric

Veh

icle

s fo

r City

Log

istic

sIn

terp

orto

Pad

ova

(IT)

E-M

obili

ty in

mou

ntai

n ar

eaPr

ovin

cia

di B

ellu

no a

nd D

olom

itibu

s (IT

)

E-Bi

kes

& So

lar C

harg

ing

and

Rent

al S

yste

mCo

mun

e di

Pad

ova

(IT)

E-M

obili

ty &

Veh

icle

to G

ridAl

lgäu

Netz

Gm

bH &

Co.

KG

E-M

obili

ty &

Pub

lic a

nd T

ouris

m T

rans

port

Univ

ersi

ty o

f Mar

ibor

E-M

obili

ty &

Sch

ool T

rans

port

and

Com

mut

ing

RCL

- De

velo

pmen

t Cen

tre

Litij

a

Sola

r CNG

Com

pres

sion

and

E-M

obili

tyCo

mun

e di

Tor

ino

(IT)

Alt.

Prop

ulsi

on S

yste

ms

& Ac

cess

ibili

ty in

Agr

icul

ture

and

Tou

rism

Parc

o Na

zion

ale

Cinq

ue T

erre

(IT)

15 p

artn

ers

carr

y ou

t 13

pilo

t pro

ject

s: e

lect

ricity

and

bio

fuel

s ar

e ap

plie

d in

pub

lic tr

ansp

ort,

car fl

eets

, city

logi

stic

s, to

uris

m, a

gric

ultu

re a

nd fo

r ped

elec

s.

Page 5: Co2NeuTrAlp Guidelines for decision makers

G U I D E L I N E S F O R D E C I S I O N M A K E R S 5

Table of Contents

Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3

1 Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6

2 The Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9

Climate change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Exhaustion of fossil fuels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Air pollution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Traffic congestion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 External(ised) costs of traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14

3 The Challenge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16

Preventing energy shortages which can adversely affect economy and life . . . . . . . . .16 Guaranteeing mobility for economic and social activities in the long run . . . . . . . . . . .16 Developing environmental and climate friendly technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Setting-up renewable energy supply systems and necessary infrastructure . . . . . . . .17 Managing technology which is hardly available and unknown to users . . . . . . . . . . . .17

4 The Opportunity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18

Putting a region, a city or a company on the forefront of innovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Creating positive image effects for the pioneers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Early adaptation to necessary future changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Strengthening regional and national economy in a future oriented sector . . . . . . . . . .19 Decreasing infrastructure costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Lowering external costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20

5 The Task . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21

Check potentials to replace fossil vehicles in local fleets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Mobilise own funds and alternative financing opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Create favourable frame conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Raise awareness among local user groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22

Page 6: Co2NeuTrAlp Guidelines for decision makers

6 G U I D E L I N E S F O R D E C I S I O N M A K E R S

This publication is a result of the European project CO2NeuTrAlp – “CO2 Neutral Transport for the

Alpine Space”. Between 2008 and 2011, a total of 15 partners from 5 countries and various sectors,

among them local and provincial authorities and agencies, public utility companies, transport and city

logistics companies, as well as universities and research institutions, have jointly implemented 13 pilot

projects to test technologies and methodologies to promote the use of renewable energy as well as

energy efficiency in transport. This document reflects the main lessons learned in terms of planning,

organising, financing and implementing these innovative technologies and concepts in the different

fields of transport, such as private transport, public transport, vehicle fleets, city logistics, tourism

transport, e-bike rental stations etc.

These ‘Guidelines for Decision Makers’ address the target group of public and private players who

are responsible for deciding on the technologies chosen to provide transport services within their scope

of influence, i.e. primarily public transport fleets and vehicle fleets of private companies and public

administrations:

Mayors

Transport secretaries

Directors of transport departments

Managers of public and private transport companies

Fleet managers of administrations, companies and organisations (e.g. public administrations,

private businesses, service providers, NGOs etc.)

