# control progress

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University of Western Australia

School of Civil and Resource Engineering

Project Management 362

16. Controlling progress during construction

Control

Project status

Feed-back controlFeed-forward control

University of Western AustraliaSchool of Civil and Resource Engineering 2003

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CONTROL

Monitoring the project provides the intelligence we need to makecontrol decisions.

Monitoring in itself is not control.

Using the intelligence i.e. the distilled information provided by CV andSV, allows us to decide and to act.

Remember, a decision NOT to act is a decision in itself.

Let us start this examination by considering the

information itself . . .

Consider a particular case of a project in the middle of

construction . . .

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This is the Gannt Chart for a 5 month project, with an estimated totalcost to the Contractor of \$1.2M.

The project has been under construction for 2 months.

The Contractor now wishes to estimate the status of the project, i.e.to determine the Schedule Variance, and the Cost Variance.

Note the data date at which time data and cost data are collected andquickly transmitted to the project manager.

The data will be compared, using the S-curve, which is the BCWS. . .

ESTIMATION OF PROJECT STATUS

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=BCWS

Est.Costoutlay

\$000

Cum.

cost =S-curve

data date

Now for the intelligence . . .

Estimation of project status

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Estimation of project status

First the Plan Data.

Note that the cost will be linearly distributed over theduration of each task.

Now the data reports, both time and cost . . .

PLANNED ACTUAL ANALYSIS

Totals: \$1200k \$470k \$450k \$450k +\$5k -\$15k

BudgetCost

%Complete

ACWP BCWS BCWP SV CV

A 100% \$100k 100% \$100k \$100k \$100k \$0k \$0k

B 75% \$200k 75% \$140k \$150k \$150k \$0k +\$10k

C 16.7% \$300k 15% \$90k \$50k \$45k -\$5k -\$45k

D 37.5% \$400k 40% \$140k \$150k \$160k +\$10k +\$20k

E 0% \$200k 0% \$0k \$0k \$0k \$0k \$0k

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75%

15%

45%

FIELD OFFICE

\$140k

\$90k

\$140k

A 100 \$100k B 75 \$140k

C 15 \$90k

D 45 \$140k

E 0 \$0k

Processing . . .

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Estimation of project status

The reported data, both % complete

Note that the cost data will again bedistributed linearly over the durationof each task.

Progress Bars to the

Gannt Chart . . .

PLANNED ACTUAL ANALYSIS

Totals: \$1200k \$470k \$450k \$450k +\$5k -\$15k

Budget

Cost

%

Complete

ACWP BCWS BCWP SV CV

A 100% \$100k 100% \$100k \$100k \$100k \$0k \$0k

B 75% \$200k 75% \$140k \$150k \$150k \$0k +\$10k

C 16.7% \$300k 15% \$90k \$50k \$45k -\$5k -\$45k

D 37.5% \$400k 40% \$140k \$150k \$160k +\$10k +\$20k

E 0% \$200k 0% \$0k \$0k \$0k \$0k \$0k

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Estimation of project status

Progress Bars are added to the Gannt Chart, thus:

So Tasks A and B appear to be o.k.

Also Task D appears to be o.k.

But Task C looks a bit suspicious, doesnt it.

Note that Task C is fairly costly, so we are warned.

Finally, weanalyse the

data . . .

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Estimation of project status

Finally, the analysis of the data,using the Plan and reported data.

Conclusions:

Project is slightly ahead of schedule, but

Project is running \$15,000 over budget.

PLANNED ACTUAL ANALYSIS

Totals: \$1200k \$470k \$450k \$450k +\$5k -\$15k

Budget

Cost

%

Complete

ACWP BCWS BCWP SV CV

A 100% \$100k 100% \$100k \$100k \$100k \$0k \$0k

B 75% \$200k 75% \$140k \$150k \$150k \$0k +\$10k

C 16.7% \$300k 15% \$90k \$50k \$45k -\$5k -\$45k

D 37.5% \$400k 40% \$140k \$150k \$160k +\$10k +\$20k

E 0% \$200k 0% \$0k \$0k \$0k \$0k \$0k

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FEED-BACK CONTROL

An engineering management system can be compared to a physicalsystem, e.g. air-conditioning, chemical processing, electrical, etc.

