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  • FINAL REPORT

    Design Guideline for Stationkeeping Systems of Floating Offshore Wind Turbines

    JUNE 2013

    Prepared by American Bureau of Shipping

    Corporate Offshore Technology, Renewables

    16855 Northchase Drive

    Houston, Texas 77060

    www.eagle.org

    Submitted to U.S. Department of the Interior

    Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement

    381 Elden Street

    Herndon, Virginia 20170-4817

    Acknowledgement of Sponsorship: This study was funded by the Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. under Contract Number E12PC00027.

    Disclaimer: This report has been reviewed by the Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement and approved for publication. Approval does not signify that the contents necessarily reflect the views and policies of the Service, nor does mention of the trade names or commercial products constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.

  • Contract E12PC00027: Design Guideline for Stationkeeping Systems of FOWTs Final Report

    Acknowledgement

    This study was funded by the Technology Assessment and Research Program (TA&R Project No.

    705), Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE), U.S. Department of the Interior,

    Washington, D.C.

    The floating offshore wind turbine simulation software used in this project is developed by Dr.

    Moo-Hyun Kim and his research team at Texas A&M University (TAMU). Part of this

    simulation software is based on the program modules, including FAST, AeroDyn and TurbSim,

    developed and maintained by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) of the U.S.

    Department of Energy. Technical support from Yoon-Hyeok Bae at TAMU is greatly appreciated.

    John Conlon provided valuable comments on the report. His contributions to this project are

    gratefully acknowledged.

    This report is prepared by Xiaohong Chen (xchen@eagle.org) and Qing Yu at ABS Corporate

    Offshore Technology, Renewables Group.

  • Contract E12PC00027: Design Guideline for Stationkeeping Systems of FOWTs Final Report

    i

    Table of Contents

    List of Tables .......................................................................................................................... vi

    List of Figures ......................................................................................................................viii

    Executive Summary ............................................................................................................. xii

    1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 1

    2 State-of-the-Art Review ..................................................................................................... 4

    2.1 Existing Designs and Design Concepts ...................................................................... 4

    2.1.1 Existing Designs and Design Concepts of FOWTs ........................................ 4

    2.1.2 Existing Designs of Stationkeeping Systems for Floating Offshore Structures

    ................................................................................................................... 11

    2.2 Design Codes and Standards .................................................................................... 33

    2.2.1 Overview .................................................................................................... 33

    2.2.2 Design Codes and Standards for FOWTs ..................................................... 33

    2.2.3 Codes and Standards for Design of Stationkeeping Systems for Floating

    Offshore Structures ..................................................................................... 35

    2.2.4 Codes and Standards for Mooring Hardware................................................ 35

    2.2.5 Guidelines for Global Performance Analyses............................................... 37

    2.2.6 Other Relevant Codes and Standards ........................................................... 38

    2.3 Design and Analysis Software ................................................................................. 39

    2.4 Global Performance Analysis Procedures and Methodologies for FOWTs ................ 41

    2.4.1 Analysis Procedures and Methodologies ...................................................... 41

    2.4.2 Wind Farm Wake Models............................................................................ 48

    2.4.3 Aeroelastic Stability and Aerodynamic Damping ......................................... 49

    2.5 FOWT Model Testing .............................................................................................. 51

    3 Case Studies Using Conceptual Designs .......................................................................... 56

    3.1 Overview ................................................................................................................. 56

    3.2 Problem Definition .................................................................................................. 57

    3.3 Modeling and Analysis Procedures .......................................................................... 61

    3.3.1 Overall Approach and Analysis Tools ......................................................... 61

  • Contract E12PC00027: Design Guideline for Stationkeeping Systems of FOWTs Final Report

    ii

    3.3.2 Site Conditions ............................................................................................ 63

    3.3.3 Extreme Value Prediction and Data Post-Processing .................................... 69

    3.4 Case Study Models .................................................................................................. 73

    3.4.1 Site Conditions ............................................................................................ 73

    3.4.2 Floating Support Structure and Stationkeeping System Configurations ........ 77

    3.4.3 Tower Specifications and Mode Shapes ....................................................... 81

    3.4.4 Wind Turbine RNA Specifications .............................................................. 84

    3.4.5 Control System Properties ........................................................................... 85

    3.4.6 Wind Field Models and Simulations ............................................................ 86

    3.5 Spar FOWT ............................................................................................................. 87

    3.5.1 Summary of Model Parameters ................................................................... 87

    3.5.2 Natural Periods and Motion RAOs .............................................................. 92

    3.5.3 Spar FOWT Case Study Results .................................................................. 93

    3.6 Semi-submersible FOWT ...................................................................................... 100

    3.6.1 Summary of Model Parameters ................................................................. 100

    3.6.2 Natural Periods and Motion RAOs ............................................................ 109

    3.6.3 Semi-submersible FOWT Case Study Results ........................................... 110

    3.7 TLP FOWT ........................................................................................................... 122

    3.7.1 Summary of Model Parameters ................................................................. 122

    3.7.2 Natural Periods and Motion RAOs ............................................................ 130

    3.7.3 TLP FOWT Case Study Results ................................................................ 131

    3.8 Sensitivity Study on Modeling Parameters and Methodologies ............................... 144

    3.8.1 Platform Motion Effects on Power Production ........................................... 144

    3.8.2 Simulation Time Duration for Extreme Value Prediction ........................... 150

    3.8.3 Mooring Fatigue Analysis ......................................................................... 156

    3.8.4 Comparison of Wind, Wave and Current Loads ......................................... 159

    3.8.5 Effects of Tower Flexibility....................................................................... 164

    3.8.6 Effects of Mooring/Tendon Line Damage .................................................. 167

    3.8.7 Evaluation of Semi-coupled Analysis ........................................................ 168

    3.8.8 Evaluation of Quasi-static Analysis ........................................................... 170

    4 Critical Design Parameters and Technical Challenges in the Design of FOWT

    stationkeeping systems................................................................................................... 178

    4.1 Important Design Parameters ................................................................................. 178

  • Contract E12PC00027: Design Guideline for Stationkeeping Systems of FOWTs Final Report

    iii

    4.2 Technical Challenges ............................................................................................. 182

    5 Design Guideline for Stationkeeping Systems of Floating Offshore Wind Turbines ... 185

    5.1 Scope .................................................................................................................... 185

    5.2 Definitions ..........................................................

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