1. Executive Summary

Page 7: Co2NeuTrAlp Guidelines for decision makers

G U I D E L I N E S F O R D E C I S I O N M A K E R S 7

The technological shift within the transport sector which modern societies will have to face in the com-

ing decades brings many unsolved challenges. Mutual learning, exchange of experience and develop-

ment of solutions will be the key to a swift and smooth transition in the transport sector. Therefore, there

is another set of “Guidelines for Technicians” who are responsible for planning and implementing

the necessary measures. Those guidelines provide technical experience and knowledge generated in

this pioneer project.

There is a whole set of arguments which encourage public as well as private decision makers to

become active in the field of renewable energy and energy efficiency in transport as pioneering

forerunners:

Citizens and consumers expect sustainable, future-oriented and responsible actions from

political leaders and successful entrepreneurs.

Environmental and climate protection have become common concern for society as a whole

and demand that decisive action is taken to achieve the jointly established goals.

In the light of declining fossil fuels, oil and gas as well as uranium reserves, energy security

has become a major issue with regards to safeguarding a smooth functioning of our transport-

dependent economy and society. This challenge increases with growing political instability in

oil producing countries around the world.

To promote the development and application of transport technologies based on renewable

energy and energy efficiency means fostering the competitiveness of a future-oriented and

innovative economic sector, guaranteeing long-term growth perspectives for the respective

cities and regions in a rapidly changing world.

Page 8: Co2NeuTrAlp Guidelines for decision makers

8 G U I D E L I N E S F O R D E C I S I O N M A K E R S

The increased use of local resources of renewable energy helps to strengthen small-scale

economic circuits from which local and regional economies benefit.

Instead of losing regional purchasing power due to fossil energy imports, expenses for energy

supply will create regional income and hence economic as well as job growth.

As renewable energy can best be produced in dispersed and decentralised small-sized installa-

tions all over the country, there is a unique chance to promote the economic development of

rural areas which have been economically destabilised through modernisation, industrialisation

and globalisation over the past decades.

Avoiding unnecessary traffic through mobility management and making the remaining transport

“green” by means of renewable energy and energy efficiency will lead to an increase in the quality

of live and environment in cities and regions. An attractive location will always benefit from in-

creased private investments, economic growth and satisfied citizens as well as visitors.

In different chapters these ‘Guidelines for Decision Makers’ lead the reader along a logical chain be-

ginning with ‘the problem’ of present unsustainable transport systems, leading on to ‘the challenge’

regarding the needed technological shift and ‘the opportunity’ this provides for regional economic

development and environmental protection and finishing with ‘the task’ which decision makers and

their institutions have to tackle in order to overcome the challenges of future mobility during the dec-

ades to come.

Page 9: Co2NeuTrAlp Guidelines for decision makers

G U I D E L I N E S F O R D E C I S I O N M A K E R S 9

2. The Problem

Climate changeClimate change is recognised as one of the major challenges mankind will face during the 21st

century. The transport sector is increasingly contributing to global warming, currently with over a

quarter of all greenhouse gas emissions.

Fig. 1: Climate change: predicted change of surface temperature for the 2081-2100 period versus 1951-1980 (source: Environment Canada)

For the Alps, regional climate models forecast rising temperatures of 2.6-3.9°C until the end of the

21st century. Future temperature increase in the Alps will be particularly elevated in the high moun-

tains. Global warming will be accompanied by an increase of extreme meteorological events, such

as floods and avalanches. Higher temperatures will also lead to the degradation of the permafrost

layers, causing hazards through slope instability and landslides.

The transport sector is continuing to jeopardise the reduction goals of climate policy due to a

steady growth in mobility demand on behalf of private users, but above all by the manufacturing sector.

