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  • Cognitive Technologies

    Managing Editors: D. M. Gabbay J. Siekmann

    Editorial Board: A. Bundy J. G. CarbonellM. Pinkal H. Uszkoreit M. Veloso W. WahlsterM. J. Wooldridge

    For further volumes:

    http://www.springer.com/series/5216

  • .

  • Antonio Kruger l Tsvi KuflikEditors

    Ubiquitous DisplayEnvironments

  • EditorsAntonio KrugerGerman Research Center forArtificial Intelligence (DFKI)

    SaarbruckenGermany

    Tsvi KuflikUniversity of HaifaHaifaIsrael

    Managing EditorsProf. Dov M. GabbayAugustus De Morgan Professor of LogicDepartment of Computer ScienceKings College LondonStrand, London, UK

    Prof. Dr. Jorg SiekmannForschungsbereich Deduktions- undMultiagentensysteme, DFKISaarbrucken, Germany

    Cognitive Technologies ISSN 1611-2482ISBN 978-3-642-27662-0 ISBN 978-3-642-27663-7 (eBook)DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-27663-7Springer Heidelberg New York Dordrecht London

    Library of Congress Control Number: 2012940253

    # Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part ofthe material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations,recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission orinformation storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilarmethodology now known or hereafter developed. Exempted from this legal reservation are brief excerptsin connection with reviews or scholarly analysis or material supplied specifically for the purpose of beingentered and executed on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work. Duplicationof this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the Copyright Law of thePublishers location, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained fromSpringer. Permissions for use may be obtained through RightsLink at the Copyright Clearance Center.Violations are liable to prosecution under the respective Copyright Law.The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in thispublication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exemptfrom the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use.While the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date ofpublication, neither the authors nor the editors nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility forany errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, withrespect to the material contained herein.

    Printed on acid-free paper

    Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com)

  • Preface

    Nowadays, we increasingly live in smart environments computerized environ-

    ments that can sense, track, and model their users and, as a result, provide them with

    personalized services. Computers have become small enough to be embedded in

    everyday objects, from shirt buttons to pencils; high-quality (and soon to be

    flexible) computer display devices can be embedded in objects of all sizes, from

    wristwatches to billboards; and wireless Internet communication is becoming more

    widely available every day. We are also transitioning from traditional linear media

    to highly targeted, interactive media. The convergence of these factors (miniaturi-

    zation, display technology, wireless communication, and interactive media) will

    lead to environments where media and visual content will not only be accessible on

    desktop computers but at many different locations in a given environment. Such

    ubiquitous display environments will support a rich variety of interactive display

    devices in order to provide their users with relevant information in a seamless

    manner. This will enable people to interact with information artifacts, rather

    than with dedicated information-processing devices, in a more natural and casual

    fashion.

    In this book, leading researchers in ubiquitous display environments envision a

    day when a wide variety of displays will seamlessly provide carefully targeted

    information to users. For example, as you enter a building, a display shows you a

    carefully selected list of events, in which you may be interested. When exiting the

    building, a display reminds you where you parked your car and recommends the

    best route home. This convergence of technologies poses exciting and fundamental

    research challenges. It will lead to innovative technologies for human education,

    cultural heritage appreciation, and scientific development.

    This book is based on talks given at the GermanIsraeli Minerva School in

    autumn 2009 at the University of Haifa, Israel. It addresses the challenges of how to

    exploit these new technologies within the context of an educational and cultural

    experience. It discusses both the scientific and the technological aspects of these

    challenges. On the scientific side, it integrates Artificial Intelligence, User Modeling,

    Temporal and Spatial Reasoning, Intelligent User Interfaces, and User-Centric

    Design methodologies. On the technological side, it integrates mobile and wireless

    networking infrastructures, interfaces, group displays, and context-driven adaptive

    presentations.

    v

  • The book covers a diverse set of topics, as the issue is multidisciplinary in nature

    from multiagent systems and architectures to aesthetics, from reasoning about

    time and space and about visitors behavior to actual design, implementation, and

    evaluation of context-aware information delivery over large displays. While it was

    impossible to cover all aspects of ubiquitous display environments, we have tried to

    sample the state of the art in the field and we hope that it introduces some additional

    aspects.

    May 2011 Tsvi Kuflik and Antonio Kruger

    Haifa and Saarbrucken

    vi Preface

  • Contents

    Ubiquitous Display Environments: An Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Tsvi Kuflik

    Challenges and Solutions of Ubiquitous User Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Tsvi Kuflik, Judy Kay, and Bob Kummerfeld

    Context-Sensitive Display Environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31Florian Daiber, Antonio Kruger, Johannes Schoning, and Jorg Muller

    Perspectives on Reasoning About Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53Martin Charles Golumbic

    Shared Interfaces for Co-located Interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71Massimo Zancanaro

    Considering the Aesthetics of Ubiquitous Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89Noam Tractinsky and Eleanor Eytam

    The Design, Deployment and Evaluation of Situated Display-BasedSystems to Support Coordination and Community . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105Keith Cheverst, Faisal Taher, Matthew Fisher,

    Daniel Fitton, and Nick Taylor

    xioScreen: Experiences Gained from Building a Seriesof Prototypes of Interactive Public Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125K.P. Ludwig John and Thomas Rist

    Audience Measurement for Digital Signage: Exploringthe Audiences Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143Jorg Muller and Keith Cheverst

    vii

  • Analysis and Prediction of Museum VisitorsBehavioral Pattern Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161Tsvi Kuflik, Zvi Boger and Massimo Zancanaro

