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ASIPP Conceptual Design Activities of FDS Series Fusion Power Plants FDS Presented by Yican WU Contributed by FDS Team Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui, 230031, China; E-mail: [email protected] ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Y. Wu, presented at the First IAEA Technical Meeting on the First Generation of Fusion Power Plants, July 5-7, 2005, Vienna

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  • ASIPP

    Conceptual Design Activities of FDS Series Fusion Power Plants

    FDS

    Presented by Yican WU

    Contributed by FDS Team

    Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of SciencesP.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui, 230031, China;

    E-mail: [email protected]

    ______________________________________________________________________________________________________Y. Wu, presented at the First IAEA Technical Meeting on the First Generation of Fusion Power Plants, July 5-7, 2005, Vienna

  • ASIPP

    FDS Team Fusion Design StudyFusion Driven (Subcritical) System

    ASIPP Academia Sinica, Institute of Plasma Physics

    Wide collaboration with other institutions in China

    FDS

    For further details: Link to Website: http://www.fds.org.cn

    ______________________________________________________________________________________________________Y. Wu, presented at the First IAEA Technical Meeting on the First Generation of Fusion Power Plants, July 5-7, 2005, Vienna

  • ASIPPFDS

    1. Fusion Reactor Designs

    2. Blanket Concepts

    3. TBMs (Test Blanket Modules), Testing Strategy and R&D DFLL (Dual Function Lithium Lead) TBMs for ITER/EAST

    To validate and demonstrate the technology of He-cooled and He/LiPb dual-cooled liquid lithium lead breeder blanket.

    4. Design and Analysis Tools Development VisualBUS (MCAM, SNAM.HENDL) : Integrated Neutonics Analysis TOPCODE(SYSCODE+RiskA) : Integrated System Analysis

    Contents

    : a spherical tokamak-based reactor, to exploit innovative conceptual path FDS-ST: a high temperature fusion reactor, for hydrogen generation FDS-III: a fusion power reactor, for advanced electricity generation FDS-II

    : a fusion-driven sub-critical system, for early application of fusion e.g waste transmutation and fuel breeding etc.

    FDS-I

    : High Temperature Liquid Blanket (outlet temp. 900~1000C) HTL: Dual-coolant(He/LiPb) Lithium-Lead Breeder Blanket (outlet temp.~700C) DLL: Single-coolant (He) Lithium Lead Breeder Blanket (outlet temp.~450C) SLL: Dual-coolant (He/LiPb) Waste Transmutation Blanket (outlet temp.

  • FDS Fusion Reactor Designs

    : a spherical tokamak-based reactor, to exploit innovative conceptual path FDS-ST: a high temperature fusion reactor, for hydrogen generation FDS-III: a fusion power reactor, for advanced electricity generation FDS-II

    : a fusion-driven sub-critical system, for early application of fusion e.g waste transmutation and fuel breeding etc. Status of nuclear energy in China and in the world Advantages of a subcritical system

    FDS-I

    ______________________________________________________________________________________________________Y. Wu, presented at the First IAEA Technical Meeting on the First Generation of Fusion Power Plants, July 5-7, 2005, Vienna

  • ASIPPFDS

    Fission nuclear industry has been falling on hard times Nuclear radioactive waste disposal ? Nuclear fuel supply shortage ? Nuclear proliferation ?

    Fusion development still needs hard work to economical utilization although it has a good progress

    Great advances in plasma physics and technological experiments, R&D activities on fusion energy Fusion neutron source application New concepts on economical application of fusion Further efforts to economical fusion energy

    From the energy supply point of view, we have a big gap between fission energy and fusion energy ! From the technology development point of view, we need to pass am intermediate step to pure fusion energy

    There hardly is a possibility to make a commercial use of pure fusion energy before 2050. But we could have a near-term application of fusion as a neutron source (FDS-I).

    FDS-I Necessity: Nuclear Energy Status in the World

    What about a Hybrid ?______________________________________________________________________________________________________Y. Wu, presented at the First IAEA Technical Meeting on the First Generation of Fusion Power Plants, July 5-7, 2005, Vienna

    Yican WU,, Plasma Science & Technology, Vol.3, No.6 (2001).

  • ASIPPFDS

    FDS-I Necessity: Energy Demand Status in China

    Predicted Situation at 2050 in China:

    > Sum all over the world3601830High LevelSum in US, France and RF2401220Mid. Level

    Double in France120610Low Level

    Total Nucl. Power Capacity(Approximate Scale)

    Nucl. Power CapacityFraction BFraction AScenario

    Fraction A: Fraction of nucl. electricity in total electricity capacityFraction B: Fraction of nucl. electricity in total primary energy capacity

    Predicted Fraction and Capacity of Nuclear Energy Supply in 2050 in China

    : ~ 1200-1500 GWeInstalled Capacity: ~ 5 billion tons of tCEEnergy demand: ~ 6000-12000 billion US$Total GDP: ~ 1.5 billionPopulation

    Power supply shortage ?(in the present, nuclear electricity ~1%)

    Nuclear electricity should make an important contribution.