Efforts to reduce carbon emissions from vehicles and to promote a modal shift in passenger

and goods transport in order to increase the proportion of environmentally friendly means of transport

have not led to satisfying results so far. The robustness of the overall transport sector against any soft

steering measures suggests that further action has to be taken and that several regulatory and techno-

logical steps will have to back efforts of making both Europe as a whole and local and regional mobility

systems more environmentally friendly.

Page 10: Co2NeuTrAlp Guidelines for decision makers

1 0 G U I D E L I N E S F O R D E C I S I O N M A K E R S

Exhaustion of fossil fuelsSince the 1970s, oil demand exceeds the volume of newly explored oil fields. There is a heated

debate among scholars, environmental NGOs, politicians and oil suppliers about the expected year

when world oil production will start to decline unresistingly (‘peak oil’). As a matter of fact, most

of the oil producing countries have already passed the climax of their national oil sales. The widening

supply-demand gap will have to be filled by costly alternatives and by reducing the world’s oil consump-

tion. The real dimension of the challenge becomes obvious when taking into account the expected in-

crease of the world population by over a billion within the next 15 years and the growing mobility

demand which characterises the globalising world economy and above all rising giants such as China,

India, Indonesia and Brazil.

The greatest risk for any national economy and also local communities arises, however, from the

fact that the decline in oil supply will most likely not happen in a smooth downward trend leading to

a smooth, linear rise in energy prices. As the 2008 speculation bubble and the 2011 riots in North

Africa have shown, oil prices tend to rise sharply if world markets are worried. In the light of

the tremendous importance of the transport sector for all aspects of economic and social life, the

necessity of promoting the shift of our transport systems towards energy efficiency and long-term

Fig. 2: Dramatic big hazards (> US$ 500 Mil.) in the years 1980 to 2008 (source Munich RE)

45

40

35

30

25

Num

ber

Meteorological events(storm)

Hydrological events(flood)

Climatological events(extreme temperatures)

Geophysical events(earthquake, tsunami)

20

15

10

5

1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008

Page 11: Co2NeuTrAlp Guidelines for decision makers

G U I D E L I N E S F O R D E C I S I O N M A K E R S 1 1

autonomy, making our transport systems largely independent from external energy supply,

becomes evident. Our present energy supply chains, as well as the road transport system in the EU

of which 98% depends on oil, have been developed and set-up over a period of many decades. It is

time to act now to prepare for the upcoming challenges which can be properly tackled only through

one vision: the solar age of mobility.

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

1990 2000 2010 2020 2030

Natural gas liquids

Non-conventional oil

Crude oil - yet to be developed (inc. EOR) or found

Crude oil - currently producing fields

mb/

d

Fig. 3: Widening demand-supply gap concerning worldwide crude oil demand (source: IEA 2008)

Fig. 4: Rising dependency of the EU on external oil supply (source: IEA 2008)

OECD North America 2007

20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

2030United States

China

Other Asia

OECD Europe

OECD Pacific

European Union

India

Page 12: Co2NeuTrAlp Guidelines for decision makers

1 2 G U I D E L I N E S F O R D E C I S I O N M A K E R S

Air pollutionTrans-Alpine freight transport (more than 100 million tonnes per year), trans-Alpine passenger traffic

and intra-Alpine traffic are an enormous source of air pollutants. More than 60% of all goods are trans-

ported by trucks and more than 80% of people travel on roads. In 2009, 1.6 million heavy duty vehicles

and 9.6 million cars crossed Brenner Pass.

Fig. 5: NO2 concentrations along traffic arteries (source: Gemeente Utrecht)

The dramatically increasing trans-Alpine traffic is concentrated on a few Alpine valleys and has a

strong impact on people and ecosystems, particularly those in the vicinity of the roads. The traffic

volume in the eastern Inn valley has doubled from 1980 to 2000 and is continuing to increase. Alpine

valleys are sensitive to air pollution due to the location of emission sources on the valley ground, the

topography with channel effects and typical meteorological conditions with temperature inversions,

particularly in winter and during the night.

