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<p>Published by State University of New York Press, Albany 201 1 State University of New York All rights reserved Printed in t he Uni ted States of America No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission. No part of this book may be stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means induding electronic, electrostatic, magnetic. tape, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior permission in wri t ing of the publisher. For infonnation, contact State Un iversity of New York Press, Albany, NY www.sunypress.edu Production by Kelli \'!./. LeRoux Marketing by Anne !vi. Valentine Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Orlov, Andrei A. D(lrk mirrors : Azazd and Sat:anael in e ( l ~ l y jewish demonology/ Andrei A. Orlov. p. em. Includes bibliogr.lphical references and indt&gt;x. ISBN 978-1-4384-3951-8 (hardcover : alk. paper) I. Jewish demonology. 2. Azazel (Jewish mythology) 3. Devi l. 4. Apocalypse of Abraham-Crit icism, interpretation, etc. 5. Slavonic book of Enoch-Crit icism, interpretation, etc. 6. Apocryphal books (Old Testament)-Translations into Slavic-History and critkism. I. Tide. BM645.D45075 2011 2963' 16-dc22 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 I 2011007661 Contents Preface Abbreviations Introduction Lighdess Shadows: Symmetry of Good and Evi l in Early Jewish Demonology Part 1: Azazel "The Likeness of Heaven": Kavod of Azazel in the Apocalypse of Abraham EschatOlogical Yom Kippur in the Apocalypse of Abraham: The Scapegoat Ritual The Garment of Azazel in the Apocalypse of Abraham Part II : Satanael The Watchers of Satanael: The Fallen Angels Traditions ix xi 11 27 47 in 2 (Slavonic) Enoch 85 Satan and dle Visionary: Apocalyptic Roles of the Adversary in the Temptation Narrative of the Gospel of Matthew 107 The Flooded Arborewms: The Garden Traditions in the Slavonic Version of 3 Baruch and the Book of Giams 113 vii viii Notes Bibliography Index Contents 127 179 197 Preface Along with unpublished studies d1is book contains several essays previously published in journals and collections inaccessible to many interested readers. The essays were originally published as follows: "The Flooded Arboretums: The Garden Traditions in the Slavonic Version of 3 Baruch and in the Book of Giants," Catholic Biblical Q11arterly 65 (2003): 184-201. "The Eschatological Yom Kippur in the Apocalypse of Abraham: TI1e Scapegoat Ri tual," Symbola Caelestis: Le symbolisme liturgique et paraliturgique dans le monde chretien (Scrinium V; eds. Andrei Orlov and Basil Lourie; Piscataway: Gorgias Press, 2009), 79- 11 1. "The Watchers of Satanail: The Fallen Angels Traditions in 2 (Slavonic) Enoch," in A. Orlov, Divine Manifestations in the Slavonic Pseudepigmpha (Orientalia Judaica Christiana, 2; Piscataway: Gorgias Press, 2009), 237- 68. "'TI1e Likeness of Heaven': Kavod of Azazel in the Apocalypse of Abraham," \Vith Letters of Light: Studies in the Dead Sea Scrolls, Early ] ewish Apocalypticism, Magic and M)sticism (Eksrasis: Religious Experience from Antiquity to the Middle Ages, 2; eds. Daphna Arbel and Andrei Orlov; Berlin/New York: De Gruyter, 2010), 232- 53. I wish to express my sincere gratitude to the Catholic Bibli cal Association of America, Gorgias Press and Walter de Gruyter Publishers for permission tO reproduce the essays. The fo rmat and d1e style of d1e original publications have been changed to comply wid1 the standards of the collection. Some alterations also have been made clue to printing errors or obvious errors of fact. Some footnotes have been omi tted as they appeared in more than one essay. I would like ro express my appreciation to Phillip Anderas, Deirdre Dempsey, Basil Lourie, Oleg Makariev, Amy Ricluer, Kristine Ruffatto, and ix X Preface Nikolai Seleznyov who read various parts of the manuscript and offered numerous helpful suggestions. I am grateful to Art Resource, N.Y., for permission to use an iUustration from a fifteenth-century antiphonary from M useo dell'Opera del Duomo (Florence, Iraly) as the cover image. Sincere thanks are also due to Nancy Ellegare, Kelli Will iams-LeRoux, and the editorial team of SUNY Press for their help, pat ience and professionalism duri ng preparation of the book for publication. AAWG AB ABAW AGAJU AI An Bib ANRW AOASH ArBib AsSeign AT ANT AThR ATJ AUSS BBET BBR BETL Bib B]S BN BR Abbreviations Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen Anchor Bible Abhandlungen der Bayrischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Arbeiten zur Geschich te des antiken Judentums