design cities like you give a damn

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  • The problem
    Rush hour traffic in Jakarta
    MEET DHAKA
    Only 1% of people have cars
  • What do we predict will happen to Dhaka if nothing is done?
  • The problem
    4 pm TRAFFIC JAM IN JAKARTA
    August 2011
    Rush hour traffic in Jakarta
  • DESIGN CITIES LIKE YOU GIVE A DAMN
    An initiative of the
  • DESIGN CHALLENGE
    substantially improve the alternatives to driving in Dhaka
    in 3 months or less
    An initiative of the
  • DESIGN YOUR DHAKA
    sexy sidewalks
  • DESIGN YOUR DHAKA
    critical mass cycling
  • DESIGN YOUR DHAKA
    car-free zones / days
  • DESIGN YOUR DHAKA
    making the invisible visible
  • DESIGN YOUR DHAKA
    the best way to see Dhaka
  • How?
  • 3 INSIGHTS
    1 cities dont innovate as much as they should and when they do, they dont share
    2 we can seamlessly build effective glocal (global + local) teams and share knowledge across space and time
    3 we can now rapidly prototype physical, digital and mobile designs that address urban scale problems
  • 5 DESIGNED CITY LEVERAGES NEW IDEAS TO REBRAND ITSELF AS A CITY THAT IS LEAPFROGGING INTO THE FUTURE
    a) the places that need the help the most at this time and b) that have a local team that we can work with
    6 OTHER CITIESADOPT SOME OF THESE NEW EXPERIMENTS
    1 IDENTIFY THE CITY and the URBAN-SCALE DESIGN CHALLENGE
    law of unintended consequences
    crowdsource ideas from local constitutents
    research, research, research
    4 BROADCAST EXPERIMENTS TO THE WEB WHERE INVESTORS CAN HELP SCALE THEIR FAVORITE EXPERIMENTS
    2 BUILD A GLOCAL DESIGN TEAM
    IDENTIFY and REFINE THE BEST IDEAS that can be RAPIDLY PROTOTYPED
    1-2 months
    prototypes, including design files all open-sourced and freely available to any city
    refine ideas with the help of global experts
    2-3 weeks
    3 RAPID PROTOTYPE IN THE CITY
    some members of global team to assist in the rapid deployment of new ideas
    local partners to own and document the experiments progress
  • DESIGN YOUR DHAKAJANUARY 2012
  • THEORY OF CHANGE
    private Motorization in South and Southeast Asia excluding Singapore
    requires well-organized, capable resourced govt which usually doesnt happen till later in development stages
    how this private motorization wave might be avoided
    how to support and scale this experimentation
    A
    B
    C
    D
    [Google CiOdouglasmerrill]
    make alternatives much more appealing
    regulate cars(ownership and use)
    regulate land use (do not build more roads)
    GOD e.g. natural disasters, apocalypse
    3 types of innovation
    transformative
    incremental with unintended consequences
    incremental
    C1
    C2
    A1
    A2
    enhance existing capacity
    build more capacity
    disincentivize
    limit
    newINFRASTRUCTURE
    INFORMATION retrofits
    done only when congestion is really bad egbeijing, jakarta
    or with unprecedented control / foresight eg
    Singapore
    sidewalks, bicycle paths, brts, metro stations
    on-demand para-transit, real-time bus and rail info
    localization
    scalable
    INFORMATION retrofits
    bicycle and car
    sharing
    mobile-driven information that can help solve
    transport user problem
    in a specific context
    +
    mobiles can be a spark!
