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Page 1: Connective Tissue - Alabama School of Fine Arts Tissue.pdf · Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper 1. Loose Connective Tissue a. areolar b. adipose c. reticular 2. Dense Connective

Connective Tissue

Page 2: Connective Tissue - Alabama School of Fine Arts Tissue.pdf · Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper 1. Loose Connective Tissue a. areolar b. adipose c. reticular 2. Dense Connective

Components of Connective Tissue

MatrixThe matrix of connective tissue

can composed of fibers which are produced by fibroblasts such as

-collegen -elastic -reticular

The matrix of connective tissue can also be composed of a substance called, ground substance.

- ground substance is a gel like matrix that surrounds the cells and fibers of the tissue.

CellsThe cells suspended in the matrix

vary from type to type. These cells include:

- fibroblasts (most common, produces fibers)

- plasma cells (a type of white blood cells)

- macrophages (a type of white blood cell, defense cells)

- adipocytes (fat cells)- lymphocytes (white blood cells)- chondrocytes (cartilage)- osteocytes (bone)- erythrocytes (red blood cells)- platelets

Page 3: Connective Tissue - Alabama School of Fine Arts Tissue.pdf · Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper 1. Loose Connective Tissue a. areolar b. adipose c. reticular 2. Dense Connective

Functions of Connective Tissue

1) establishing a structural framework for the body

2) transporting fluids and dissolved materials from in body

3) provides protection for delicate organs

4) supports, surrounds, and interconnects other tissue types

5) stores energy reserves (especially lipids)

6) defends the body from invasion

Page 4: Connective Tissue - Alabama School of Fine Arts Tissue.pdf · Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper 1. Loose Connective Tissue a. areolar b. adipose c. reticular 2. Dense Connective

Connective Tissue

Connective Tissue Proper

1. Loose Connective Tissue

a. areolar

b. adipose

c. reticular

2. Dense Connective Tissue

a. Regular

b. Irregular

c. Elastic

Specialized Connective Tissue

3. Hyaline cartilage

4. Elastic cartilage

5. Fibrocartilage

6. Bone

a. Compact

b. Spongy

7. Blood

Page 5: Connective Tissue - Alabama School of Fine Arts Tissue.pdf · Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper 1. Loose Connective Tissue a. areolar b. adipose c. reticular 2. Dense Connective

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Table 4.1 Comparison of Classes of Connective Tissues (1 of 2)

Page 6: Connective Tissue - Alabama School of Fine Arts Tissue.pdf · Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper 1. Loose Connective Tissue a. areolar b. adipose c. reticular 2. Dense Connective

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Table 4.1 Comparison of Classes of Connective Tissues (2 of 2)

Page 7: Connective Tissue - Alabama School of Fine Arts Tissue.pdf · Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper 1. Loose Connective Tissue a. areolar b. adipose c. reticular 2. Dense Connective

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 4.7 Areolar connective tissue: A prototype (model) connective tissue.

Macrophage

Fibroblast

Lymphocyte

Fat cellMast cell

Neutrophil

Capillary

Cell types ExtracellularmatrixFibers• Collagen fiber• Elastic fiber• Reticular fiber

Ground substance

Page 8: Connective Tissue - Alabama School of Fine Arts Tissue.pdf · Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper 1. Loose Connective Tissue a. areolar b. adipose c. reticular 2. Dense Connective

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 4.8a Connective tissues.

(a) Connective tissue proper: loose connective tissue, areolar

Description: Gel-like matrix with allthree fiber types; cells: fibroblasts,macrophages, mast cells, and somewhite blood cells.

Function: Wraps and cushionsorgans; its macrophages phagocytizebacteria; plays important role ininflammation; holds and conveystissue fluid.

Location: Widely distributed underepithelia of body, e.g., forms laminapropria of mucous membranes;packages organs; surroundscapillaries.

Photomicrograph: Areolar connective tissue, asoft packaging tissue of the body (300x).

Epithelium

Laminapropria

Fibroblastnuclei

Elasticfibers

Collagenfibers

Page 9: Connective Tissue - Alabama School of Fine Arts Tissue.pdf · Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper 1. Loose Connective Tissue a. areolar b. adipose c. reticular 2. Dense Connective

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 4.8b Connective tissues.

(b) Connective tissue proper: loose connective tissue, adipose

Description: Matrix as in areolar,but very sparse; closely packedadipocytes, or fat cells, havenucleus pushed to the side by largefat droplet.

Function: Provides reserve foodfuel; insulates against heat loss;supports and protects organs.

Location: Under skin in thehypodermis; around kidneys andeyeballs; within abdomen; in breasts.

Photomicrograph: Adipose tissue from thesubcutaneous layer under the skin (350x).

Nucleus offat cell

Vacuolecontainingfat droplet

Adiposetissue

Mammaryglands

Page 10: Connective Tissue - Alabama School of Fine Arts Tissue.pdf · Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper 1. Loose Connective Tissue a. areolar b. adipose c. reticular 2. Dense Connective

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 4.8c Connective tissues.