PLAN

SYSTEM

INPUT OUTPUT

Sensor(monitor)

Comparator

Using similar grahical representation, the management

system looks something like this . . .

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FEED-BACK CONTROL

PROJECT

PLAN

CONSTRUCTION

TEAM

ComparatorRegular Progressand Cost reports

PARTIALLY

COMPLETED

PROJECT

Correctiveaction

Action

By analogy with a physical system, the engineering management systemmy be represented thus:

Some lessons from the physical system:

need for prompt and accurate intelligence

compatibility of progress and cost data

prompt and carefully considered response to variance prompt application of corrective action

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FEED-FORWARD CONTROL

In a physical system, the engineer often employs feed-forward controlprocedures.

e.g. in air-conditioning, where daily or seasonal changes to outside

conditions are anticipated.e.g. in chemical systems, where anticipated changes in feed-stock aresignalled early, and corrective adjustment to reagents, or temperatures,or pressures are effected in advance of feed-back information.

So it is with management systems.

Industrial conditions, weather, road conditions, shortages of supply, etc,when anticipated, can be acted on.

Perhaps that is the artistic side the engineers life.

Now some general matters . . .

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Progressive refinement - rolling programmes

Changes to time and cost schedules occur in most contracts.

An orderly treatment of changes (Variations) is required to minimisedisruption of the contract, and to avoid disputes.

If a Provisional Sum (for contingencies) is included in the contract, thenchanges can be charged against this sum. Note that all parties,including Principal, must be in agreement with this procedure.

If a reasonable amount is entered against the PS, then the contract

does not appear to be exceeding budget if less than this Sum is utilised.

But note that changes may require re-programming of some tasks, andthat the critical path may be altered by this.

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Dealing with multiple contracts on one site

In large projects, two or more major contracts may be workingsimultaneously on site.

The contracts may be mutually dependent.

Therefore clear lines of responsibility must be defined for each contract,and must include time interfaces, technical interfaces, separate andjoint liabilities, etc.

These matters must be properly treated in the design anddocumentation.

Regardless, provisions should clearly define the need for each contractparty to liase and co-operate with all others.

When changes become necessary, all contract parties must be givenclear instructions on their changed position within their contracts.

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Integration of design and construction

When the classical organisational form prevails, the designermust treat construction procedures as vital to the project, anddesign accordingly.

When the design and construct organisational prevails, theresponsibility for such decisions resides with the contractor. Thisis the area in which many failures occur!

Remember that designers are frequently held responsible for site

failures, even though their responsibility does not apparentlyextend to this field of the project.

Documents must be clear on the delegation of responsibilities.

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Resource levelling

Resource levelling is concerned with using labour, materials, and plantcontinuously, and without erratic changes in resource quantities.

For example: 4 dozers for 3 days, then 2 dozers for 3 days, followed by 3dozers for 3 days is inefficient. This amounts to 27 dozer days, so it ismore efficient to use 27/9 = 3 dozers for the entire 9 days, if the schedulepermits.

A resource levelling procedure exists within MS-PROJECT for thispurpose.

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Include schedule refinement and control

The method of project control advocated in this course is basedon the Gannt Chart schedule.

The Chart should be under the control of a single party,responsible for all updating activities associated with theproject, including:

receipt and posting of progress reports from supervisors

and costing officers; changes to the schedule, and refinements as required;

preparation of status reports, for consideration and action bythe project management team.

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Running the Project

Regular meetings

Regular meetings, often on site, are essential for maintainingcontact with the project.

Minutes of such meetings provide an important record of whatwas happening, for future reference.

Appraisal of inspection and testing reports

It is useful for the results of inspections and tests to benoted to all parties, and recorded in the minutes of site

meetings.

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Skilled management of industrial relations

A good working knowledge of the general and site award conditionsrelevant to the project is important.

Remember that confidence of the workers in the skill of the engineer

is central to maintaining good site conditions.

Keep the Board of Management advised of progress and anyconcerns you have with the project.

Above all, seek advice on important matters. The Board will look

up to you when you show confidence in them.

Good luck with your projects in the future.

Thats enough for today. But next . . .

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NEXT

17. Waiting Line Models -

Queuing Theory!*\$*@*!!

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