    Trust Management of Ubiquitous Multi-Display Environments . . . . . . . . . 177Ekatarina Kurdyukova, Elisabeth Andre, and Karin Leichtenstern

    From Research to Practice: Automated Negotiationswith People . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195Raz Lin and Sarit Kraus

    Virtual Technologies and Empowermentof Users of Rehabilitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213Naomi Schreuer and Patrice L. (Tamar) Weiss

    viii Contents

  • Ubiquitous Display Environments:An Overview

    Tsvi Kuflik

    Abstract Ubiquitous display environments are public spaces with various situatedpublic displays. These displays are intended to provide relevant information to

    people in their vicinity, where these may include the regular inhabitants of the space

    as well as visitors. Their nature makes the development of such displays a multi-

    disciplinary task that combines technological with aesthetic, sociological, and legal

    aspects. Research usually focuses on specific aspects while neglecting others, since

    it is intended to explore only a limited part. Here we try to take a step back and

    portray the big picture, showing how various aspects need to be addressed and

    integrated in order to support us in todays and tomorrows ubiquitous display

    environments.

    1 Introduction

    We are beginning to live in smart environments computerized environments that

    can sense, track, and model their users and use these models to provide personalized

    services. This is mainly because computers today have become small and cheap

    enough to be embedded in everyday items from shirt buttons to pencils. Moreover,

    high-quality (and soon to be flexible) computer display devices can be embedded in

    objects of all sizes from wristwatches to billboards. Wireless Internet communica-

    tion is becoming more widely available every day. We are also transitioning from

    traditional linear media to highly targeted, interactive media. The convergence of

    these factors (miniaturization, display technology, wireless communication, and

    interactive media) will allow us to leave our desktop computers behind and make

    the transition to a radically new computing paradigm the ubiquitous displayenvironment, as envisioned by Weiser [1]. These smart environments will support

    T. Kuflik (*)The University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905, Israel

    e-mail: tsvikak@is.haifa.ac.il

    A. Kruger and T. Kuflik (eds.), Ubiquitous Display Environments,Cognitive Technologies, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-27663-7_1,# Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

    1

  • a rich variety of interactive display devices in order to provide their users with

    relevant information in a seamless manner.

    This is one of the most exciting and important areas of technology for human

    development. It will enable people to interact with information artifacts in a more

    natural and casual way as compared to dedicated information processing devices.

    For example, as you enter a building a display may show you a carefully selected

    list of events in which you may be interested. When exiting the building a display

    may remind you where you parked and recommend the best route home.

    This revolutionary convergence of technologies presents exciting and funda-

    mental multidisciplinary research challenges. It will lead to new, innovative

    technologies for human education, cultural heritage appreciation, and scientific

    development. This book presents a few aspects of this multifaceted research

    challenge.

    2 Overview

    In Weisers seminal paper [1] introducing ubiquitous computing he describes how

    The most profound technologies are those that disappear. They weave themselves

    into the fabric of everyday life until they are indistinguishable from it . . .Specialized elements of hardware and software, connected by wires, radio waves

    and infrared, will be so ubiquitous that no one will notice their presence. This

    means that computers and communication infrastructure are becoming an integral,

    invisible, and unobtrusive part of the environment. When this process is complete,

    the focus of computerized technology will change from the means (computers) to

    the services provided to the users new ways of delivering information and the

    natural interaction of the user with their environment. Many different areas of

    research need to be combined in order to make progress here. Some are in fact

    areas that have been researched for a long time while others are new; some involve

    deep theoretical background while others involve exploratory studies about how

    users may use and interact with novel technologies. By its nature, research on

    ubiquitous display environments, where users interact naturally with information

    sources in public spaces, is a design study: ideas are formed, prototypes developed

    and tested experimentally, and the results used for further improvement.

    2.1 Context Awareness: Time and Space

    Dey and Abowd [2] claim that While most people tacitly understand what context

    is, they find it hard to elucidate. They defined context as any information that can

    be used to characterize the situation of an entity. An entity is a person, place, or

    object that is considered relevant to the interaction between a user and an appli-

    cation, including the user and applications themselves. Among the most important

    2 T. Kuflik

  • contextual aspects, issues that involve reasoning and acting within the time

    constraints of the real world are the most challenging. Temporal information may

    be qualitative, where events are represented by abstract time points and time

    intervals, and we process and deduce relationships between them, such as pairs

    intersecting each other, one preceding, following or containing another, etc. Other

    information may be quantitative, where durations can be measured, precise time

    stamps may be available, or numerical methods can be applied to understand a

    specific time line of events. These temporal aspects are discussed in chapter

    Perspectives on Reasoning About Time. The challenges and lessons learned

    from developing a context-aware ubiquitous display application are discussed

    further in chapters Context-Sensitive Display Environments and xioScreen:

    Experiences Gained from Building a Series of Prototypes of Interactive Public

    Displays of this book. Chapter Context-Sensitive Display Environments, reflects

    on the development and presents different display environments that were used as

    research platforms to investigate various aspects, including technical issues and

    also the question of how to improve interaction with display environments and their

    usability. Chapter xioScreen: Experiences Gained from Building a Series of

    Prototypes of Interactive Public Displays, studies the interplay between shared

    public displays and private handheld devices, and explores how such technological

    settings would be used by students in daily life in a university campus environment

    when accessing context-aware information services.

    2.2 Individual and Group Interaction with Large Displays

    Interaction of users with large displays situated in public spaces is multifaceted and

    as such requires multidisciplinary research. On the one hand, in order to be

    effective, the communication should be personalized, but obtaining information

    about a first time (and maybe also last time) mobile user in a ubiquitous computing

    environment is challenging...

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