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  • 8/10/2019 Community HESI Study Guide

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    Community Study Guide for the HESI

    Keep in mind: This guide does not necessarily mean you will see these topics. There maybe other topics that are not included here. I just did an internet search to see which

    topics are most frequently covered and have tried to give you some pointers here.

    Review Healthy People 2020objectives in the chapters of your textbook- ust

    fami!iari"e yourse!f with them# $hese are the basis for community hea!th pro%rams# &a%e

    '() *(+

    ,eadin% Hea!th Indicators

    +# ccess to Hea!th Services

    *# C!inica! &reventative Services

    .# Environmenta! /ua!ity

    0# Injury and vio!ence

    1# 2aterna!) Infant) and Chi!d hea!th

    3# 2enta! hea!th4# 5utrition) physica! activity) and obesity

    '# 6ra! hea!th

    7# Reproductive and sexua! hea!th

    +(#Socia! determinants

    ++#Substance abuse

    +*#$obacco

    Population Groups across the Lifespan and their Health Risks

    Infants5umber + cause of injury or death is suffocation fo!!owed by 2otor 8ehic!e ccidentthen Homicide#

    Sudden Infant 9eath Syndrome

    Infection is the most si%nificant cause of i!!ness in infants and chi!dren#

    Vertical transmission of infection- Passage of a disease-causing agent(pathogen) from mother to baby during the period immediately beforeand after birth. Transmission might occur across the placenta, in thebreastmilk, or through direct contact during or after birth. Forexample, H! can be a "ertically transmitted pathogen. #lso kno$n

    as perinatal transmission.Children

    Oesity: Hea!thy peop!e objectives have addressed youth fitness and obesity 9efined by usin% ;2I which is a ratio of wei%ht to hei%ht

    Risks for childhood oesity !ere related to oesity in the parents

    6besity rates are hi%her in popu!ations such as 5ative merican) Hispanic) andfrican mericans %roups# ,ower socioeconomic %roups in urban settin%s

    http://www.medicinenet.com/breast_anatomy/article.htmhttp://www.medicinenet.com/breast_anatomy/article.htm
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    have been associated with hi%her rates#

    In"uries and #ccidents- 5umber one cause of death in a%es + : *0 yrs#2otor vehic!es accidents are the !eadin% cause of death amon% chi!dren and teena%ers#

    $oddlersexperience a !ar%e number of fa!!s) poisonin%s) and motor vehic!e accidents

    ,ead poison from !ead based paint in o!der homes is a hea!th concern#,ead has detrimenta! effects particu!ar!y on the neuro system#

    Can decrease It want ;,, ? 1mc%@d,

    Infant %ortality Rate& the measure most common!y used around the wor!d as anindicator of overa!! hea!th and avai!abi!ity of hea!th services# 2ay want to review how to

    ca!cu!ate it# Aof infants B+ who die@ A of !ive births in same year

    'chool a(e childrenhave the !owest injury death rate however) this %roup has difficu!tyjud%in% speed and distance) p!acin% them at risk for pedestrian and bicyc!e accidents#

    Vision screenin(in youn% chi!dren wou!d match shapes or co!ors#

    #dolescents& Injury accounts for 41D of a!! deaths and risk-takin% becomes more

    conscious at this time especia!!y amon% ma!es#

    'uicide is the second leadin( cause of death amon( youths et!een the a(es of )*

    and 2+, 'uicide is the third leadin( cause of death amon( youth et!een the a(es of

    )0 and 2+ years, Community health pro(rams for adolescents should focus on

    suicide preention,

    9eve!opin% a smokin% pro%ram for ado!escents- first want to determine the incidence of

    smokin% amon% the teena%ers in the community#

    %enomune accine%iven to adu!ts youn(er than .0, It prevents infection by certain

    %roups of menin%ococca! bacteria# 9ischar%e teachin%- %ive $y!eno!) watch for si%ns andsymptoms of reaction such as fever) behavior chan%e) sei"ures or difficu!ty breathin%#

    #cute Illness- a!so a si%nificant cause of i!!ness in chi!dren#

    Chronic Health Prolems- improved medica! techno!o%y has increased the number of

    chi!dren survivin% with chronic hea!th prob!ems# Examp!es 9own Syndrome) spina

    bifida) cerebra! pa!sy) asthma) diabetes) con%enita! heart disease) cancer) hemophi!ia)broncopu!monary dysp!asia) and I9S

    Routine immuni/ations hae een ery successful in preentin( selected diseases,

    Immuni/ation rates are the amount of people that (et scheduled accines, $hese

    rates are used as uality indicators of the health of the population, Reie! the

    immuni/ation schedule in children,11

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    Good nutrition is essentia! for hea!thy %rowth and deve!opment and inf!uences disease

    prevention in !ater !ife# e#%# Chi!dren and ado!escents ca!cium intake affects if they

    deve!op osteoporosis in adu!thood#

    omen

    $he women>s hea!th movement was pivota! in brin%in% nationa! reco%nition to women>shea!th issues#

