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  • By Venice Ibrahim
  • Index - Introduction -Herodotous and the ancient Egyptian civilization -Egyptian language and its interpretation -Information & data concerning ancient dentistry -Ancient Egyptians dentists - Ancient Egyptians medical tools -Ancient Egyptians dental diseases -The Egyptian medical papyri -Egyptians medical recipes& interventions -The use of Modern science and Technology -Conclusion 2
  • Introduction - Ancient Egyptians were skilled in medicine in different fields known today - The profession of dental physician existed since the early third millennium - Physicians were specialized for specific diseases or organs, some dealt with eye, head and some with teeth or belly etc. -Lioness Sekhmet was believed to bring epidemics and disease. She was also the patroness deity of doctors, other Gods and Goddesses for the diseases, ex., Gods Amun and Horus were responsible for treatment of eye diseases etc., -Imhotep was chief vizier to Zozer, high priest, astrologist, pyramid designer, a physician, the founder of medicine, Egyptianssw believed that he had great healing powers, and considered him as a God of medicine. -Since the 1st dynasty (3150 2925 BC), medical institutes called peri-ankh or houses of life existed as teaching centers, and in those houses medical books and papyri were written and preserved. -A code of ethics was followed, with an oath was made by physicians. In the tomb of Nenkh-Sekhmet, Chief of Physicians in the 5th dynasty, the following sentense is written: Never did I do anything evil towards any person. 3
  • Born : c.484 BC Halicarnassus, Caria, Asia Minor Died : c.425 BC (aged approximately 60) Thurii, Calabria or Pella, Macedon an ancient Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus, Caria (modern day Bodrum, Turkey) He has been called the "Father of History", and was the first historian known to collect his materials systematically, and test their accuracy to a certain extent and arrange them Herodotous and the ancient Egyptian civilization 4 HERODOTUS, mentioned that 'The practice of medicine in Egypt is so divided among them, that each physician is a healer of one disease and no more. All the country is full of physicians, some of the eye, some of the teeth, some of what pertains to the belly, and some of the hidden diseases
  • Herodotous and the ancient Egyptian civilization 5 In the fifth century B.C. Herodotus remarked on the degree of specialisation he found in Egypt. Most of the known specialist medical titles were carried by a certain Ir-en-akhty except for dentists who carried the separate title ibeh False door of the multi-specialist Ir-en-akhy (10th Dynasty)
  • Egyptian language and its interpretation 6 -Athanasius Kircher German polyhistorian (1602 - 1680) proposed nonsensical allegorical translations (Lingua Aegyptical restituta, 1643). Athanasius KircherDr. Thomas Young -Thomas Young (1773 -1829), the author of the undulatory theory of light, assigned correct phonetical values to five hieroglyphic signs .
  • Egyptian language and its interpretation 7 Jean-Francois Champollion Rosetta Stone -Finding the Rosetta stone was the final decipherment, starting in 1822, by the work of the Frenchman Jean-Franois Champollion, 1790 - 1832, cf. Prcis du systme hiroglyphique des anciens gyptiens par M.Champollion le jeune, 1824. Samples of three different scripts on the Rosetta Stone Top: Heiroglyphs; Middle: Demotic; Bottom: Greek.