    Questions: How to solve these problems:

    Nuclear fuel supply ?

    Radioactive waste disposal ?

    Safety problem ?

    What about a Hybrid ?

    ______________________________________________________________________________________________________Y. Wu, presented at the First IAEA Technical Meeting on the First Generation of Fusion Power Plants, July 5-7, 2005, Vienna

  • ASIPPFDS

    FDS-I Advantages: Attractive Features of Subcritical systems

    Improve energy balance Energy amplification in fission blanket to easy the requirements of the plasma core and the relevant materials.Qt= Qp (0.2+ 0.8Qb); )1( eff

    eff

    fusion

    fissionb E

    EQ

    =

    Improve neutron balance Fusion Neutrons enabling excess neutrons available for

    Breeding fissile fuel Transmuting LLMA and LLFP

    : neutrons per fission (critical reactor)/keff : neutrons per fission (subcritical)

    Improve SafetySub-criticality allowing no critical accident risk and larger design marginkeff

  • ASIPPFDS

    FDS-I: the Fusion-Driven Subcritical System

    FusionFusion--Driven Hybrid SystemDriven Hybrid System

    a hybrid system for multi-applications

    early application of Fusion Neutron Source

    Fusion

    Core

    Fission

    Blanket

    Blanket functions: fuel breeding waste transmutation energy production other applications

    ______________________________________________________________________________________________________Y. Wu, presented at the First IAEA Technical Meeting on the First Generation of Fusion Power Plants, July 5-7, 2005, Vienna

    Yican WU, Fusion Eng. Des. 63-64 (2002) 73-80.

  • FDS-I: Fusion-Driven Subcritical SystemBased on Easy Plasma Physics/Engineering Level

    Core: fusion power=100~200MW, Neutron Wall Loading~0.5MW/m2

    Blanket : He/LiPb Dual-cooled Waste Transmutation (DWT) blanket

    FDSASIPP

    Goal: Early application of fusion (waste transmutation/energy)

    Functions: Inboard : tritium breeding Outboard : multifunctional (waste disposal, fuel breeding,energy generating, material testing etc.)

    Feasible plasma technology:low plasma core parameters(long-pulse/steady-state)

    Feasible material technology:low neutron wall loading(RAFM /316SS & He/LiPb) Reference 3-D model of FDS-I

    ______________________________________________________________________________________________________Y. Wu, presented at the First IAEA Technical Meeting on the First Generation of Fusion Power Plants, July 5-7, 2005, Vienna

    Y.C. WU et.al, J. of Nuclear Materials, 307-311 (2002) 1629-1636.

  • FDSASIPP

    Neutronics and Fuel Cycle Balance

    Neutronics Principle of DWT Blankets

    AC Zone(MA / Pu / U)

    FPZone

    (a)

    (b)

    (c)

    FP zoneAC (MA / Pu / U) zoneplasma(a) Transmute LLMA / Pu waste

    High energy neutrons (n, fission)

    (b) Breed fissile material (e.g. Pu239)Middle energy neutrons (n, )

    (c) Transmute LLFPThermal neutrons (n, )

    D + T

    neutrons

    ______________________________________________________________________________________________________Y. Wu, presented at the First IAEA Technical Meeting on the First Generation of Fusion Power Plants, July 5-7, 2005, Vienna

    Y.C. Wu et.al, Fusion Eng. Design, 63-64(2002)133-138.

  • FDSASIPP

    Ref

    eren

    ce

    3-D g

    eom

    etri

    cal m

    odel

    Design of DWT-CPL/OPG/NPG BlanketA series of design scenarios, with emphasis on circulating particle or pebble bed fuel configurations considering geometry complexity of tokamak, frequency of fuel discharge and reload (including design of an emergency fuel discharge sub-system to improve the safety potential of the system), are being evaluated and optimized.

    A design and its analysis on the He-gas and liquid LiPb DWT blanket with Carbide heavy nuclide Particle fuel in circulating Liquid LiPb coolant (DWT-CPL) has been studied for years.

    Other concepts such as the DWT blanket with Oxide heavy nuclide pebble bed fuel in circulating helium-Gas (DWT-OPG) and with Nitride heavy nuclide Particle fuel in circulating He-Gas (DWT-NPG) are also being investigated.

    DWT-CPL: The AC appears in the form of the TRISO(TRi-ISOtropic)-like carbide particles coated with SiC suspending in the LiPb slurry. The circulating fuel form has the advantages of good compatibility with complex geometry, easy control of fuel cycle and fast response to emergency fuel removal etc.

    ______________________________________________________________________________________________________Y. Wu, presented at the First IAEA Technical Meeting on the First Generation of Fusion Power Plants, July 5-7, 2005, Vienna

    Y.C. WU et.al, ISFNT-7, Tokyo, Japan (2005)