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Cooking Methods. Chapter 9. Heating and Cooking. There are three types of energy central to all cooking: Conduction Convection Radiation. Conduction. This is heat transfer by direct contact Example: Cooking a pancake in a skillet. Convection. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Cooking MethodsChapter 9

  • Heating and CookingThere are three types of energy central to all cooking:ConductionConvectionRadiation

  • ConductionThis is heat transfer by direct contactExample:Cooking a pancake in a skillet

  • ConvectionThis is the transfer of heat by the movement of air or liquidWarm air that rises forces the cool air to fall then displaced back to the top when it heats up and the process is continuous

  • RadiationThis type of heat transfer method uses infrared rays to strike and warm objects.Example the boiler heats the surface of food by radiation

  • How does heat affect food?Brings out flavor and aromaCan change the colorChanges the texture

  • Conventional Cooking TechniquesTwo different types

    1. Moist heat cooking: foods cooked in hot liquid or steam

    2. Dry heat cooking: foods cooked uncovered without added liquid or fat

  • Moist Heat CookingBoilingSimmeringSteamingPressure Cooking

  • BoilingCooking in a liquid that reached boiling point, when the liquid is producing large bubbles that rise to the surface and break.Nutrient loss is very high when using this methodSuitable for pasta and corn on the cob

  • SimmeringWhen a liquid rises gently and just begins to break the surfaceTo simmer foods we generally bring water to a boil and then reduce the heat so that food will simmerMore foods can be simmered than boiled

  • SPECIAL SIMMERING TECHNIQUESStewing: involves covering small pieces of food with liquid and covering until donePoaching: involves simmering whole foods such as eggs or fruit

  • SteamingA method of cooking foods over but not in boiling waterMany foods can be steamed Also it helps them retain their shape, color, flavor, and nutrients

  • Pressure CookingThis cooks food in steam under pressure and cause temps. Rise above boiling and in turn cooks food fasterBest to use on foods that take a long time to cookEX. Dry beans, soups, & non tender cuts of meat

  • Dry Heat MethodsRoasting & BakingBroilingPan-Broiling

  • Roasting and BakingInvolve foods being cooked in either a conventional or convection ovenRoasting usually involves cooking large tender cuts of meatBaking is the term used for cooking breads, cookies, and casseroles

  • BroilingRefers to food under direct heatWorks well with tender cuts of meatCooks quickly

  • Pan-broilingStove-top method of dry heat cooking. Includes foods such as hamburgers and tender cuts of steak

  • FryingInvolves cooking food in oil or solid fatDifferent types* Sauting* Pan-frying* Deep-fat frying

  • SautingThis is to brown or cook foods in a skillet with a small amount of fat.Low to medium heat is used

  • Pan-FryingSimilar to sauting but usually involves large pieces of meatFood may need to be turned several times during cooking process

  • Deep-Fat FryingAKA French FryingFood is immersed in hot fat and cooked until done.Note that fat had a Smoke Point this is the temperature that fat begins to break down and smoke. This means the oil is no longer good for cooking.

  • Combo MethodsCombining dry heat with moist heat cooking

    BraisingStir-frying

  • BraisingThis combines frying and then simmering to tenderize food and enhance flavor.Often used for less tender cuts of meat

  • Stir FryingAlso a combo of frying and moist heat cookingSmall pieces of meat are cooked is a small amount of oil. Liquid is added throughout this process.A wok is traditionally used