    =omen have a !on%er !ife expectancy than men

    =omen are more !ike!y to have acute and chronic conditions that re/uire them to usemore services than men#

    frican-merican or b!ack women are statistica!!y more !ike!y to have poor hea!th

    outcomes because of poor understandin% of hea!th) !ack of access to hea!th care) and

    !ifesty!e practices#Heart disease !eadin% cause of death in women

    ,un% Cancer !eadin% cause of cancer in women and *nd!eadin% cause of death

    %en2en are physio!o%ica!!y the more vu!nerab!e %ender) shorter !ife span and hi%her infant

    morta!ity rate,ife expectancy of men in the FS is one of the !owest in the deve!oped countries

    2en en%a%e in more risk-takin% behaviors than women

    2en tend to avoid dia%nosis and treatment of i!!nesses that may resu!t in serious hea!thprob!ems

    3lderly

    Steadi!y %rowin% popu!ationIncrease in chronic conditions) demand for services) and strained hea!th care bud%ets

    2ore o!der adu!ts !ive in the community- %e in p!ace

    4urses address the chronic health concerns of elders !ith a focus on maintainin( or

    improin( self-care and preentin( complications to maintain the hi(hest possile

    uality of life,

    ssessin% the e!der!y incorporates physica!) psycho!o%ica!) socia!) and spiritua! domains#Individua! and community focused interventions invo!ve a!! three !eve!s of prevention

    throu%h co!!aborative practice#

    hat accines should the elderly receie and ho! often5

    -$etanus diphtheria eery )0 years

    -Influen/a accine annually

    -Pneumonia accine once after a(e 6* 7ask physician aout ooster eery * years8

    -Herpes 9oster 7shin(les8 one time dose at a(e 60,

    -Hep # and : for those at risk

    ;,', Healthcare prolems

    2ore than 0. mi!!ion peop!e in the Fnited States are uninsured) and many more simp!y

    !ack access to ade/uate hea!th care#

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    Hea!th care reform measures seek to make chan%es in the cost) /ua!ity) and access of the

    present system# Review $

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    Parish nurses nurses who respond to hea!th and we!!ness needs within the faith context

    of popu!ation of faith communities and are partners with the church in fu!fi!!in% the

    mission of hea!th ministry#

    Parish nursin( a community-based and popu!ation-focused professiona! nursin%

    practice with faith communities to promote who!e person hea!th to its parishionersusua!!y focused on primary prevention#

    Parish nurse coordinator a parish nurse who has comp!eted a certificate pro%ramdesi%ned to deve!op the nurse as a coordinator of a parish nursin% service#

    &arish nurse services respond to hea!th) hea!in%) and who!eness within the context of the

    church# !thou%h the emphasis is on hea!th promotion and disease prevention throu%houtthe !ife span) the spiritua! dimension of nursin% is centra! to the practice#

    $he parish nurse partners with the we!!ness committee and vo!unteers to p!an pro%rams

    and consider hea!th-re!ated concerns within faith communities

    $o promote a carin% faith community) usua! functions of the parish nurse inc!ude persona!hea!th counse!in%) hea!th teachin%) faci!itatin% !inka%es and referra!s to con%re%ation and

    community resources) advocatin% and encoura%in% support resources) and providin%

    pastora! care#

    &arish nurses co!!aborate to p!an) imp!ement) and eva!uate hea!th promotion activities

    considerin% the faith community>s be!iefs) ritua!s) and po!ity#Healthy People*(+(

    %uide!ines are basic to the partnerin% for the pro%rams#

    5urses workin% in the parish nursin% specia!ty must seek to attain ade/uate educationa!

    and ski!! preparation for the accountabi!ity to those served and to those who haveentrusted the nurse to serve

    5urses are encoura%ed to consider innovative approaches to creatin% carin% communities#$hese may be in con%re%ations as parish nurses) amon% severa! faith communities in a

    sin%!e !oca!e) or re%iona!!y or in partnership with other community a%encies or mode!s

    such as b!ock nursin%#

    $o sustain onese!f as a parish nurse hea!er) the nurse takes heed to hea! and nurture se!f

    whi!e supportin% individua!s) fami!ies) and con%re%ation communities in their hea!in%

    process#

    Hospice&pa!!iative system of hea!th care for termina!!y i!! peop!e takes p!ace in the

    home with fami!y invo!vement under the direction and supervision of hea!thprofessiona!s) especia!!y the visitin% nurse# Hospice care takes p!ace in the hospita! when

    severe comp!ications of termina! i!!ness occur or when fami!y becomes exhausted or does

    not fu!fi!! commitments# patient admitted into hospice usua!!y is expected to die within

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