critical factors in technology

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  • 1. Critical FactorsinManaging Technology
    Neil Esgra
    Critical FactorsinManaging Technology
    Critical FactorsinManaging Technology

2. 2/12/2011
Neil Esgra
3. The Creativity Factor
Invention and Innovation
4. Technology is an expression of human creativity. Managing technology involves continuous effort in creating technology, developing novel products and service, and successfully marketing them. This requires great creativity along with a system designed to exploit it.
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5. It also requires an investment in research and development. R&D is a costly endeavor. It is a risky investment and therefore needs to be well managed.
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6. However, it is an investment in the future that cannot be neglected, nor can its value be underestimated. Technology creation and exploitation require a chain of events, starting with inventions and ending at the marketplace.
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8. Invention
Invention is either a concept or the creation of a novel technology. It could be a product, a process, or a previously unknown system.
The steam engine, the transistor, and the Xerox machine are examples of important inventions.
A new composite material, a new manufactured product, and a new process constitute inventions.
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10. Innovation
Innovation involves the creation of a product, service, or process that is new to an organization. It is the introduction into the marketplace, either by utilization or by commercialization, of a new product, service, or process.
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11. It does not have to be new to the world; rather, it is viewed as the first use of an idea within an organization, whether or not the idea has been adopted by other organizations already.
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12. The technology (or the product) need not be novel or groundbreaking.
An innovation may be a change in industrial practice, which improve productivity.
Successful innovation is a feat not of intellect but of will.
The innovation process involves integration of existing technology and inventions to create a new or improved product, process, or system.
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14. Invention and Innovation
An invention can be thought of as an event, while innovation can be thought of as a process.
Inventions are not as common, and one invention usually precedes a number of innovations.
Innovation represents the important connection between an idea and its exploitation or commercialization.
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15. Technological innovation includes the initiation of the technical idea, the acquisition of the necessary knowledge, its transformation into usable hardware or procedure, and its introduction into society and its diffusion and adoption to the point where its impact is significant.
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16. The bottom line of innovation is the market, which will buy or ignore it, thereby dictating success or failure. Management of Technology encourages invention and the management of innovation. Both are creative processes representing essential components of any technology creation and application system.
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18. The Link BetweenScience and Technology
19. Science deals with understanding the laws of nature. This leads to the discovery of fundamental knowledge about the world, the universe, and all living things. Scientific knowledge focused on natural phenomena is neutral on the question of how this knowledge may be used. It is when scientific knowledge is applied to the things we do in life that knowledge enters the realm of technology.
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20. Components of an Innovation Cycle
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21. Types of Innovation
22. Innovations can be classified as:
Radical or Revolutionary
-breakthrough innovations that are usually based on invention.

  • They change or create new industries.

23. They arerelatively rare and typically start outside the boundaries of a firm. 24. When they are developed within the boundaries of a firm, they signify the introduction of something that is not only new to the organization but drastically different from its existing practices.2/12/2011
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25. Incremental or Evolutionary
- These are small but important improvements in a product, process or service.

  • They are relatively common and are created within the firms of an industry.

26. They help companies maintain a competitive position in the marketplace.- Routine innovation is another term sometimes used to refer to the introduction of something that is new to an organization but very similar to what it had in the past.
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27. Creativity and Innovation
28. Innovation is associated with the creation of value or the satisfaction of a customer need.
Creativity is the engine of innovation.
The essence of creativity is combining two or more ideas to arrive at an entirely new one.
Creativity favors the prepared mind and is often inspired by a sense of dissatisfaction with existing practice.
Creativity depends on both people and environment.
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29. A creative environment has the following characteristics:
Permits people to work in areas of their greatest interest.
Encourages employees to have broad contact with stimulating colleagues.
Allows taking moderate risks.
Tolerates some failures and nonconformity.
Provides appropriate rewards and recognition.
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30. The following characteristics exists in creative people who can convert their thoughts into innovation:
The ability to produce a large number of ideas quickly.
The ability to generate original and unusual ideas.
Conceptual fluency
The ability to standout and be a little deviant from others.
Interest in the problem one faces.
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31. the ability to separate source from the content in evaluating information.
Perseverance in following problems wherever they lead.
Suspension of judgement and no early commitment.
The willingness to spend time analyzing and exploring.
A genuine regard for intellectual and cognitive matters.
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32. Bringing Innovation to the Market
Bringing Innovation to the Market
33. The manipulation of the different stages of the innovation cycles sequence ofevents is an important and effective weapon.
The sooner an innovation reaches the marketplace, the sooner a company can reap its rewards.
However, a company that owns a technological innovation may want either to delay or to speed up the diffusion of technology in the marketplace in order to exploit its benefits
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34. Technology Price Relationship
35. When an entity such as a company has a technological advantage, it is able to command a premium price for its technology.
The magnitude of this premium is dependent on the value of the technology to customers.
If the knowledge gap between company and the customer is high, the owner can command a high price for it.
However, as the customer gains experience with the technology, the knowledge gap shrinks.
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36. The Timing Factor
The Osborne Computer Company
37. One of the factors of vital concern in proper management of technology is the timely creation and introduction into the marketplace. Equally important is the introduction of follow up technology that will improve performance. Continuous improvement of products and the production capability of the corporation are vital to the firms health and survival. Actions must be taken at the right time if an enterprise is to succeed in a competitive marketplace.
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38. The Osborne Computer Corporation
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39. For manufacturing and service organizations, time based competition (TBC) is an important competitive weapon for achieving world class status.
TBC focuses on the entire value delivery system to reduce the time required to deliver a product or service.
Manufacturing organizations have switched to just in time (JIT) systems to compress time wasted in production and facilitate quick response to customer demands
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40. The Vision to Change Strategy
The Vision to Change Strategy
IBM and the Development of the PC
Microsoft and the Internet
41. When a company has a strong market and its revenues are good, management tends to lose sight of environmental changes that may affect the companys competitive position and sometimes even its survival.
It is very common for managers to be drawn into the routine day to day problems of running a business. This can make them lose their vision for change and enthusiasm for innovation.
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42. Short term successes can mask the need for change.
The old adage If its not broken, dont fix it may lead management to maintain the status quo.
In todays world of fast paced technological change, this can be a very dangerous posture to take, an attitude that can lead to loss of competitiveness.
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43. IBM and the Development of the PC
Microsoft and the Internet
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44. Managing Change
45. The key i

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