context-free grammars are a subset of context-sensitive grammars

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Context-free grammars are a subset of context-sensitive grammars. Roger L. Costello February 16, 2014. Objective: Show that Type 2 is a subset of Type 1. Grammars: a brief refresher. A grammar is a concise way to specify a language. A language is a set of strings. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Context-free grammars are a subset of context-sensitive grammars

Context-free grammars are a subset of context-sensitive grammarsRoger L. CostelloFebruary 16, 20141Objective: Show that Type 2 is a subset of Type 12

Grammars: a brief refresherA grammar is a concise way to specify a language.A language is a set of strings. Example: This is an (infinite) language: {a, aa, aaa, }A grammar consists of a series of (rewrite) rules.Each rule has a left-hand side and a right-hand side. The two sides are separate by an arrow ().3Sample GrammarThe below grammar consists of five rules. The grammar generates the language: {ab, aab, abb, aaab, aaabb, aaabbb, } 4S ABA aAA aB bBB bGenerate a string from the grammar5S ABA aAA aB bBB bHere is a sequence of rules to generate: aab S AB aAB aaB aabGrammarRules with alternatesNotice in the above grammar there are two rules for A. Ditto for B.The two rules may be combined: the right-hand side will consist of a series of alternatives, separated by a vertical bar ( | ):6S ABA aAA aB bBB bGrammarS ABA aAA aB bBB bGrammarS ABA aA | aB bB | bEquivalent Grammarcombine As combine BsZero or more as and bsThe above grammar requires every string in the language contain at least one a and at least one b.What grammar would generate the language: zero or more as followed by zero of more bs?7GrammarS ABA aA | aB bB | bGenerate an empty stringQuestion: What grammar would generate the language: zero or more as followed by zero of more bs?Answer: Use rules that generate an empty string (a string of length zero).We denote an empty string by: This grammar generates the desired language:8GrammarS ABA aA | B bB | Generate both empty and non-emptyThis rule for A generates both empty and non-empty:9A aA | emptynon-emptyHow to read a rule10A aA | Read as: A may be replaced by aA or by an empty string.The arrow () is read as: may be replaced by.Terminal versus non-terminal symbols11A aA | Non-terminal symbols; these are symbols that may be replaced (further expanded).Terminal symbols; these are symbols that may not be replaced.NotationNon-terminal symbols: denoted by uppercase letters.Example: Q1, Q2, A, P, S denote non-terminal symbolsTerminal symbols: denoted by lowercase letters.Example: a, b, c denote terminal symbols12Context-sensitive grammarsEvery rule has this form: 13Q1AQ2 Q1PQ2contextcontextA is replaced by PContext-sensitive grammarsEvery rule has this form: Q1AQ2 Q1PQ2That is, some symbol A is rewritten to some symbol P while the surrounding (context) symbols Q1 and Q2 remain unchanged. Note: P can be multiple symbols.14Context-sensitive grammarsEvery rule has this form: Q1AQ2 Q1PQ2That is, some symbol A is rewritten to some symbol P while the surrounding (context) symbols Q1 and Q2 remain unchanged. Note: P can be multiple symbols. A must be a non-terminal. Q1, Q2, and P are either non-terminals or terminals.15Context-sensitive grammarsEvery rule has this form: Q1AQ2 Q1PQ2That is, some symbol A is rewritten to some symbol P while the surrounding (context) symbols Q1 and Q2 remain unchanged. Note: P can be multiple symbols. A must be a non-terminal. Q1, Q2, and P are either non-terminals or terminals.P must not be empty ().16Context-sensitive grammarsEvery rule has this form: Q1AQ2 Q1PQ2That is, some symbol A is rewritten to some symbol P while the surrounding (context) symbols Q1 and Q2 remain unchanged. Note: P can be multiple symbols. A must be a non-terminal. Q1, Q2, and P are either non-terminals or terminals.P must not be empty ().None of the rules lead to empty except possibly for a rule S , in which case S does not occur on the right-hand side of any rules.17Sample context-sensitive rule18S abcemptycontextS is replaced by abcSample context-sensitive rule19S aSQemptycontextS is replaced by aSQSample context-sensitive rule20bQc bbcccontextQ is replaced by bcSample context-sensitive rule21cQ ccemptyrightcontextQ is replaced by cSample context-sensitive rule22cc Qcemptyleftcontextc is replaced by QSwap c and Q23cQ cccc QcCollectively, the two rules swap c and Q.Sample context-sensitive grammarThe language generated by the below context-sensitive grammar is: anbncn24 abc | aSQbbccccQcSbQccQcc1.2.3.4.Grammar for anbncnGenerate a string from the grammar25Derivation of a3b3c3S (start)aSQ(rule 1)aaSQQ(rule 1)aaabcQQ(rule 1)aaabccQ(rule 3)aaabQcQ(rule 4)aaabbccQ(rule 2)aaabbccc(rule 3)aaabbQcc(rule 4)aaabbbccc(rule 2) abc | aSQbbccccQcSbQccQcc1.2.3.4.Grammar for anbncngenerated stringNext on the agendaWe have seen what context-sensitive grammars look like, and the restrictions imposed on them (e.g., the P in the right-hand side cant be empty).Now lets turn our attention to context-free grammars.26Context-free grammarsEvery rule has this form: 27A PemptycontextA is replaced by PContext-free grammarsEvery rule has this form: A PThat is, some symbol A is rewritten to some symbol P. A never has context it is context-free! P can be multiple symbols28Context-free grammarsEvery rule has this form: A PThat is, some symbol A is rewritten to some symbol P. A never has context it is context-free! P can be multiple symbols. A must be a non-terminal. P is any sequence of non-terminals and terminals.29Context-free grammarsEvery rule has this form: A PThat is, some symbol A is rewritten to some symbol P. A never has context it is context-free! P can be multiple symbols. A must be a non-terminal. P is any sequence of non-terminals and terminals.P may be empty ().30Next on the agendaNow we have seen context-sensitive grammars and context-free grammars.Now its time to compare them.31Compare the two types of grammars32Q1AQ2 Q1PQ2contextcontextA is replaced by PContext-sensitiveContext-freeA PemptycontextA is replaced by PA context-free rule is a context-sensitive rule without context, so context-free is a subset of context-sensitive; right?

