Concepts and Techniques for Crafting and Executing Strategy

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Concepts and Techniques for Crafting and Executing Strategy

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<p>Concepts and Techniques for Crafting and Executing Strategy</p> <p>Section A: Introduction and Overview Chapter 1: What Is Strategy and Why Is It Important? Chapter 2: Charting a Company's Direction: Its Vision, Mission , Objectives, and Strategy Section B: Core Concepts and Analytical Tools Chapter 3: Evaluating a Company's External EnvironmentChapter 4: Evaluating a Company's Resources, Capabilities, and Competitiveness Section C: Crafting a StrategyChapter 5: The Five Generic Competitive Strategies Chapter 6: Strengthening a Company's Competitive Position Chapter 7: Strategies for Competing in International Markets Chapter 8: Corporate Strategy Chapter 9: Ethics, Corporate Social Responsibility, Environmental Sustainability, and Strategy Section D: Executing the Strategy Chapter 10: Building an Organization Capable of Good Strategy Execution Chapter 11: Managing Internal Operations Chapter 12: Corporate Culture and Leadership </p> <p>Chapter 1: What Is Strategy and Why Is It Important? The tasks of crafting and executing company strategies are the heart and soul of managing a business enterprise and winning in the marketplace. The key points to take away from this chapter include the following:</p> <p>1. A company's strategy is the game plan management is using to stake out a market position, conduct its operations, attract and please customers, compete successfully, and achieve the desired performance targets.</p> <p>2. The central thrust of a company's strategy is undertaking moves to build and strengthen the company's long-term competitive position and financial performance by competing differently from rivals and gaining a sustainable competitive advantage over them. </p> <p>3. A company achieves a sustainable competitive advantage when it can meet customer needs more effectively or efficiently than rivals and when the basis for this is durable, despite the best efforts of competitors to match or surpass this advantage. </p> <p>4. A company's strategy typically evolves over time, emerging from a blend of (1) proactive and deliberate actions on the part of company managers to improve the strategy and (2) reactive, as-needed adaptive responses to unanticipated developments and fresh market conditions. </p> <p>5. A company's business model is management's story line for how the strategy will be a moneymaker. It contains two crucial elements: (1) the customer value proposition a plan for satisfying customer wants and needs at a price customers will consider good value, and (2) the profit formula a plan for a cost structure that will enable the company to deliver the customer value proposition profitably. In effect, a company's business model sets forth the economic logic for making money in a particular business, given the company's current strategy. </p> <p>6. A winning strategy will pass three tests: (1) Fit (external, internal, and dynamic consistency), (2) Competitive Advantage (durable competitive advantage), and (3) Performance (outstanding financial and market performance).</p> <p>7. Crafting and executing strategy are core management functions. How well a company performs and the degree of market success it enjoys are directly attributable to the caliber of its strategy and the proficiency with which the strategy is executed. </p> <p>Chapter 2: Charting a Company's Direction: Its Vision, Mission , Objectives, and StrategyThe strategic management process consists of five interrelated and integrated stages:1. Developing a strategic vision of the company's future, a mission that defines the company's current purpose, and a set of core values to guide the pursuit of the vision and mission. This managerial step provides direction for the company, motivates and inspires company personnel, aligns and guides actions throughout the organization, and communicates to stakeholders management's aspirations for the company's future.</p> <p>2. Setting objectives to convert the vision and mission into performance targets and using the targeted results as yardsticks for measuring the company's performance. Objectives need to spell out how much of what kind of performance by when. Two broad types of objectives are required: financial objectives and strategic objectives. A balanced-scorecard approach provides a popular method for linking financial objectives to specific, measurable strategic objectives.</p> <p>3. Crafting a strategy to achieve the objectives and move the company along the strategic course that management has charted. Crafting deliberate strategy calls for strategic analysis, based on the business model. Crafting emergent strategy is a learning-by-doing process involving experimentation. Who participates in the process of crafting strategy depends on (1) whether the process is emergent or deliberate and (2) the level of strategy concerned. Deliberate strategies are mostly top-down, while emergent strategies are bottom-up, although both cases require two-way interaction between different types of managers. In large, diversified companies, there are four levels of strategy, each of which involves a corresponding level of management: corporate strategy (multibusiness strategy), business strategy (strategy for individual businesses that compete in a single industry), functional-area strategies within each business (e.g., marketing, R&amp;D, logistics), and operating strategies (for key operating units, such as manufacturing plants). Thus, strategy making is an inclusive, collaborative activity involving not only senior company executives but also the heads of major business divisions, functional-area managers, and operating managers on the frontlines. The larger and more diverse the operations of an enterprise, the more points of strategic initiative it has and the more levels of management that play a significant strategy-making role.</p> <p>4. Executing the chosen strategy and converting the strategic plan into action Managing the execution of strategy is an operations-oriented, make-things happen activity aimed at shaping the performance of core business activities in a strategy-supportive manner. Management's handling of the strategy implementation process can be considered successful if things go smoothly enough that the company meets or beats its strategic and financial performance targets and shows good progress in achieving management's strategic vision.</p> <p>5. Monitoring developments, evaluating performance, and initiating corrective adjustments in light of actual experience, changing conditions, new ideas, and new opportunities. This stage of the strategy management process is the trigger point for deciding whether to continue or change the company's vision and mission, objectives, strategy, and/or strategy execution methods.</p> <p>The sum of a company's strategic vision and mission, objectives, and strategy constitutes a strategic plan for coping with industry conditions, outcompeting rivals, meeting objectives, and making progress toward the strategic vision. A company whose strategic plan is based around ambitious stretch goals that require an unwavering commitment to do whatever it takes to achieve them is said to have strategic intent.