und des Urchristenrums Acta lranica Analecta biblica Aufstieg und Niedergang der Romischen Welt Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae Aramaic Bible Assemblees du Seigneur Abhandl ungen zut Theologie des Alten und Neuen Testamems Anglican Theological Review Ashland Theological Journal Andrews University Seminary Studies Beirrage zur biblischen Exegese und Theologie Bullet in for Biblical Research Bibliotheca ephemerid-um theologicarum lovaniensium Biblica Brown Judaic Studies Biblische Notizen Biblical Research xi xii BSac BSJS BSOAS BTB BVC BWANT BZ CBQ CBQMS Comm ConBNT CQR CRlNT csco CTQ DJ D DSD DT EB EJL Ekstasis Erjb ETS EvQ EvT ExpTim FAT GCS HM HR Abbreviations Bibliotheca sacra Brill's Series in jewish S tudies Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies Biblical Theology Bulletin Bible et vie chretienne Beitrlige zur Wissenschaft vom Alten und Neuen Testament Biblische Zei tschrift Catholic Biblical Quarterly Catholic Biblical Quarterly Monograph Series Communio Coniectanea neotestamemica or Coniectanea biblica: New Teswment Series Church Quarterly Review Compendia rerum iudaicarum ad Novum Testamentum Corpus Scriptorum Chrisrianorum Orienrali um Concordia Theological Quarterly Discoveries in the J udaean Desert Dead Sea Discoveries Deutsche Theologie Eichstlitter Beitrage. Schriftenreihe der Katholischen Universitlit Eichstatt Early Judaism and its Literature Ekstasis: Religious Experience from Antiquity to the Middle Ages Era nos J ahrbuch E1furrer Theologische Studien Evangelical Quarterly Evangelische Theologie Expository T1mes Forschungen zum Aleen Testament Griechischen christl ichen Schriftsteller der ersren J ahrhunderte Hallische Monographien History of Religion HSM HSS HTR HUCA HUCM IEJ lmm lnt )AAR JAOS JATS JBL )CPS JECS JHI JJS JJTP .JQR .J R JRS JRT JSHRZ JSJ JSJSS JSNT JSNTSup JSQ JSP JSPSS JSSSS Abbreviations xiii Harvard Semitic Monographs Harvard Semitic Studies Harvard Theological Review Hebrew Union College Annual Monographs of dle Hebrew Union College Is rae I Exploration Journal Immanuel Interpretation Journal of the American Academy of Religion Journal of the American Oriental Society Journal of the Adventist Theological Society Journal of Biblical Literature Jewish and Christian Perspecti ves Series Journal of Early Christian Studies Journal of the History of Ideas Journal of Jewish Studies Journal of Jewish Thought and Philosophy Jewish Quarterly Review Journal of Religion Journal of Roman Studies Journal of Reformed Theology )udische Schriften aus hellenistisch-romischer Zeit Journal for the Study of Judaism in the Persian, Hellenistic and Roman Period Journal for me Study of Judaism in dle Persian, Hellenistic and Roman Period: Supplement Series Journal for the Study of the New Testament Journal for me Study of me New Testament: Supplement Series Jewish Studies Quarterly Journal for me Study of me Pseudepigrapha Journal for me Study of me Pseudepigrapha: Supplement Series Journal of Semitic Studies Supplement Series xiv JTS JU JZWL LCL LumVie NHS NovTSup NT NTAbh NTOA NTS NSBT OBS OTF PTS PVTG QD RB RechBib RelSoc ResQ RevQ RevScRel RHPR RSR SBLDS SBLSCS SBLSP SBT ScEccl SHR SJ SJLA Abbreviations Journal of Theological Studies Judemum und Umwelt )Udische Zeitschrift fur Wissenschaft und Leben Loeb Classical Library Lumiere et vie Nag Hammadi Studies Supplements to Novum Testamentum Novum Testamentum Neutestamentliche Abhandlungen Novum Testamentum et Orbis Antiquus New Testament Studies New Studies in Biblical Theology Osteneichische Biblische Studien Oriental Translation Fund Parristische Texte und Srudien Pseudepigrapha Yeteris Testamenti Graece Quaestiones disputatae Revue biblique Recherches bibliques Religion and Society Restoration Quarterly Revue de Qumran Revue des sciences religieuses Revue d'histoire et de philosophie religieuses Recherches de science religieuse Society of Biblical Li terature Dissertation Series Society of Biblical Li terature Septuagint and Cognate Studies Society of Biblical Li terature Seminar Papers Studies in Biblical Theology Sciences ecclesiastiques Studies in the History of Religions (supplement to Numen) Studia judaica Studies in Judaism in Late Antiquity SJT SNTSMS so SP SSEJC ST ST D] StuciNeot SVTP TBN TCS TED TLZ TQ TSA] TTPS TV TZ UBL vc VT WMANT WUNT WZKM YJS ZAW ZDPV ZM ZNW ZST Abbreviations Studies in Jungian Thought Society of New Testament Studies Monograph Series Symbolae Osloensis Studia Parristica Studies in Scripture in Early j udaism and Christianity Studia theologica Studies on the Texts of the Desert of Judah Studia neotestamentica