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  • Cognitive Technologies

    Managing Editors: D. M. Gabbay J. Siekmann

    Editorial Board: A. Bundy J. G. CarbonellM. Pinkal H. Uszkoreit M. Veloso W. WahlsterM. J. Wooldridge

    For further volumes:

    http://www.springer.com/series/5216

  • .

  • Antonio Kruger l Tsvi KuflikEditors

    Ubiquitous DisplayEnvironments

  • EditorsAntonio KrugerGerman Research Center forArtificial Intelligence (DFKI)

    SaarbruckenGermany

    Tsvi KuflikUniversity of HaifaHaifaIsrael

    Managing EditorsProf. Dov M. GabbayAugustus De Morgan Professor of LogicDepartment of Computer ScienceKings College LondonStrand, London, UK

    Prof. Dr. Jorg SiekmannForschungsbereich Deduktions- undMultiagentensysteme, DFKISaarbrucken, Germany

    Cognitive Technologies ISSN 1611-2482ISBN 978-3-642-27662-0 ISBN 978-3-642-27663-7 (eBook)DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-27663-7Springer Heidelberg New York Dordrecht London

    Library of Congress Control Number: 2012940253

    # Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part ofthe material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations,recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission orinformation storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilarmethodology now known or hereafter developed. Exempted from this legal reservation are brief excerptsin connection with reviews or scholarly analysis or material supplied specifically for the purpose of beingentered and executed on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work. Duplicationof this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the Copyright Law of thePublishers location, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained fromSpringer. Permissions for use may be obtained through RightsLink at the Copyright Clearance Center.Violations are liable to prosecution under the respective Copyright Law.The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in thispublication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exemptfrom the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use.While the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date ofpublication, neither the authors nor the editors nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility forany errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, withrespect to the material contained herein.

    Printed on acid-free paper

    Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com)

  • Preface

    Nowadays, we increasingly live in smart environments computerized environ-

    ments that can sense, track, and model their users and, as a result, provide them with

    personalized services. Computers have become small enough to be embedded in

    everyday objects, from shirt buttons to pencils; high-quality (and soon to be

    flexible) computer display devices can be embedded in objects of all sizes, from

    wristwatches to billboards; and wireless Internet communication is becoming more

    widely available every day. We are also transitioning from traditional linear media

    to highly targeted, interactive media. The convergence of these factors (miniaturi-

    zation, display technology, wireless communication, and interactive media) will

    lead to environments where media and visual content will not only be accessible on

    desktop computers but at many different locations in a given environment. Such

    ubiquitous display environments will support a rich variety of interactive display

    devices in order to provide their users with relevant information in a seamless

    manner. This will enable people to interact with information artifacts, rather

    than with dedicated information-processing devices, in a more natural and casual

    fashion.

    In this book, leading researchers in ubiquitous display environments envision a

    day when a wide variety of displays will seamlessly provide carefully targeted

    information to users. For example, as you enter a building, a display shows you a

    carefully selected list of events, in which you may be interested. When exiting the

    building, a display reminds you where you parked your car and recommends the

    best route home. This convergence of technologies poses exciting and fundamental

    research challenges. It will lead to innovative technologies for human education,

    cultural heritage appreciation, and scientific development.

    This book is based on talks given at the GermanIsraeli Minerva School in

    autumn 2009 at the University of Haifa, Israel. It addresses the challenges of how to

    exploit these new technologies within the context of an educational and cultural

    experience. It discusses both the scientific and the technological aspects of these

    challenges. On the scientific side, it integrates Artificial Intelligence, User Modeling,

    Temporal and Spatial Reasoning, Intelligent User Interfaces, and User-Centric

    Design methodologies. On the technological side, it integrates mobile and wireless

    networking infrastructures, interfaces, group displays, and context-driven adaptive

    presentations.

    v

  • The book covers a diverse set of topics, as the issue is multidisciplinary in nature

    from multiagent systems and architectures to aesthetics, from reasoning about

    time and space and about visitors behavior to actual design, implementation, and

    evaluation of context-aware information delivery over large displays. While it was

    impossible to cover all aspects of ubiquitous display environments, we have tried to

    sample the state of the art in the field and we hope that it introduces some additional

    aspects.

    May 2011 Tsvi Kuflik and Antonio Kruger

    Haifa and Saarbrucken

    vi Preface

  • Contents

    Ubiquitous Display Environments: An Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Tsvi Kuflik

    Challenges and Solutions of Ubiquitous User Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Tsvi Kuflik, Judy Kay, and Bob Kummerfeld

    Context-Sensitive Display Environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31Florian Daiber, Antonio Kruger, Johannes Schoning, and Jorg Muller

    Perspectives on Reasoning About Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53Martin Charles Golumbic

    Shared Interfaces for Co-located Interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71Massimo Zancanaro

    Considering the Aesthetics of Ubiquitous Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89Noam Tractinsky and Eleanor Eytam

    The Design, Deployment and Evaluation of Situated Display-BasedSystems to Support Coordination and Community . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105Keith Cheverst, Faisal Taher, Matthew Fisher,

    Daniel Fitton, and Nick Taylor

    xioScreen: Experiences Gained from Building a Seriesof Prototypes of Interactive Public Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125K.P. Ludwig John and Thomas Rist

    Audience Measurement for Digital Signage: Exploringthe Audiences Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143Jorg Muller and Keith Cheverst

    vii

  • Analysis and Prediction of Museum VisitorsBehavioral Pattern Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161Tsvi Kuflik, Zvi Boger and Massimo Zancanaro

    Trust Management of Ubiquitous Multi-Display Environments . . . . . . . . . 177Ekatarina Kurdyukova, Elisabeth Andre, and Karin Leichtenstern

    From Research to Practice: Automated Negotiationswith People . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195Raz Lin and Sarit Kraus

    Virtual Technologies and Empowermentof Users of Rehabilitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213Naomi Schreuer and Patrice L. (Tamar) Weiss

    viii Contents

  • Ubiquitous Display Environments:An Overview

    Tsvi Kuflik

    Abstract Ubiquitous display environments are public spaces with various situatedpublic displays. These displays are intended to provide relevant information to

    people in their vicinity, where these may include the regular inhabitants of the space

    as well as visitors. Their nature makes the development of such displays a multi-

    disciplinary task that combines technological with aesthetic, sociological, and legal

    aspects. Research usually focuses on specific aspects while neglecting others, since

    it is intended to explore only a limited part. Here we try to take a step back and

    portray the big picture, showing how various aspects need to be addressed and

    integrated in order to support us in todays and tomorrows ubiquitous display

    environments.

    1 Introduction

    We are beginning to live in smart environments computerized environments that

    can sense, track, and model their users and use these models to provide personalized

    services. This is mainly because computers today have become small and cheap

    enough to be embedded in everyday items from shirt buttons to pencils. Moreover,

    high-quality (and soon to be flexible) compute

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