</p> <p>Boards of directors have a duty to shareholders to play a vigilant role in overseeing management's handling of a company's strategy-making, strategy executing process. This entails four important obligations: (1) Critically appraise the company's direction, strategy, and strategy execution, (2) evaluate the caliber of senior executives' strategic leadership skills, (3) institute a compensation plan for top executives that rewards them for actions and results that serve stakeholder interests especially those of shareholders, and (4) ensure that the company issues accurate financial reports and has adequate financial controls.Section B: Core Concepts and Analytical ToolsChapter 3: Evaluating a Company's External EnvironmentThinking strategically about a company's external situation involves probing for answers to the following seven questions:</p> <p>1. Does the industry offer attractive opportunities for growth? Industries differ significantly on such factors as market size and growth rate, geographic scope, life-cycle stage, the number and sizes of sellers, industry capacity, and other conditions that describe the industry's demand-supply balance and opportunities for growth. Identifying the industry's basic economic features and growth potential sets the stage for the analysis to come, since they play an important role in determining an industry's potential for attractive profits.</p> <p>2. What kinds of competitive forces are industry members facing, and how strong is each force? The strength of competition is a composite of five forces: (1) competitive pressures stemming from the competitive jockeying among industry rivals, (2) competitive pressures associated with the market inroads being made by the sellers of substitutes, (3) competitive pressures associated with the threat of new entrants into the market, (4) competitive pressures stemming from supplier bargaining power, and (5) competitive pressures stemming from buyer bargaining. The nature and strength of the competitive pressures have to be examined force by force and their collective strength must be evaluated. The strongest forces, however, are the ultimate determinant of the intensity of the competitive pressure on industry profitability. Working through the five-forces model aids strategy makers in assessing how to insulate the company from the strongest forces, identify attractive arenas for expansion, or alter the competitive conditions so that they offer more favorable prospects for profitability.</p> <p>3. What factors are driving changes in the industry, and what impact will these changes have on competitive intensity and industry profitability? Industry and competitive conditions change because of a variety of forces, some coming from the industry's macro-environment and others originating within the industry. The most common change drivers include changes in the long-term industry growth rate, increasing globalization, changing buyer demographics, technological change, Internet-related developments, product and marketing innovation, entry or exit of major firms, diffusion of know-how, efficiency improvements in adjacent markets, reductions in uncertainty and business risk, government policy changes, and changing societal factors. Once an industry's change drivers have been identified, the analytical task becomes one of determining whether they are acting, individually and collectively, to make the industry environment more or less attractive. Are the change drivers causing demand for the industry's product to increase or decrease? Are they acting to make competition more or less intense? Will they lead to higher or lower industry profitability?</p> <p>4. What market positions do industry rivals occupywho is strongly positioned and who is not? Strategic group mapping is a valuable tool for understanding the similarities, differences, strengths, and weaknesses inherent in the market positions of rival companies. Rivals in the same or nearby strategic groups are close competitors, whereas companies in distant strategic groups usually pose little or no immediate threat. The lesson of strategic group mapping is that some positions on the map are more favorable than others. The profit potential of different strategic groups varies due to strengths and weaknesses in each groups market position. Often, industry competitive pressures and change drivers favor some strategic groups and hurt others.</p> <p>5. What strategic moves are rivals likely to make next? Scouting competitors well enough to anticipate their actions can help a company prepare effective countermoves (perhaps even beating a rival to the punch) and allows managers to take rivals' probable actions into account in designing their own company's best course of action. Managers who fail to study competitors risk being caught unprepared by the strategic moves of rivals.</p> <p>6. What are the key factors for competitive success? An industry's key success factors (KSFs) are the particular strategy elements, product attributes, operational approaches, resources, and competitive capabilities that all industry members must have in order to survive and prosper in the industry. (KSFs) vary by industry and may vary over time as well. For any industry, however, they can be deduced by answering three basic questions: (1) On what basis do buyers of the industry's product choose between the competing brands of sellers, (2) what resources and competitive capabilities must a company have to be competitively successful, and (3) what shortcomings are almost certain to put a company at a significant competitive disadvantage? Correctly diagnosing an industry's (KSFs) raises a company's chances of crafting a sound strategy.</p> <p>7. Does the outlook for the industry present the company with sufficiently attractive prospects for profitability? The last step in industry analysis is summing up the results from answering questions 1 to 6. If the answers reveal that a company's overall profit prospects in that industry are above average, then the industry environment is basically attractive for that company; if industry profit prospects are below average, conditions are unattractive for them. What may look like an attractive environment for one company may appear to be unattractive from the perspective of a different company.</p> <p>Clear, insightful diagnosis of a company's external situation is an essential first step in crafting strategies that are well matched to industry and competitive conditions. To do cutting-edge strategic thinking about the external environment, managers must know what questions to pose and what analytical tools to use in answering these questions. This is why this chapter has concentrated on suggesting the right questions to ask, explaining concepts and analytical approaches, and indicating the kinds of things to look for.</p> <p>Chapter 4: Evaluating a Company's Resources, Capabilities, and CompetitivenessThere are six key questions to consider in evaluating a company's ability to compete successfully against market rivals:</p> <p>1. How well is the present strategy working? This involves evaluating the strategy from a qualitative standpoint (completeness, internal consistency, rationale, and suitability to the situation) and also from a quantitative standpoint (the strategic and financial results the strategy is producing). The stronger a company's current overall performance, the less likely the need for radical strategy changes. The weaker a company's performance and/or the faster the changes in its external situation (which can be gleaned from industry and competitive forces analysis), the more its current strategy must be questioned.</p> <p>2. Do the company's resources and capabilities have sufficient competitive power to give it a sustainable advantage over competitors? The answer to this question comes from conducting the...</p>

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