Page 13: Co2NeuTrAlp Guidelines for decision makers

G U I D E L I N E S F O R D E C I S I O N M A K E R S 1 3

Traffic congestionTraffic congestion generates relatively high indirect costs for urban economies due to the loss of

time by drivers and environmental problems, mainly noise and air pollution. Ecological problems can

partly be solved through alternative propulsion systems. But besides walking, cycling and public trans-

port, only the so called “Light Electric Vehicles” (LEV) such as e-scooters, pedelecs and e-bikes, can

offer effective solutions to the increasing challenge of traffic congestion.

Fig. 6 : Inland Freight Traffic (source: Eurostat; International Transport Forum; OECD, «European Energy and Transport: trends to 2030 Update 2007», EC 2008, PRIMES; «Outlook for Global Transport and Energy Demand», TRIAS Study 2007).

Fig. 7 : Inland Passenger Traffic (source: Eurostat; International Transport Forum; OECD, «European Energy and Transport: trends to 2030 Update 2007», EC 2008, PRIMES; «Outlook for Global Transport and Energy Demand», TRIAS Study 2007).

7000

6000

5000

1000

M T

n-km

Inland Freight Traffic

4000

3000

2000

1000

0

1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050

14000

12000

10000

1000

M p

ax-k

m

Inland Passenger Traffic

8000

6000

4000

2000

0

1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050

7000

6000

5000

1000

M T

n-km

Inland Freight Traffic

4000

3000

2000

1000

0

1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050

14000

12000

10000

1000

M p

ax-k

m

Inland Passenger Traffic

8000

6000

4000

2000

0

1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050

Page 14: Co2NeuTrAlp Guidelines for decision makers

1 4 G U I D E L I N E S F O R D E C I S I O N M A K E R S

External(ised) costs of traffic

Transport activities give rise to air pollution, noise, climate change, congestion and accidents.

The costs of these effects, the so-called external costs, are normally not borne directly by the transport

users and are therefore not taken into account when making transport decisions. External costs in the

transport sector are large (estimated at about 8 % of EU GDP) and depend heavily on the type of vehicle

and the traffic situation being considered.

1000

MtCO2

900

800

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

1990 2007

0Total

transportCars Trucks &

light vehiclesAir

(domestic)Rail Navigation

Figure 8: CO2 emissions by transport in the EU, 1990-2007

Page 15: Co2NeuTrAlp Guidelines for decision makers

G U I D E L I N E S F O R D E C I S I O N M A K E R S 1 5

Further to these external costs, a large amount of public money is spent on car transportation including

the construction, maintenance, cleaning and lighting of streets and car parks, traffic signals, lighting,

and traffic police. These considerable costs are only partially recovered by municipal revenues, like

parking fees, tolls and fines, directly paid by the users of private vehicles. A study carried out by the

international network ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability found that local authorities across

Europe are subsidising private car use by up to EUR 250 per citizen per year. A study carried out

for the WHO showed for 1999 additional externalised health costs caused by the transport sector

amounting to way above 300 Euros per person and year for several Alpine countries.

Whereas subsidies for public transport are often subject to criticism, such hidden subsidies for motor-

ised individual transport are not perceived by the public. In most cases, these are not even known by

political decision makers since local budgets do not list income and expenditure of individual transport

- these are hidden away in different budget items. It is therefore difficult to raise awareness of the

amount of public money spent on private transport.

Page 16: Co2NeuTrAlp Guidelines for decision makers

1 6 G U I D E L I N E S F O R D E C I S I O N M A K E R S

3. The Challenge

Preventing energy shortages which can adversely affect the economy and life

Modern societies and economic systems strongly depend on transport and mobility services. They en-

able citizens to satisfy all basic needs with regards to participating in economic, social and cultural life.

