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Deconstruction Approach meaning and analysis of the story Japayukisan.


  • 1. DeconstructionISMBy:Glenne Hannah Ashley S. GildoreJan Rey Gustillo

2. Jacques Derrida French Theorist, philosopher, and writer His areas of study include philosophy, literary criticism andliterary theory Studied Philosophy at a very prestigious school in Paris,Ecole Normale Superieure He received a great deal of popularity for his theories andwriting style, and equally as much criticism for them In 1967, he introduced the theory of Deconstruction 3. ORIGINS OF DECONSTRUCTIONDerridas main influence for the development of thistheory was from the theorist, Martin HeideggerIn his work called Being and Time, Heidegger talks aboutdestructuring of previous ontological concepts such astime, history, matter, ect. in order to better understand them 4. BINARY OPPOSITION Words have binary opposites like good/evil, mind/body,speech/writing. Usually one side is valued higher thanthe other. This creates difficulties that deconstructionaims to correct. By deconstructing these binary oppositions, we are ableto uncover the foundation. Derrida argued that philosophical traditions werelargely marginalized, and with the application ofdeconstruction, it is possible to express what has beenrepressed in these traditions. 5. COMPARISONFORMALISM Every feature workstogether to createmeaning. Critics say that theformalist approach doesnot give enoughconsideration tohistorical and culturalfactors.DECONSTRUCTIONFinds ways that thefeatures of a literarywork contradict eachotherIgnores historicalfactorsMay also lead tonihilism or relativism 6. Deconstructionists look for the ways theelements in literature contradict eachother. Premises: Words cannot express meaning. Every utterance contains a lie byomitting all other possible utterances. Interpretations are sometimes bizarre andcontradictory. 7. Deconstructionists focus on how language isused to achieve power. Since they believe,in the words of critic David Lehman, thatthere are no truths, only rivalinterpretations 8. BINARY OPPOSITION Words have binary opposites like good/evil,mind/body, speech/writing. Usually one side isvalued higher than the other. This createsdifficulties that deconstruction aims to correct. By deconstructing these binary oppositions, weare able to uncover the foundation. Derrida argued that philosophical traditions werelargely marginalized, and with the applicationof deconstruction, it is possible to express whathas been repressed in these traditions. 9. HOW IS IT USED IN LITERARYANALYSIS? Used as a tool in narrative analysis Starts with a very careful reading that looks forinconsistency and contradictions in the text The results often uncovering of a deeply complexfoundation that is difficult to make sense of This is one of the many criticism of Deconstruction,that it nihilistic and unproductive because it leads touncertainty. 10. Deconstruction may strike you as anegative, even destructive, critical approach,and yet its best practitioners are adept atexposing the inadequacy of muchconventional criticism. By patient analysis,they can sometimes open up the mostfamiliar text and find in it fresh andunexpected significance. 11. JAPAYUKISANMonang Fermin just came from Japan. The only reason why shecame home is because of her fathers death. She worked as acleric in bank at Japan but later on was transferred. Shereasoned that her boss in the bank was a chauvinist so shedecided to apply for a new job at a department store. Thenight after her fathers burial, Monang and Fidela (her mother)talked about the land that their father had which would beunder the reform program. Monang became furious andpromised that she will not let it happen. She became irritablethe whole time and her mother was worried and confront herwhy she is being unreasonable with everything but she justreasoned out that she is just tired and needs a rest. Shes beenwaiting for a call from her friend Linda and she becameparanoid waiting for a call and a mail. 12. JAPAYUKISANUntil one day, her ex boyfriend Franco who married her bestfriend visits her in her home. They talked about whathappened in the past and Monang blame Franco forleaving him without any reasonable reason. But Francotold her that she owe an explanation to him for whathappened to them. Monang cant explain what she feelsthat time. Then Franco revealed that one time he got aplacement in Bahrain and be flying there through Japanand wanted to surprise Monang but unfortunately hecouldnt find the address , but that night he decided tojoin his friends to go out and have some fun then he sawMonang. Monang was shocked hearing this revelationfrom Franco. He saw her that night. Later on sheexplained to Franco what really happened. 13. JAPAYUKISANAs everyone knew, she thought her job would be a clerical jobbut she only stayed it for just a few months but then she foundout that they wouldnt give her passport back. She offered tofinish her contract but they wouldnt and shunted her toanother job in a resort which catered to tourists. Then therecruiters and backers whom she taught help her weresyndicate and threaten them that if they didnt do what theywere told their lives will be at stake. With no other choices,She became a prostitute. But after four years a businessmanfound her and save her from the syndicate and get her a decentjob. Franco was also shocked to hear this tragic story fromMonang and asked her to start a new beginning with him, butMonang denied him and told him that shell be back in Japan.For her, her home is a good place but it isnt for people likeher. Its for people without a past, only a future. She toldFranco that 14. JAPAYUKISANThe Monang he knew died a longtime ago,slain in some dark bed in an unnumberedroom, in some nameless street in a strangeland. Franco lose hope that He andMonang could start anew, she had been acold and hard woman and Japan hadturned her into this. The last words thatMonang told Franco is that If you wishto keep memories, let them be of Monang.Not the girl you saw in Japan. Then youllremember her more kindly. 15. JAPAYUKISANAfter Franco leave, a mailman arrived andcalls for her name saying that a mail wassend to her. It was the mail that shes beenwaiting for. It is the contract with her jobin japan. But she told the mailmantonelessly that Theres no one here bythat name 16. ANALYSISThe story Japayukisan depicts the life of Monangwhom we think is a very successful personwho worked at Japan and had a decent job notknowing of what really happened to her. Theway she dress and carries herself with a greatdeal of poise and confidence shows that shehas a positive life in Japan. The story revolvesaround her. She stayed for five years in Japanand went home because of her fathers death. 17. ANALYSISThe whole time of the story Monang has beenvery unreasonable with everything and alwaysemphasizes that she worked hard inJapan.When being asked of her job in Japan,she gets angry and furious and dont want totalk about it the reason why her mother told herthat she is being unreasonable. Also, she isbeing paranoid waiting for a mail whichincludes her new contract. The story goes onuntil Franco visited her in her home andconfronted her of what happened in the past. 18. ANALYSISDeconstructionists look for the ways theelements in literature contradict each other. Itis clear in the story that Monang do not want tostay in Philippines and is very eager to go backin Japan.Even though she and Franco had settled their pastand asked her to start a new beginning she stilldenied it and determine to renew her contractbut in the end after the mail has arrived she didnot receive it which shows the contradiction. 19. ANALYSISIn deconstruction we find the tension andthe contradiction within the text lookingfor ideas that dont really match.One contradiction showed was when Francohas been attending the wake of Monangsfather the whole week while Monang stilldidnt arrive. Franco also asked Nenengabout Monang. But on the day of thefuneral he did not show. 20. ANALYSISAnother shows contradiction that leads thereaders to another path is how Monangdescribe her Job in Japan. The way shenarrate her job description is believable.Factors also affects this such as the settingof the house, the interior design whichshows the social status of their family.