cross border communication / cooperation and the entrepreneurial personality

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Cross Border Communication / Cooperation and The Entrepreneurial Personality. El Paso – Ciudad Ju árez. COMMON SOURCES OF EXPLANATIONS FOR POLITICAL PHENOMENA. Three level explanations and combinations Kenneth Waltz, Man, the State and War Systemic explanations: The First Image - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • Cross Border Communication / Cooperation andThe Entrepreneurial Personality

    El Paso Ciudad Jurez

  • COMMON SOURCES OF EXPLANATIONS FOR POLITICAL PHENOMENAThree level explanations and combinationsKenneth Waltz, Man, the State and WarSystemic explanations: The First ImageKenneth Waltz, Theory of International PoliticsDomestic politics: The Second ImageRobert D. Putnam, The Logic of Two Level GamesPeter Gourevitch, The Second Image Reversed: The International Sources of Domestic PoliticsThe Individual: The Third ImageJohn Stoessinger, Why Nations go to War

  • MAIN ARGUMENTIn environments with poor institutional development, communication and cooperation depend heavily on specific individuals and these wax and wane on the presence or absence, health or illness, willingness or unwillingness, interest or lack of interest, and capacity or lack of capacity (diplomatic or otherwise) of specific individualsThe applicable model is muddling throughCharles E. Lindblom, The Science of Muddling Through

  • HYPOTHESESThe lesser the existence of cross border institutions or bureaucratic mechanisms for interaction, the more cross border communication and cooperation depend on entrepreneurial personalitiesThe absence of entrepreneurial personalities brings about the absence of cross border cooperation and communication in the same proportion to that absenceThe more cross border communication or cooperation depends on entrepreneurial personalities, the more it is likely to die off when individuals become absent or ill, lose interest or willingness, or reach capacity or competence limitations either personal or political

  • Some Definitions:Political Entrepreneurssomeone (usually active in the fields of either politics or business) who founds a new political project, group, or political partya businessman who seeks to gain profit through subsidies, protectionism, government contracts, or other such favorable arrangements with government through political influence. a political actor (not necessarily a politician) who seeks to further his or her own political career and popularity by pursuing the creation of policy that may or may not please the populace.

  • Some Definitions:Local Cross Border Communication / CooperationLocal cross Border Communication / CooperationCross border communication consists in the establishment of regularized interactions both formal and informal between public officials and bureaucrats with the ability to affect policyCross border cooperation consists in the establishment of standard operating procedures between two governmental entities across borders

  • OUR CASE: the dependent variableEl Paso / Ciudad JurezHow developed are the local institutional structures in El Paso / Ciudad Jurez?

  • OUR CASE: The independent variablesEl Paso / Ciudad JurezHow much do cross border communication and cooperation at the local level depend on individuals (political entrepreneurs) rather than institutions?

  • The institutionalized borderThe term Regio comes from the Latin "regere", meaning to draw a line or border. In ancient Rome the "Regio" was used for demarcating an area rather than governing it. It did not correspond to any legislative or governmental institution.Even today Euroregions and other forms of transfrontier co-operation structures do not create a new type of government at transfrontier level. They do not have political powers and their work is limited to the competences of the local and regional authorities which constitute them.Within the limits of the geographical scope of co-operation (the "Regio"), the transfrontier structures are arrangements for co-operation between units of local or regional government across the border in order to promote common interests and enhance the living standards of the border populations.Source: Council of Europe

  • The non-institutionalized borderNorth America: Poorly and randomly institutionalizedEmmanuel Brunet-Jailly, University of Victoria Tony Payan, University of Texas at El Paso Gary Sawchuk Policy Research Initiative,The Emergence of CBRs along the Mexican-US Border and in Europe (2008)Institutions are functional not on the basis of regularized cross-border bureaucracies but rather on the basis of individuals who choose to use themMost institutions are bilateral not binational, which reinforces the idea of separation rather than unitySergio Pea, Cross Border Planning on the U.S.-Mexico Border: Bilateral vs. Binational Agencies