The production and distribution of goods as well as the exchange of services increasingly depends on

transport services that can only partly and in the long-term be replaced by means of telecommunication

or small-scaled economic cycles. The problem of steadily rising energy costs through resource deple-

tion and, above all, the threat of a supply crisis, combined with exploding energy costs provoked by

political instability in oil producing regions, threaten stable economic and social development within

our still strongly oil-dependent economies and societies.

Guaranteeing mobility for economic and social activities in the long run

Even though many political and economic leaders are required to primarily meet the demands of short

term electoral cycles and benefit targets , there is a need to foresee long-term threats as well and to

begin preparing adequate measure of response in a timely manner. As 98% of the road transport within

the EU is dependent on fossil fuels, the economy and society will remain vulnerable to energy supply

crises over a longer period of time. Therefore, immediate action has to be taken to initiate the nec-

essary long-term shift to energy efficient forms of transport and to an increased use of renewable

energy sources within the transport sector.

Page 17: Co2NeuTrAlp Guidelines for decision makers

G U I D E L I N E S F O R D E C I S I O N M A K E R S 1 7

Developing environmentally and climate friendly technologies

Public transport can help to reduce negative impacts of traffic. But, as the extent to which public transport,

above all in dispersed rural areas, can help to avoid motorised individual transport will always remain limited,

the technologies on which motorised mobility relies need to be transformed in order to meet stricter en-

vironmental standards. Therefore, measures to promote the modal shift in order to reduce motorised individual

transport must be complemented by efforts to make motorised mobility independent from fossil fuels

and to overcome inefficient propulsion technologies. Whilst electric mobility today is bound to today’s power

generation mix, it opens paths to a fully carbon-free and renewable energy based mobility in the long term.

Setting-up renewable energy supply systems and necessary infrastructure

The current worldwide energy supply system on which transport services of industrialised countries de-

pends has been developed and implemented over a period of several decades. To replace current infra-

structures, technologies and supply chains with a new decentralised system based on renewable energy is

a very complex and demanding task which will constitute a major challenge for different sectors of

politics, research and business over the coming decades. As far as electric mobility is concerned, this

transition will require strong cooperation of the mobility and the energy sector to avoid dramatic threats and

costs to the power system and to integrate electric cars as storages and buffers for volatile power produc-

tion. In this upcoming technological transition process, all leading economies in the world find themselves

in direct competition for the best technological solutions and products that will be demanded in large scale

by future global markets.

Managing technology which is hardly available and unknown to users

Visionary decision makers in politics and business face the challenge of setting the right framework condi-

tions for implementing new transport technologies which demand new energy supply chains as well as

financing, management and maintenance systems. To enable such pioneers to benefit from mutual learn-

ing processes and other organisations’ experiences, the CO2NeuTrAlp partnership has grouped a variety

of partners from different Alpine countries. To prepare a municipality or company to become successful in

pioneering the new technological trends in transport, it is necessary to use every opportunity to benefit

from existing experience in order to avoid unnecessary problems and set-backs.

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4. The Opportunity

Putting a region, a city or a company at the forefront of innovation

National and regional economies which missed the right time to take the right decisions will have to

intensify their struggle for ever fewer and increasingly costly energy resources. However, innovative

companies will benefit from a growing demand of future-oriented products and cities and

regions which have promoted the massive introduction of new technologies for renewable energy

production and energy-efficient transport will enjoy wealth, stability and quality of life. The positive

innovation impact can be demonstrated through the latest developments in the e-bike and pedelec

market: sales numbers in Europe are increasing by approx. 50 percent every year, specifically in some

regions which have fostered this energy-efficient and ecological form of mobility. The rural community

of Emmental, Switzerland, is vastly benefitting from production facilities which provide a swiftly growing

number of jobs in the pedelec industry.

Creating positive image effects for the pioneers

It is a known phenomenon that only pioneers benefit from outstanding image effects. Companies as

well as cities and regions can expect such a marketing impact only as long as their efforts in introducing

clean and innovative transport technologies are a noteworthy, unique achievement. A positive image

is a very important aspect for brand development and even a central location factor for innovation

centred private investment in cities and regions. Therefore, getting on board the mega-trend of

renewable energy and their use in clean transport is a must for any dynamic company or location.

