day 4 - tomatoes, peppers, squash, herbs, pears, apples, grapes
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Unit 10 Tomatoes, Peppers and Squash
Unit 10 Tomatoes, Peppers and Squash Based upon lectures and assigned readings, you should, by the end of this class, be able to Visually recognize and use proper terms to refer to tomato types, sweet peppers, hot peppers, hard shell squash and soft shell squash as presented in lab sessions;
Unit 10 Tomatoes, Peppers and Squash List and explain the selection factors when purchasing tomatoes, sweet peppers, hot peppers, hard shell squash and soft shell squash; Compare and contrast within the members of the tomato, pepper and squash groups based on potential culinary use. Focus on similarities and/or differences in terms of identity, texture, flavor and suitability for use in a variety of applications.
Key Terms Mature Capsaicin Field spot (ground patch) Mirliton Chilling injury Vine Ripe Heirloom
Tomatoes Cherry Tomatoes Round, Grape, Pear, Currant Plum Tomatoes Slicing/Standard Tomatoes Heirloom Tomatillos
Tomato Selection Factors Well formed, smooth, firm, shiny skins, uniform shape for variety Reasonably free of surface blemishes, discoloration or growth cracks No soft or watery spots No surface mold Degree of ripeness should be consistent with stage specified No evidence of improper storage (if pulp temperature drops below 55 ripening cannot continue)
Sizing extra large large medium small over 2-26/32 2-16/32 to 2-25/32 2-8/32 to 2- 15/32 2-4/32 to 2-9/32
Also available place packed in lugs (13 x 17 ) 25# bulk 4x5 5x6 6x6 6x7
Red Cherry, Grape, Yellow and Red Pear
Mixed Cherry Types
Tomatillos Should be medium green, not yellowish Extremely firm flesh Husk dry and green, without darkening to brown
Pepper Selection Factors Firm, thick-walled, smooth, glossy sheen, free from surface blemishes Heavy in relation to size; small seed cavity Uniform size, evenly shaped Brightly colored No cuts, broken walls, or discoloration No water spots or surface shriveling
Sweet Yellow, Green and Red Peppers
Chili Peppers (Hot) Anaheim Poblano Jalapeno Fresno Serrano
Thai Bird Habanero Scotch Bonnet
Anaheim Chile Pepper
Thai Bird Chile
Hard-Shelled Squash Acorn Squash Butternut Squash Spaghetti Squash Delicata Squash Hubbard Squash
Hard Shell Squash-Selection Factors Should have fully developed, thick, smooth, hard shell with no punctures; minimal field scars Compact seed cavity; heavy for size High % of solids Dull, even coloration of the rind with corky stem intact indicates maturity
Soft-Shelled Squash Cucumber Standard Seedless Pickling/Kirby Eggplant Standard Japanese Chinese Italian White Thai
Zucchini Yellow Squash Chayote Patty Pan
Soft Shell Squash-Selection Factors Firm, thin, smooth, shiny, tender rind Small to moderate size with an immature seed cavity Rounded, not pointed, cylindrical in shape with full, even color; no field spot No punctures, water spots or surface shriveling
Patty Pan Squash
Study Questions1. What are the stages of development of sweet peppers? 2. What causes the heat in hot peppers? 3. What does ground color indicate on squash? 4. What happens to the ripening characteristics of tomatoes when chilled below 55? 5. Compare and contrast the potential shelf life of soft-shelled versus hard-shelled squash? 6. List the chilies by capsaicin levels.
Unit 11 Herbs, Apples and Pears and Grapes Based upon lectures and assigned readings, you should, by the end of this class, be able to Visually recognize and use proper terms to refer to herbs and spices, and apple and pear types as presented in lab sessions;
Apples and Pears List and explain the selection factors when purchasing apples and pears; Compare and contrast within the members of the apple and pear groups based on potential culinary use. Focus on similarities and/or texture differences in terms of identity, texture, flavor, and suitability for use in a variety of applications.
Unit 11 Apples Red Delicious Golden Delicious Rome Macintosh Granny Smith Fuji Gala Empire Braeburn Gingergold Honeycrisp Lady Mutsu/Crispin Paula Red Pink Lady
Selection Factors Apples Apples must be mature when picked to have a full flavor, proper texture, and storing ability. Sugar content can improve post-harvest, but the texture can begin to soften and the texture can become mealy. Immature apples lack color and are usually poor in flavor due to high malic acid content. Over ripeness in apples is indicated by a yielding to slight pressure on the skin, a soft, mealy flesh, and shriveling of the skin surface. Apples affected by freeze are indicated by internal breakdown and excessive bruised areas. Scald or other surface blemishes and cosmetic defects on apples may not seriously effect the eating quality of the apple.
Unit 11 Pears Bartlett Red Bartlett D Anjou Red D Anjou Bosc Seckle Comice Forelle Asian
Selection Factors Pears Pears are one of the few fruits that do not ripen successfully on the tree. They are harvested by hand when they reach full maturity but before they are ripe. Properly handled pears will ripen after they are harvested. Ripe fruit will give to gentle pressure. Color depends on variety yet not all pears change in color as they ripen.
Ripen Chart for PearsPear Variety Bartlett DAnjou Bosc Comice Unripe Light green Light green Brown (no green cast) Light green Ripe Rich yellow Pale greenishyellow Brown-golden brown Light yellow
Selection Factors Pears Wilted or shriveled pears with a dullappearing skin and slight weakening near the stem indicates immaturity. Select pears that are firm, smooth skinned, and free from spots on or near the blossom ends of pears. (Spots such as these can mean there is corky tissue underneath).
Red D Anjou
Selection Factors - GrapesProperly handled grapes exhibit a healthy bloom on the surface without mold or leaking fruit. Firmly attached to predominantly green, pliable stems, with minimal shatter. Dried out brown stems are a sign of age and/or poor handling. All types should appear plump, firm, deeply and uniformly colored throughout. Bleached areas around the stem or grapes lacking full color are likely to be immature and not fully flavored. Grapes that are well ripened are ambered (yellowish cast or straw colored tinge most pronounced near the stem).
Grapes: Green, Red, Black
Grapes, Specialty: Concord & Champagne
Study Questions 1. Which two herbs taste and smell very similar? 2. Which herb has the flavor profile reminiscent of parsley combined with tarragon? 3. What fruit is always ripened off the tree in commercial production? 4. When apples yield to gentle pressure it indicates_________? 5. Lack of color on apples and/or pears indicates _________? 6. Wilted or shriveled pears with dull-appearing skin and a slight weakening near the stem end indicates ________? 7. List 5 major commercial varieties of both apples and pears.