  • Information & data concerning ancient dentistry 8 Egyptian dentists tomb, at Saqqara, near the step pyramid-oldest in Egypt Hieroglyphic details, including eye and tusk symbols representing dentistry profession chiseled on the entrance of the tomb honoring 3 dentists served the nobility in ancient Egypt-Iy Mry -the chief dentist is pictured on the wall ,thus the swallow, tusk and arrow, meant 'chief dentist and doctor
  • Information & data concerning ancient dentistry 9 Modern investigations employ virtually nondestructive techniques to study disease in mummies, members of the Manchester Mummy Project used endoscope to take tissue samples from the mouth of a mummy. Manchester Museum, University of Manchester) Rosalie David unwrapping the female mummy 1770 in 1975
  • Information & data concerning ancient dentistry 10
  • Information & data concerning ancient dentistry 11 The earliest evidence of ancient dentistry we have is an amazingly detailed dental work on a mummy from ancient Egypt that archaeologists have dated to 2000 BCE. The work shows intricate gold work around the teeth. The two donor teeth had holes drilled into them, wires were strung through the holes and then around the neighboring teeth. El-Quatta Bridge' The World first Dental Bridges mandible of a 4th dynasty mummy (2625 - 2510 BC). with a gold wire bridge
  • Information & data concerning ancient dentistry 12 - Examining skeletal and mummified remains from ancient Egypt can provide evidence for the dental health of the ancient Egyptian civilisation where tooth ailments was frequent as some mummies show evidences of severe infections and loose teeth, as people believed that the cause of the decays were worms. - Egyptian pharaohs were known to have suffered from periodontal (gum) disease, Radiographs of mummies confirm this fact. - The skulls and jaws found in burial shafts and tombs almost all show attrition. Dental Surgery, Jaw of ancient Egyptian showing drill holes used in dental repair. Courtesy of the Gordon Museum Upper jaw of Tao II Seqenenre. The teeth are heavily worn, healthy and tartar free Worn ancient Egyptian teeth showing an abscess drainage hole
  • Information & data concerning ancient dentistry 13 Ancient Egyptian mandible c. 1,500 BC. Courtesy of Duckworth Collection, Cambridge University The dental drill dates back 9,000 years ago Attrition
  • Information & data concerning ancient dentistry 14 study of more than 3,000 mummies has revealed a nightmare array of dental diseases. Head of the mummy of Amenhotep III. He had lost some of his front teeth due to alveolar abscesses
  • Ancient Egyptians dentistsAncient Egyptians dentists 15 -The earliest ever record of a physician was Hesy-Ra, 2700 BC, who was "Chief of Dentists and Doctors" to King Djoser. -Merit Ptah (2700 BCE)was an early physician in ancient Egypt. She is most notable for being the first woman known by name in the history of the field of medicine, and possibly the first named woman in all of science as well. Her picture can be seen on a tomb in the necropolis near the step pyramid of Saqqara. Her son, who was a High Priest, described her as "the Chief Physician". -Also Peseshet (2400 BC, 4th dynasty, old kingdom) was known as the supervisor of all female doctors her own stela in the tomb of Akhet-hotep, probably her son, in Giza Hesy-Re, head of dentists
  • Ancient Egyptians dentistsAncient Egyptians dentists 16 Hesy-re, Head of Dentists Old Kingdom, 3rd Dynasty Peseshet Imhotep Merit Ptah
  • Ancient Egyptians medical tools 17 Com Ombo temple Wall of twin temple of Com Ombo temple with surgical instruments carvings and queen in labor on an obstetric chair
  • Ancient Egyptians medical tools (1) knives; (2) drill; (3) saw; (4) forceps or pincers; (5) censer; (6) hooks; (7) bags tied with string; (8, 10) beaked vessel; (11) vase with burning incense; (12) Horus eyes; (13) scales; (14) pot with flowers of Upper and Lower Egypt; (15) pot on pedestal; (16) graduated cubit or papyrus scroll without side knot (or a case holding reed scalpels); (17) shears; (18) spoons. 18 Com Ombo inscription detailing ancient Egyptian medical tools
  • Ancient Egyptians medical tools 19 Wooden tools Bronze tools has basically three functions for which it is Stone tools Copper tools Iron tools
  • Ancient Egyptians dental diseases 20 -Attrition was the most common affection in ancient Egypt, Caused by the coarse diet (which may have lacked minerals and vitamins) and the presence of sand, husks, and sometimes straw in their bread. -Abscesses, inflammation of the gums and jawbone, and tooth loss was also detected. -As well caries ,calculus formation and others root caries on the mandibular right third molar [left] and left first molar [right abscess on mandibular right Molars suffering from attrition
  • Ancient Egyptians dental diseases 21 mandibular M2 displays large caries maxillary M3 with a large cavity apical abscess on right maxillary PM2 and antemortem tooth loss Extensive dental wear
  • Ancient Egyptians dental diseases 22 Lower jaw with traces of a periodontal abscess ( the small hole in the bon