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Early adaptation to necessary future changes

The issue of transition from the fossil to the solar age of mobility is only a question of time. Early ad-

aptation helps to safeguard a smooth transition while a forced turn-away from fossil fuels through

supply shortages or rocketing fuel prices will cause severe disruptions in economic and social life within

economic systems which are heavily dependent on fossil resources. Considering that a full transition

of the transport sector to renewable energy supply and alternative propulsion systems will take

several decades, decision makers should make sure that at least the most vital functions of economic

and public life are safeguarded in the short-term through a good mix of existing systems and self-

sustained, autonomous energy supply from renewable sources using latest technology for generation,

storage, transmission and distribution.

Strengthening regional and national economy in a future-oriented sector

In times of globalisation, innovations are no longer a privilege of certain regions over a longer period of

time. Innovations spring up almost simultaneously in different locations and even countries in Asia have

become strong competitors for the European economy. The use of renewable energy in transport, above

all by means of electric propulsion systems, 3rd generation biofuels and biogas is widely recognised

as being a future mega-trend leading to an industrial revolution which also established industrialised

economies will have to face. Therefore, it is a crucial question of future competitiveness in a global

market of renewable energy and transport technology which will decide over a region’s future

prospect for wealth. Political and economic leaders should therefore immediately begin setting the

right framework conditions investing in the adaptation to and promotion of future-oriented technologies

in their regional crafts and industries. Such a tactical move justifies the investments and higher costs

which these technologies require until the stage of mass production has been reached.

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Decreasing infrastructure costs

The transition to the ‘solar age of mobility’ must go hand in hand with efforts to reduce traffic flows by

a decentralised concentration of settlement structures and a reduced geographical scope of sup-

ply chains in production. Mobility management measures shall help to avoid unnecessary journeys and

improved offers shall promote the modal shift towards environmentally friendly means of transportation

for the remaining mobility demand. These measures will help in the long run to reduce relatively high

infrastructure costs for motorised individual transport. Only where mobility patterns require motorised

individual transport, vehicles equipped with alternative propulsion systems need to be employed and

the respective infrastructure has to be provided for. The reduction of overall costs for transport in-

frastructure such as roads, parking spaces etc. will enable municipalities and regions to cover

investment costs incurred through the promotion and deployment of alternative transport tech-

nologies and mobility management measures.

Lowering external costs

A great part of the costs of motorised individual transport are usually externalised in the form of hid-

den subsidies, e.g. for providing parking space in inner city areas far beyond the real price level of the

respective terrain, or costs through accidents which have to be borne by society at large. A modal

shift to cleaner modes of transport, as e.g. walking, cycling and public transport, will help to lower

external costs for society as a whole.

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5. The Task

Check potential ways to replace fossil vehicles in local fleets

Some fleet owning municipalities and regions, like the City of Reggio Emilia in Italy, have demonstrated

that even with more expensive electric cars costs can be reduced considerably through lower

maintenance and fuel costs. If fleet vehicles are used intensively but within the usual daily range of

an electric car (between 100 and 150 km of autonomy) a transition to electric mobility is viable and

can make sense in economic terms. As experience in the pilot projects of CO2NeuTrAlp shows, this

even applies to such demanding sectors of transport as city logistics, heavy duty vehicles and public

transport. The analysis of the mobility demands within an organisation will most likely show that there

is even potential to replace some conventional cars in the fleet by e-scooters, pedelecs, or e-bikes. In

such cases the achieved cost reduction as well as environmental benefits will even be much higher.

Mobilise own funds and alternative financing opportunities

As long as the investments for alternative propulsion systems are high, investors will need creativity

to explore all possible sources of funding and potential for cost reduction to allow for a transi-

tion to clean transport technologies. Vehicles can be shared and jointly used by small companies.