(c) Connective tissue proper: loose connective tissue, reticular

Description: Network of reticularfibers in a typical loose groundsubstance; reticular cells lie on thenetwork.

Function: Fibers form a soft internalskeleton (stroma) that supports othercell types including white blood cells,mast cells, and macrophages.

Location: Lymphoid organs (lymphnodes, bone marrow, and spleen).

Photomicrograph: Dark-staining network of reticularconnective tissue fibers forming the internal skeletonof the spleen (350x).

Spleen

White bloodcell(lymphocyte)

Reticularfibers

Page 11: Connective Tissue - Alabama School of Fine Arts Tissue.pdf · Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper 1. Loose Connective Tissue a. areolar b. adipose c. reticular 2. Dense Connective

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 4.8d Connective tissues.

(d) Connective tissue proper: dense connective tissue, dense regular

Description: Primarily parallelcollagen fibers; a few elastic fibers;major cell type is the fibroblast.

Function: Attaches muscles tobones or to muscles; attaches bonesto bones; withstands great tensilestress when pulling force is appliedin one direction.

Location: Tendons, mostligaments, aponeuroses.

Photomicrograph: Dense regular connectivetissue from a tendon (500x).

Shoulderjoint

Ligament

Tendon

Collagenfibers

Nuclei offibroblasts

Page 12: Connective Tissue - Alabama School of Fine Arts Tissue.pdf · Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper 1. Loose Connective Tissue a. areolar b. adipose c. reticular 2. Dense Connective

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 4.8e Connective tissues.

(e) Connective tissue proper: dense connective tissue, dense irregular

Description: Primarilyirregularly arranged collagenfibers; some elastic fibers;major cell type is the fibroblast.

Function: Able to withstandtension exerted in manydirections; provides structuralstrength.

Location: Fibrous capsules oforgans and of joints; dermis ofthe skin; submucosa ofdigestive tract.

Photomicrograph: Dense irregularconnective tissue from the dermis of theskin (400x).

Collagenfibers

Nuclei offibroblasts

Fibrousjointcapsule

Page 13: Connective Tissue - Alabama School of Fine Arts Tissue.pdf · Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper 1. Loose Connective Tissue a. areolar b. adipose c. reticular 2. Dense Connective

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 4.8f Connective tissues.

(f) Connective tissue proper: dense connective tissue, elastic

Description: Dense regularconnective tissue containing a highproportion of elastic fibers.

Function: Allows recoil of tissuefollowing stretching; maintainspulsatile flow of blood througharteries; aids passive recoil of lungsfollowing inspiration.

Location: Walls of large arteries;within certain ligaments associatedwith the vertebral column; within thewalls of the bronchial tubes.

Elastic fibers

Aorta

HeartPhotomicrograph: Elastic connective tissue inthe wall of the aorta (250x).

Page 14: Connective Tissue - Alabama School of Fine Arts Tissue.pdf · Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper 1. Loose Connective Tissue a. areolar b. adipose c. reticular 2. Dense Connective

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 4.8g Connective tissues.

(g) Cartilage: hyaline

Description: Amorphous but firmmatrix; collagen fibers form animperceptible network; chondroblastsproduce the matrix and when mature(chondrocytes) lie in lacunae.

Function: Supports and reinforces;has resilient cushioning properties;resists compressive stress.

Location: Forms most of theembryonic skeleton; covers the endsof long bones in joint cavities; formscostal cartilages of the ribs; cartilagesof the nose, trachea, and larynx.

Photomicrograph: Hyaline cartilage from thetrachea (750x).

Costalcartilages

Chondrocytein lacuna

Matrix

Page 15: Connective Tissue - Alabama School of Fine Arts Tissue.pdf · Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper 1. Loose Connective Tissue a. areolar b. adipose c. reticular 2. Dense Connective

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 4.8h Connective tissues.

(h) Cartilage: elastic

Description: Similar to hyalinecartilage, but more elastic fibersin matrix.

Function: Maintains the shapeof a structure while allowinggreat flexibility.

Location: Supports the externalear (pinna); epiglottis.

Photomicrograph: Elastic cartilage fromthe human ear pinna; forms the flexibleskeleton of the ear (800x).

Chondrocytein lacuna

Matrix

Page 16: Connective Tissue - Alabama School of Fine Arts Tissue.pdf · Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper 1. Loose Connective Tissue a. areolar b. adipose c. reticular 2. Dense Connective

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 4.8i Connective tissues.

(i) Cartilage: fibrocartilage

Description: Matrix similar tobut less firm than that in hyalinecartilage; thick collagen fiberspredominate.

Function: Tensile strengthwith the ability to absorbcompressive shock.

Location: Intervertebral discs;pubic symphysis; discs of kneejoint.

Photomicrograph: Fibrocartilage of anintervertebral disc (125x). Special stainingproduced the blue color seen.

Intervertebraldiscs

Chondrocytesin lacunae

Collagenfiber

Page 17: Connective Tissue - Alabama School of Fine Arts Tissue.pdf · Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper 1. Loose Connective Tissue a. areolar b. adipose c. reticular 2. Dense Connective

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 4.8j Connective tissues.

