cooking methods

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Year 10 Cooking methods, conduction convection and radiation, dry and moist heat methods

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  • 1.HOW IS FOOD COOKED?
    • There are 3 methods of heat transfer:
  • Radiation
  • Toaster and grilling food are good examples.
  • When heat is radiated it travels in straight lines and any object in its path becomes heated.
  • e.g. grilling, toasters and microwaving

2. HOW IS FOOD COOKED?

  • Conduction
  • Heating a pan on a hob is a good example.
  • Heat travels through a solid, e.g. the pan. Metal objects are good conductors of heat and so these are used in the making of saucepans.

3. HOW IS FOOD COOKED?

  • Convection
  • A gas oven or cooking in boiling water are good examples.
  • When heated, the particles of a liquid (e.g. water) or a gas (e.g. air) become lighter and rise, while colder particles sink to the bottom and are then heated in turn.
  • e.g. baking, roasting

4. Energy efficiency in the kitchen:

  • Gas cookers are cheaper and use less energy than electric cookers.
  • Microwaves use very little energy.
  • Toasters usually use less energy than a grill.
  • Only boil as much water as you need in a
  • kettle.
  • When the oven is on, try to cook several dishes at once.
  • Choose the correct size pan for the rings on the hob.
  • When boiling, dont use more water than is necessary, turn heat down once boiling, cover pan.
  • Choose appliances with a low wattage.

5. Moist heat

  • Moist-heat cooking methods use a liquid for cooking usually water, stock or steam.
  • T he advantage of steam is that it transfers more heat at the same temperature. As a result, the food cooks faster and fewer nutrients are lost.

6. Boiling

  • Cooking in a lot of liquid at a temperature of about 100 C.
  • Use as little water as possible to minimise the loss of vitamins and minerals. (REDUCE)
  • Save the cooking liquid for use in stocks, sauces and casseroles. (REUSE)

7. Poaching

  • Cooking in liquid at a temperature under the boiling point 75 95C.
  • Some loss of nutrients in veg due to the vitamins being boiled out into the liquid.

8. Steaming

  • Cooking at a temperature of about 100C in steam
  • The food and liquid separated.
  • Very little loss of vitamins as the food doesnt come into contact with water.

9. Stewing/braising

  • Stewing is adding all ingredients into a pot.
  • Often done over a long period of time, therefore less energy efficient.
  • Use leftover water for the sauce or as stock for soups. (REUSE)

10. Homework

  • Choose a recipe which using a moist method of cooking: boil, poach, steam, stew.
  • Write out the method with ingredients list and an equipment list and say which method of cooking you will be using.I want this handed in!!!
  • Bring in the ingredientsonMonday 9 thMayto make.
  • Recipe must be able to make within anhour !
  • Keep it simplesoup, steamed fish or veg, casserole, something with boiled potatoes.

11. Year 10s

  • Get your folders out
  • the green box on the
  • desk.
  • Sit in your place.
  • Get paper ready for
  • mind mapping dry heat
  • methods.

12. Dry heat

  • Heat is transferred through air or fat. The cooking temperature is between 120 150C.
  • Suitable for foods rich in proteins, like meat, fish and seafood and where a crust is desired.

13. Microwaves

  • Cooking with electromagnetic waves, either with or without a small amount of added liquid.
  • It is ideally suited for reheating food.

14. Roasting

  • Cooking with browning on the stove or in the oven with or without adding fat, at a temperature of 140 200C.
  • Roast at intense heat to seal the juices inside the meat, then cook at low heat until done. This reduces the loss of vitamins, minerals and moisture.

15. Sauting

  • Dry-heat cooking method in which heat is conducted by a small amount of fat (the food is kept in motion).

16. Grilling

  • Cooking with radiant heat or contact heat, with or without added fat.
  • Any fat in the meat drains out.
  • Vitamins are partially destroyed.

17. Baking

  • Hard digestible dough and crusts become light and easy to digest.
  • No loss of vitamins and minerals into any liquid.
  • Heat-sensitive vitamins are partially destroyed.

18. Fry cooking

  • Cooking with browning in hot oil at a temperature of 140 190C. The methods are defined according to the amount of fat used.
  • Correct frying of potatoes and vegetables preserves vitamins and minerals better than boiling or steaming, but increases the amount of fat and energy.

19. Deep fry

  • The food is entirely submerged in hot fat.
  • Fry as quickly as possible. Longer frying time increases fat absorption.
  • The smaller the food being fried, the greater the amount of fat absorbed.
  • Drain the food of oil before serving.

20. Pan fry

  • A special form of deep-frying; browning raw or prepared foods in shallow amounts of fat.

21. Stir fry

  • Traditional Chinese method for cooking food in a frying pan (e.g. wok) with a small amount of oil.

22. Canned vegetables

  • Never boil canned vegetables.
  • The best way to heat them is the microwave warm up the liquid first, then add the vegetables.
  • Avoid excessive stirring while warming.
  • Use the juice to cook the vegetables in, or add to soups or stocks.

23. Frozen vegetables

  • Never thaw them before cooking.
  • Heat the water first, then add the vegetables.
  • If you use them for cold food items, cook them thoroughly beforehand.
  • The best way to heat them is in the microwave (less vitamin loss).

24. Vitamin loss

  • Whenever possible, wash vegetables whole and before peeling under running water.
  • Peel thinly or cook with skin on.
  • Cut into large pieces.
  • Raw vegetables and fruit salads add a little lemon juice or vinegar to slow down vitamin C loss.
  • Use the smallest amount of water necessary.
  • Cook with the lid on.
  • Cook until just tender, not mushy.
  • Serve immediately. Keeping food warm causes a vitamin C loss of 4 17% every hour.

25. Homework

  • Choose a recipe which using a dry method of cooking: roast, saut, grill, bake or fry.
  • Write out the method with ingredients list and an equipment list and say which method of cooking you will be using.I want this handed in!!!
  • Bring in the ingredientsonMonday 16 thMayto make.
  • Recipe must be able to make within anhour !
  • Keep it simplecake, brownies, stir fry, bread, pizza.

26. Aim of todays lesson:

  • To produce a food product using a dry method of cooking.
  • Use your time wisely, I want to check drawers and cupboards by11.25am at the latest.
  • No ingredients:
  • Complete analysing a food product worksheet
  • Complete the packaging crossword
  • Complete the packaging exam worksheet
  • Complete the preservative and food spoilage worksheet