Having been used as a fleet vehicle of an organisation during the day, vehicles can be inserted into a

car-pooling scheme in the evening (as practised e.g. by the public transport association of the region of

Stuttgart). Some car manufacturers allow their clients to lease the electric vehicle or even just the costly

battery. In public transport fleets, electric vehicles may also serve as an attractive carrier of publicity for

private enterprises, creating extra revenues. This also applies to the rental stations for pedelecs which

can become a source of funding by providing inner-city publicity opportunities for marketing firms. Of

course, there are also a variety of regional, national and EU programmes which provide financial support

for the implementation of innovative transport measures and new business scenarios.

Create favourable frame conditions

A holistic approach to environmentally friendly transport will also involve the issue of energy supply.

Companies and public administrations can contribute, with complementary investments, to the increase

of endogenous renewable energy production. Municipalities and regions, as has been demonstrated by

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various pioneers in the Alpine Space so far, can achieve full autonomy in renewable energy supply for

all households and businesses within a relatively short period of time. This will require new measures in

balancing regional energy generation, storage, distribution and use as has been investigated in Alpine

Space project AlpEnergy (see www.alpenergy.net). Such measures to achieve energy autonomy in all

fields, including transport, will benefit not only the environment but also provide stable income and

jobs for the respective region. Public authorities can take many complementary measures to foster the

use of alternative vehicles: public charging stations in districts which do not have many possibilities

for private charging, free parking in attractive inner-city areas as well as limited access for conventional

cars and motorcycles to the city centre may be options which should be carefully and critically stud-

ied. Power suppliers, public utility companies or administrations may even set-up rotational funding

schemes to allow private investors to purchase electric or other vehicles which use endogenous renew-

able energy sources, avoiding high interest rates.

Raise awareness among local user groups

Transformation of the transport system of a city or region is a challenging task which cannot be tackled

without involving a great number of relevant stakeholders and users such as local authorities,

energy suppliers, companies, commuters, pupils, students, etc.

Therefore, the impact of any good measure will remain limited as long as no intensive communication

process is established which helps to spread knowledge and increase the motivation of all potential

partners and users to jointly implement new transport technologies within a city or region. There are

numerous options such as fairs, festivals, school projects, publicity measures, media work etc. which

can be tailored to the specific needs and possibilities of any city or region willing to take a lead on the

road to the solar age of mobility.

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Imprint

Guidelines for Decision Makers, 1st Edition, June 2011

Published by:B.A.U.M. Consult GmbHGotzinger Straße 48/50, 81371 Munich, Germanywww.baumgroup.de

Authors:Prof. Dr. Rainer Rothfuss, Vivien Führ, Anja Lehmann, Ludwig Karg

Pictures:istock (p.1,7,8,14,15,16 right,18, 22); Fotolia (p. 12 right bottom, 19); Dr. Manfred Kirchner (p.12 left bottom); Partner (p. 6,16 left,20,22)

Conception & DesignForschungsgesellschaft Mobilität - Austrian Mobility Research, FGM-AMOR ; www.fgm.at

Download:The brochure can be downloaded from www.co2neutralp.eu.

Copyright ©B.A.U.M. Consult GmbH, München, Germany, 2011Copies of these guidelines – also of extracts thereof –may only be made with the permission of and with refer-ence to the publisher and if a sample copy is provided.

Acknowledgements and legal disclaimer:

These guidelines have been produced as part of the CO2NeuTrAlp project, supported by the Alpine Space Programme of the European Territorial Cooperation and co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund, project no. 10-1-2-D.

The sole responsibility for the content of this publication lies with the authors. It does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Communities, the ETC-ASP Managing Authority, the ETC-ASP Joint Secretariat, or the Land Salzburg. None of these authorities and institutions is responsible for any use that may be made of

the information contained therein.

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THE PROJECT IS CO-FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT FUND

www.co2neutralp.eu