Studia in Veteris Testamenti Pseudepigrapha Themes in Biblical Narrative Text-Cri tical Studies Translations of Early Documents Theologische Literaturzeitung Theologische Quartalschrifr Texte und Studien zum antiken Judentum Texts and Translations. Pseuclepigrapha Series Texte unci Untersuchungen Theologische Zeitschri.ft Ugaritisch-Biblische Literatur Vigiliae christi anae Vetus Testamentum Wissenschaftliche Monographien zum Alten unci Neuen Testament Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament Wiener Zeitschri ft fur die Kunde des Morgenlandes Yale Judaica Series Zeitschrift fur die alttestamentl iche Wissenschaft Zeitschrift des cleutschen Palastina-Vereins Zr6dla i monografie XV Zeitschrift fUr die neucestamendiche Wissenschaft unci die Kunde der alteren Kirche Zeitschrift fUr systematische Theologie INTRODUCTION Lightless Shadows Symmetry of Good and Evil in Early Jewish Demonology In recent years there has been a renewed interest in the study of the symmetrical patterns found in earl y Jewish apocalyptic literature.' In this literantre protological and eschatological times seem to be understood as periods that mirror each other. One instance of this symmetry of procology and eschatology can be found in the early Jewish pseudepigraphon known to us as the Book of Jubilees. Scholars have previously noted that in the Book of Jubilees Endzeit appears to be mirroring Urzeit. One of the researchers remarks that Jubilees affirms a rigorous temporal symmetry. All human history from creation to new creation is foreordained by God and inscribed in the heavenly tablets, which, in turn, are revealed through angelic mediation co Moses on Mt. Sinai, just as they were revealed co Enoch before him. In this presemation, histOrical patterns are adduced to confi rm divine providence over earthly events. A striking example of this is found in the correspondence between Endzeit and Urzeit. In jubilees, as in other apocalyptic literature, God intends the wo rld ulti mately to conform tO his original intention for the creation. But ]ubi.lees goes even further by implying a nearl y complete recapitul ation, that is that the Endzeit or restoration would almost exactly mirror the Urzeit or patriarchal period.2 Another example of the temporal symmetry of apocalyptic protology and eschatology is found in an early Jewish apocalyptic text known to us as 2 (Sia.vonic) Enoch. There the disintegration of the pri mordial aeon of light in the beginning of creation is symmetrically juxtaposed with the aeon's eschatological restoration at the end of time. According to the Slavonic 2 Dark Mirrors apocalypse, after me fi nal judgmenr, when the spatial and temporal order will collapse, all the righteous of me world will be incorporated into a single luminous aeon. The description of this final aeon reveals some striking simi-larities with the features of the primordial aeon of light portrayed earlier as the foundation of the created order.3 The eschatological restoration affects not only me peculiar order of me promlogical evenrs mat become reinstated at me end of time but also the destiny of some primeval he roes who are predestined to assume new eschatological functions. One such character is the seventh antedil uvian patriarch Enoch, a central witness of the prorological corruption of the earth by the deeds of me Watchers who is also depicted in me Slavonic apocalypse as me first fruit of the escharological aeon of light. The presence of the important pri mordial witness at me pivotal apex of the Endzeil does not appear ro be coincidental. In dis temporal "symmetrical" perspective it is often understood that the protological figures, prominent in the Urzeit, including Adam, Abel, Sed1, Enoch, Noah, Abraham, Jacob, Joseph, Moses, and od1er primordial patriarchs and prophets, will become eschatological witnesses by ass uming various roles at the end of the time. Jewish apocalyptic writings therefore often offer a plethora of eschatologi-cal characters posing as conceptual "reincarnations" of familiar protological exemplars who explicitly and implicitly display me particular features of thei r primordial counterparts. Ch ristian apocalyptic materials are also cognizant of this typological symmetry of protological and eschatological heroes. Thus, early Christian writers often attempt to envision Jesus as the new Adam or me new Moses-me one who returns humankind to its original prelapsarian condition or brings a new covenant.4 The striking symmetry discernable in Jewish and Christian apocalyptic writings reveals many complex and often perplexing dime...</p>