(j) Others: bone (osseous tissue)

Description: Hard, calcifiedmatrix containing many collagenfibers; osteocytes lie in lacunae.Very well vascularized.

Function: Bone supports andprotects (by enclosing);provides levers for the musclesto act on; stores calcium andother minerals and fat; marrowinside bones is the site for bloodcell formation (hematopoiesis).

Location: Bones

Photomicrograph: Cross-sectional viewof bone (125x).

Lacunae

Lamella

Centralcanal

Page 18: Connective Tissue - Alabama School of Fine Arts Tissue.pdf · Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper 1. Loose Connective Tissue a. areolar b. adipose c. reticular 2. Dense Connective

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 4.8k Connective tissues.

(k) Others: blood

Description: Red and whiteblood cells in a fluid matrix(plasma).

Function: Transport ofrespiratory gases, nutrients,wastes, and other substances.

Location: Contained withinblood vessels.

Photomicrograph: Smear of human blood (1860x); twowhite blood cells (neutrophil in upper left and lymphocytein lower right) are seen surrounded by red blood cells.

Neutrophil

Red bloodcells

Lymphocyte

Plasma

Page 19: Connective Tissue - Alabama School of Fine Arts Tissue.pdf · Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper 1. Loose Connective Tissue a. areolar b. adipose c. reticular 2. Dense Connective

What kind of tissue does this represent?

Where in the body can you find this tissue?

delicate thin layers between tissues; present in all mucous membranes

Areolar connective tissue

Page 20: Connective Tissue - Alabama School of Fine Arts Tissue.pdf · Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper 1. Loose Connective Tissue a. areolar b. adipose c. reticular 2. Dense Connective

What kind of tissue does this represent?

Where in the body can you find this tissue?

Adipose tissue

fat

Page 21: Connective Tissue - Alabama School of Fine Arts Tissue.pdf · Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper 1. Loose Connective Tissue a. areolar b. adipose c. reticular 2. Dense Connective

What kind of tissue does this represent?

Where in the body can you find this tissue?

Dense Regular connective tissue

tendons; ligaments

Page 22: Connective Tissue - Alabama School of Fine Arts Tissue.pdf · Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper 1. Loose Connective Tissue a. areolar b. adipose c. reticular 2. Dense Connective

What kind of tissue does this represent?

Where in the body can you find this tissue?

Hyaline cartilage

nose; ends of long bones; ribs

Page 23: Connective Tissue - Alabama School of Fine Arts Tissue.pdf · Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper 1. Loose Connective Tissue a. areolar b. adipose c. reticular 2. Dense Connective

What kind of tissue does this represent?

Where in the body can you find this tissue?

Elastic cartilage

outer ear; epiglottis

Page 24: Connective Tissue - Alabama School of Fine Arts Tissue.pdf · Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper 1. Loose Connective Tissue a. areolar b. adipose c. reticular 2. Dense Connective

What kind of tissue does this represent?

Where in the body can you find this tissue?

Fibrocartilage

between vertebrae; knee joints; pubic joint

Page 25: Connective Tissue - Alabama School of Fine Arts Tissue.pdf · Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper 1. Loose Connective Tissue a. areolar b. adipose c. reticular 2. Dense Connective

What kind of tissue does this represent?

Where in the body can you find this tissue?

Bone

outside of bones

Page 26: Connective Tissue - Alabama School of Fine Arts Tissue.pdf · Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper 1. Loose Connective Tissue a. areolar b. adipose c. reticular 2. Dense Connective

What kind of tissue does this represent?

Where in the body can you find this tissue?

Reticular Tissue

found around the liver, the kidney, the spleen, and lymph nodes, as well as in bone marrow

Page 27: Connective Tissue - Alabama School of Fine Arts Tissue.pdf · Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper 1. Loose Connective Tissue a. areolar b. adipose c. reticular 2. Dense Connective

What kind of tissue does this represent?

Where in the body can you find this tissue?

Blood

bloodstream

Page 28: Connective Tissue - Alabama School of Fine Arts Tissue.pdf · Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper 1. Loose Connective Tissue a. areolar b. adipose c. reticular 2. Dense Connective

What kind of tissue does this represent?

Where in the body can you find this tissue?

Spongy Bone

inside of bones

Page 29: Connective Tissue - Alabama School of Fine Arts Tissue.pdf · Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper 1. Loose Connective Tissue a. areolar b. adipose c. reticular 2. Dense Connective

What kind of tissue does this represent?

Where in the body can you find this tissue?walls of arteries and vocal cords

Elastic Connective Tissue

Page 30: Connective Tissue - Alabama School of Fine Arts Tissue.pdf · Connective Tissue Connective Tissue Proper 1. Loose Connective Tissue a. areolar b. adipose c. reticular 2. Dense Connective

What kind of tissue does this represent?Dense Irregular Connective Tissue

Where in the body can you find this tissue? In dermis of skin