  • Institutional Development in El Paso / Ciudad JurezEl Paso Ciudad JurezLocal levelLow / nearly absent institutional developmentAbsence of regularized cross border communication routinesAbsence of regularized cooperation mechanismsLoss of autonomy over time / presence of a democratic deficitAbsence of institutions at the state levelLow / nearly absent institutional developmentGovernors Annual Meeting / Larger context with a diluted state level agendaStronger presence of institutions at the federal levelDepartment of State / Secretara de Relaciones ExterioresU.S.-Mexico Border Transportation PlanningInternational Boundary and Water CommissionNorth American Development Bank / Border Environmental Cooperation Comm.Various Joint Working GroupsNorth American Free Trade Agreement Smart Border: 22 Point AgreementSecurity and Prosperity PartnershipCivil Society institutional agenda

  • The FindingsCreation of a new discourseThe construction of a single communityPersonal InterestCreativityWillingness to pay a political costOvercoming obstaclesFearLanguageDiffering electoral terms

  • The Creation of a New DiscourseMayor John Cookproclaimed, Tuesday, March 21, 2006 as the "Benito Juarez DayAt the request of Mayor Cook, churches in El Paso will include a prayer for Ciudad JuarezToday, both Ciudad Juarez and El Paso are moving aggressively forward in our efforts to re-vitalize our downtownsLater, Mayor Cook and Senator Shapleigh joined with representatives of Ciudad Juarez 's municipal government to appeal for a united, cross-border front against a reopened smelter

  • Personal InterestEl Paso Mayor Cook saidpeople outside the region don't understand the "symbiotic relationship" between border communities dependent on mutual economic, academic and social exchangesMayor Cook instituted bimonthly regular meetings between mayorsMayor Cook created the Cross Border Relations CommitteeInitiative to create the Binational Cross Border CommitteeUnprecedented number of visits to Ciudad Jurez and continued presence in mutual eventsAppointment of Dr. Tony Payan to lead the international bridge effort

  • Creativity: An exampleThe 31 May 2007 MeetingFederal and State rules: The Open Meetings ActConsultations with the Texas Attorney GeneralThe 1 July 2008 City Councils Meeting

  • Creativity: An ExampleBi-monthly Mayors MeetingAlternating between El Paso and Ciudad JurezCity Councils Meeting1 July 2008

  • Creativity: An exampleCommunication and Notification PlanNegotiated and signed by the mayors on 25 June 2007Communication / Notification onlyNo integrated operating proceduresLegal and liability rulesPrejudices: I did not sign up to fight fires in Ciudad Jurez

  • Willingness to Pay a Political CostIn the end, our countrys border is not something that divides us but rather something that brings us together. A fence is not the solution. We need to pursue better agreements with Mexico regarding immigration, look at alternate ways to combat the illegal trade of humans and drugs and keep our precious environment safeSource: Mayor John Cook on the Border Wall

  • Overcoming Obstacles: Differing electoral termsFearPhone call regarding the City Councils reluctance to travel to Ciudad Jurez

  • Overcoming Obstacles: Differing electoral termsMayor John F. Cook is not bilingualThis has not deterred Mayor Cook from establishing numerous contacts with his counterparts in Ciudad JurezMayor Cook does not pretend to speak Spanish nor does he pronounce token words eitherThe use of translators has become very common

  • Overcoming Obstacles: Differing electoral termsMayor John Cook (El Paso)2005-2008

    Mayor Hctor Murgua (Ciudad Jurez)2004-2007Mayor Jos Reyes Ferriz (Ciudad Jurez)2007-2010

  • What if Mayor Cook were missing?Would new mayors pursue the same integrative goals?History shows that not everyone is willing to recognize the high degree of local interdependence but are willing to ignore itOther mayors have not pursued relationships this close, which reinforces that much of the cross-border contacts remain the initiative of Mayor CookMistake: institutionalized contacts remain elusive because the constraints are considerable for local governments


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