Key Point33The P in a context-sensitive rule cannot be empty whereas the P in a context-free rule can be empty. So it is not an apples-to-apples comparison and we cannot claim that context-free is a subset of context-sensitive.

Context-free has an additional value34AQ1Q2PQ1Q2APContext-sensitiveContext-freeWhat is needed?What do we need to make the claim that a context-free rule is a special case (subset) of a context-sensitive rule?35Context-free without an empty PIf we can show that, for every context-free grammar there is an equivalent grammar that doesnt have an empty P, then we will have an apples-to-apples comparison. 36Need to show this37APContext-free rule with APEquivalent context-free rule without transform to an equivalent grammar2-step strategyUse a systematic procedure (i.e., algorithm) to find all the non-terminal symbols that generate empty ().Modify the grammar rules: eliminate the non-terminals found in step 1 and then modify the rules that use the eliminated non-terminals.

38A generates empty39A A generates empty and non-empty40A | aB generates empty41A B AProcedureFind the non-terminals that directly generate empty, i.e., those of this form: X Then find the non-terminals which have on their right-hand side exclusively symbols found in step 1, e.g., Y XThen find the non-terminals which have on their right-hand side exclusively symbols found in step 1 or step 2Repeat until no new non-terminals are found.42Closure algorithmThe procedure described on the previous slide is called a closure algorithm.We will find all the non-terminal symbols that produce empty () by using a closure algorithm. 432 steps to identify the non-terminalsOur closure algorithm identifies non-terminals that generate empty using these two steps:Initialization:If a rule has on its right-hand side, then the rules left-hand side non-terminal generates empty. Inference rule: If all the right-hand side members of a rule produce empty, then the rules left-hand side non-terminal produces empty.44Which non-terminals generate empty?Lets use the closure algorithm on the below grammar. The closure algorithm finds all the non-terminals that generate empty.45 A BCaAA DdSSAABCDGoal: Find the non-terminals that generate empty ()Round 1 (Initialization)46RuleProduces empty?S A BS CA A produces emptyA aB AC A DD dRound 2 (inference)47RuleProduces empty?S A BS CA A produces emptyA aB AB produces empty (because A produces empty)C A DD dRound 3 (inference)48RuleProduces empty?S A BS produces empty (because A and B produce empty)S CA A produces emptyA aB AB produces empty (because A produces empty)C A DD dRound 449Round 4 adds no additional members to the set.

RuleProduces empty?S A BS produces empty (because A and B produce empty)S CA A produces emptyA aB AB produces empty (because A produces empty)C A DD dNon-terminals that generate empty50 A BCaAA DdSSAABCDNon-terminals that generate empty: {A, B, S}Make the grammar context-sensitive-compliantOur goal is to modify the grammar so that it is a context-sensitive grammar. It will be both context-sensitive and context-free51 A BCaAA DdSSAABCDGrammar that conforms to the rules of context-sensitive grammars.OriginalModifiedRemove rules with on the right-hand sideRecall that context-sensitive grammars do not allow empty rules, except the start symbol may be empty. So we need to remove the empty rules:

52 A BCaAA DdSSAABCDRemove this ruleRemove referencesto empty non-terminalsSuppose a grammar has this empty rule:53X Remove it, per the previous slide. The following rule has X on its right-hand side:Y X Z So we must remove the X:Y Z Non-terminal could haveempty and non-empty rulesSuppose X has an empty and non-empty rule:54X | xThe X in the following rule could generate either empty or x:Y X Z Recall that we will remove X so there must be one rule for Y that omits X and one that does not:Y Z | X Z X is emptyX is non-emptyRecapConsider this rule: Q V NSuppose the clo