    entrepreneur
    C2
    B
    road made car-free
    rickshaw and service redesigned
    experiment spread by courts and media
    mobiles on rickshaws make them new
    1
    ideas
    2
    incentives
    C2
    C2
    3
    technical & implementation support
    C3
    C4
    make alternative purchases more appealing
    make appealing a lifestyle without cars
  • Demand-Side [1]
    Developing Asia = South and Southeast Asia excluding Singapore
    2 AGGREGATE DEMAND FOR TRAVEL (USE)
    Can owning a Mobile phone reduce the desire to use and need an automobile? [user demand]
    attributes of mobility mode
    policy measures (fuel taxes, parking fees)
    upfront cost
    ongoing cost
    1 AGGREGATE DEMAND FOR TRAVEL (PURCHASE)
    perception
    travel time
    safety
    effort
    payment
    reliability
    comfort
    wait time
    driving directionsvehicle tracking
    car-sharing
    policy measures (car quotas, import taxes)
    Demand for Auto use
    increased communications
    [mokhtarian, saloon]
    car-sharing [shaheen]
    Congestion
    more roads
    HIGHEST
    0 MIN
    BEST
    MEDIUM
    unavailable unless situation is extremely dire e.g. jakarta, beijing
    economic growth
    Demand for Auto ownership
    Demand for motorcycle use
    GREAT IF NO AIR POLLUTION
    DANGEROUS
    Demand for travel
    GREAT
    FASTEST
    GOOD
    0 MIN
    Jakarta (9 MM for 9.6 MM people)
    Demand for motorcycle ownership
    Demand for Bus use
    WALKING STILL REQUIRED
    OVERCROWDED
    BRT with dedicated lanes
    15-60 MIN
    SLOWEST
    substitution effect
    Bus is an inferior good
    bus arrival times
    Demand for paratransituse
    POTENTIAL FOR SCAMMING
    on-demand taxis, rickshaws
    15-60 MIN
    MEDIUM
    Congestion / air pollution / co2 emissions
    bicycle-sharing
    BECOMES MORE DANGEROUS WITH MORE CARS
    LOTS OF EFFORT + HEALTH BENEFITS
    WEATHER DEPENDENT
    POTENTIALLY THE HIGHEST
    Demand for Walking / cycling use
    0 MIN
    more roads
    Demand for bicycle ownership
    substitution effect
    Social equity
    bicycle-sharing
    walking / cycling is an inferior good
  • Demand-Side [2]
    Developing Asia = South and Southeast Asia excluding Singapore
    taxes on cars, petrol, parking fees, subsidies for transit
    Can owning a Mobile phone reduce the desire to use and need an automobile? [user demand]
    dedicated bus lanes
    2 USER-CENTRIC TRAVEL DECISIONS
    Methods of changing motorization behavior
    This is our brain (decision-making apparatus)
    C APPEAL TO HUMAN EMOTION
    B INCENTIVIZE
    A REGULATE
    X
    car quotas
    reason is often weak, our sentiments are strong, and our sentiments are trustworthy
    [brooks in the social animal]
    -
    Difficult to do in developing contexts due to lack of enforcement mechanisms
    also may impinge on freedoms, one of the core benefits of economic development [Sen]
    Aspiration, Love,
    sharing, surprise, wonder, sacrifice,
    delight
    subconsciousthought
    conscious thought
    Money and Time
    As incomes increase, financial incentives become less effective as transport share of income declines
    perception
    which destination?
    Its about the complete user experience
    before transit
    during transit
    after transit
    Especially as congestion makes pushes the limits of commuting time, Time becomes a potentially powerful lever but one that may be difficult to push
    how long will it take?
    will I get to my destination in time?
    am I comfortable?
    do I feel safe?
    does something smell?
    Killer marketing campaigns for walking, biking and transit
    cool walking paths
    activity / event based travel search
    multi-modal, real-time transport planner
    Managing space-Time
    Grammy award
    wedding day
    trip to nepal
    Ted Talk
    X
    8 am
    Schooling
    Retirement
    0
    100
    Time-Based destinations connected to transit
    Parenthood
    found a dollar on the ground
    transport is not about connecting people to places as fast as possible but to the right places at the right time for the right amount of time
    Work
    destinations are not just fixed like home and work; or are they commercial like restaurants they can be public places like parks
    Family and Friends can be destinations; special events etc
    chance run-in with stephen
    50% car-free, development zones
    car-quotas
    free bus and train rides
    fun shared transit
    its about the unexpected journey (and not the destinations)
    X
    dinner
    Midnight
  • Supply-Side
    Developing Asia = South and Southeast Asia excluding Singapore
    Can Mobile phone intelligence improve the supply of automobile alternatives?
    1 SUPPLY FOR TRAVEL
    2 IMPACT of MOBILE PHONE INTELLIGENCE
    Rail economics highly dependent on density; Since costs are front-loaded, often build for political reasons
    [Guerra & Cervero]
    Routing directions / mapping / local search lift all boats but especially driving
    Publicly Operated
    Privatized
    Publicly Operated
    Privatized
    on-demand fleet mgmt improves efficiency
    real-time tracking maintains / improves ridership but likely just marginally
    Profit per passenger
    Profit per passenger
    bicycles
    bicycles
    walking
    walking
    paratransit
    paratransit
    buses
    air
    Autos
    buses
    No. of passengers
    Autos
    air
    No. of passengers
    rail
    rail
    motorcycles
    motorcycles
    Washington metro has one of the highest farebox recovery rates at 60% of opex [nelson etal]
    Privatized b/c of high usage & competition in developing countries
    Cost per ride + taxes + externalities
    increases prices along with other service improvements
    Airports as most profitable
    [Gomez-Ibanez & Meyer]
    tension btwn lowering price to serve more customers and maintaining operational profitability which ultimately hits taxpayers so is a net transfer
    bicycles
    walking
    Cost per ride + taxes + externalities
    paratransit
    buses
    Autos
    air
    rail
    motorcycles
    less leverage with rail prices since pro