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Common Rater Errors. http://edu.docdat.com/tw_files2/urls_11/371/d-370082/img3.jpg. Count the black dots at the crossings of the grey lines:. Source: http://michaelbach.de/ot/. Source: http://michaelbach.de/ot/. Video:. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Common Rater Errors

  • http://edu.docdat.com/tw_files2/urls_11/371/d-370082/img3.jpg

  • Count the black dots at the crossings of the grey lines:Source: http://michaelbach.de/ot/

  • Source: http://michaelbach.de/ot/

  • http://www.ted.com/talks/beau_lotto_optical_illusions_show_how_we_see.htmlVideo:http://www.ted.com/talks/al_seckel_says_our_brains_are_mis_wired.htmlor

  • http://www.ted.com/talks/dan_ariely_asks_are_we_in_control_of_our_own_decisions.html

  • http://www.ted.com/talks/dan_ariely_asks_are_we_in_control_of_our_own_decisions.html

  • http://www.ted.com/talks/beau_lotto_optical_illusions_show_how_we_see.html

  • The red squares are the same colour and sizeSo why do they look different?

  • Which animal do you see?

  • Source: http://michaelbach.de/ot/

  • Perception does not record reality like a camera.

    Perception is a process by which we organize and interpret our sensory impressions in order to give meaning to our environment.S. Robbins (2005)

  • Optical illusions demonstrate the unreliability of our perception of objects.But rating is about the perception of individual persons in social situations.

  • We dont see things as they are, we see things as we are. (This is because it is the I behind the eye that does the seeing.)Anais Nin

  • http://viscog.beckman.uiuc.edu/grafs/demos/15.htmlVideo: BasketballTask: Count how often the white team is in possession of the ball.

  • http://edu.docdat.com/tw_files2/urls_11/371/d-370082/img9.jpg

  • How many different persons did you see? more than 15? more than 10? more than 5? less than 5?

  • The Difference between Seeing and Observinghttp://www.mariakonnikova.com/

  • Quite so, he (Sherlock Holmes) answered, lighting a cigarette, and throwing himself down into an armchair. You see, but you do not observe. The distinction is clear. For example, you have frequently seen the steps which lead up from the hall to this room.Frequently.How often?Well, some hundreds of times.Then how many are there?How many? I dont know.Quite so! You have not observed. And yet you have seen. That is just my point. Now, I know that there are seventeen steps, because I have both seen and observed.

    Arthur Conan Doyle, A Scandal in BohemiaThe Difference between Seeing and Observinghttp://blogs.scientificamerican.com/literally-psyched/2013/01/03/sherlock-holmes-the-mindful-detective/

  • Selective Perception People selectively interpret what they see based on their interests, background, experience, and attitudes. The perceiver singles out information that supports a prior belief but filters out contrary information.Rating Errors

  • IntelligentIndustriousImpulsiveCriticalStubbornEnviousEnviousStubbornCriticalImpulsiveIndustriousIntelligentThis person was rated more positivelyOne group read this description:Other group read this description:Primacy EffectAsch, S. E. (1946) Forming impressions of personality. J. abnorm. soc. Psych., 41, 258-290

  • Primacy Effect - ExplanationsAttention at a maximum when making initial impressions.Once we think we have formed an accurate impression of someone, we pay less attention to later behavioral evidence. Later information dismissed - its not viewed as typical.Early information affects meaning of later information. We interpret inconsistent information in light of the first impression.

  • Selective Perception People selectively interpret what they see based on their interests, background, experience, and attitudes. The perceiver singles out information that supports a prior belief but filters out contrary information.Primacy Effect Information presented early has more impact on impressions than information presented later.Recency Effect Tendency to give greater weight to recent performance and lesser weight to earlier performance.Rating Errors

  • Kelley, H.H. (1950). The warm-cold variable in first impressions of persons. Journal of Personality, 18, 431-439.Mr. XY is a graduate student in the Department of Economics and Social Science here at MIT. He has had three semesters of teaching experience in psychology at another college. This is his first semester teach EC 70. He is 26 years old, a veteran, and married. People who know him consider him to be a rather cold person, industrious, critical, practical, and determined.Mr. XY is a graduate student in the Department of Economics and Social Science here at MIT. He has had three semesters of teaching experience in psychology at another college. This is his first semester teach EC 70. He is 26 years old, a veteran, and married. People who know him consider him to be a very warm person, industrious, critical, practical, and determined.Example: Warm or Cold

  • Example: Warm or ColdHalo-EffectThe class got the same lecture, but at the end, when asked to rate Mr. XY for possible hiring as an instructor, the students who had read the description of a very warm person rated him as good-natured, considerate of others, informal, sociable, popular, humorous, and humane, while those who read that he was rather cold rated him as self-centered, formal, unsociable, unpopular, irritable, humorless, and ruthless.Kelley, H.H. (1950). The warm-cold variable in first impressions of persons. Journal of Personality, 18, 431-439.

  • Selective Perception People selectively interpret what they see based on their interests, background, experience, and attitudes. The perceiver singles out information that supports a prior belief but filters out contrary information.Primacy Effect Information presented early has more impact on impressions than information presented later.Recency Effect Tendency to give greater weight to recent performance and lesser weight to earlier performance.Halo- or Horns Effect Forming an overall impression about an individual based on a single characteristic.Similar to Me Effect People who are similar to me are evaluated more favorablyRating Errors

  • Rating ErrorsContrast/Context Evaluation of a persons characteristics is affected by comparisons with other individuals recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics.Projection People assign to others the characteristics or feelings that they possess themselves.Stereotyping Judging someone on the basis of ones perception of the group to which that persons belongs. Personal biases Unintentional discrimination based on age, sex, race, etc.Attribution Tendency to underestimate situational factors that may constrain the ratees performance.

  • Rating Errors Leniency Tendency to give ratings that are overly high (inflation) Severity Tendency to give ratings that are overly low (deflation) Central Tendency Tendency to avoid all extreme judgments and rate people and objects as average or neutral.

  • Selective Perception.Primacy EffectRecency Effect.Halo-or Horns EffectSimilar to Me EffectContrast/Context Projection Stereotyping Personal biases AttributionLeniency Severity Central Tendency Rating Errors - Overview

  • Selective Perception.Primacy EffectRecency Effect.Halo-or Horns EffectSimilar to Me EffectContrast/Context Projection Stereotyping Personal biases AttributionLeniency Severity Central Tendency Rating Errors - Overviewintentional unintentional

    **"Rotating snakes"Circular snakes appear to rotate 'spontaneously'.Copyright A.Kitaoka 2003 (September 2, 2003)Akiyoshi KITAOKA, Department of Psychology, Ritsumeikan University, Kyoto, Japan

    **