designing a classroom environment for early childhood

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  • 1. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 - 1

2. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 - 2Differentiated instruction in aninclusive classroom is accomplishedthrough the use of teaching strategies thatare responsive to individual children whovary in culture, language, ability, anddemographic characteristics. Child-centeredor child-initiated learning ,matched to thechilds development is commonly associatedwith Developmentally Appropriate Practice(DAP) and embraced by educators in earlychildhood and early intervention.INDIVIDUALLY APPROPRIATESUPPORT 3. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 - 3Embedded Teaching ApproachesAn overarching approach to pedagogy inearly childhood education is an embeddedteaching method. The embedded approachcontrasts with clinical teaching approaches inwhich children are pulled out, away fromtypical settings, to receive instruction for atargeted skill under a structured set ofconditions. Naturalistic and milieu approachesare among the types of teaching methodsconsidered in the embedded teaching category.Using embedded teaching approaches, teacherstry to match their support strategies to bestaccommodate the individual child and enhancethat childs chances for success in typicalactivities and play. 4. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 - 4Identifying strategies for individual children.Observing children as they work and play is oneway that teachers can plan teaching strategies that arewell-matched to individual children. Teachers can focusobservations toward the identification of each childsareas of strength, with the aim to notice some of theconditions and strategies for learning that appear to resultin a childs success. Pinpointing a few of the waysindividual children are successful in learning can providea basic for planning future scaffolding, as a childintroduced to new concepts and skills. 5. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 - 5While watching and working with each child, the teachercan use the following questions to guide observing andrecording of in formations : *What conditions seem to help the child learn best?*Can you describe the strategies the child tries?*How does the child solve problems?*Is the child most successful learning alone or withothers?*What kind of teacher assistance seems to workbest? 6. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 - 6Range and intensity.Matching teaching strategies to the children ininclusive classrooms needs thoughtful consideration.The range of abilities represented by children in suchclassrooms is often broad; consequently there isevidence to suggest that using different kinds ofstrategies will be needed to produce beneficial effectsfor individual children. 7. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 - 7Evaluating the effectiveness of strategiesIt has often been said that teaching is both anart and a science. Teachers must have a fund ofscientific, research-based knowledge from which todraw upon during teaching situations. Whereasteachers can become knowledgeable about the variousstrategies that can be used, it is critical that they gainexpertise in applying strategies to situations where thetechniques are most likely to have a positive outcome.The latter, the art of applying the strategies, has beenexamined and pondered by educators. 8. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 - 8Lay-Dopyera and Dopyera (1992) contendthat early childhood educators are ratherautomatic in their strategy use. However,early childhood teachers are often unable todescribe their actions and tend not to thinkabout why these strategies were successful. 9. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 - 9Donald Schon (1983, 1987) has explained thephenomenon as a teacher knowing in action thatthe strategy works. He believe that teachers shouldstrive for a more conscious orientation towardstrategy use. A teacher who is monitoring her actionsand whether the strategy is working has achieved alevel of awareness that may allow her to be even moreeffective in strategy use, Schon says a teacher who isconscious of her actions is reflecting in action and isable to evaluate the effectiveness of the strategies sheis using in the learning situation. 10. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 - 10An early childhood teacher who wishes toprovide an inclusive learning environment forall children must be willing to move beyondthe automatic use of strategies towardthoughtful, deliberate, and plannedimplementation. 11. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 - 11Explicit Teaching Strategiesare deliberate, planned supportstrategies to facilitate a childs understanding,learning processes, or skill acquisition. Usingexplicit teaching can create an apprenticeshiprelationship between the teacher and thechild.For example, a teacher maydemonstrate a cognitive strategy forsolving a mathematical problem. Asthe child learns the strategy, lesssupport is provided by the teacher. 12. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 - 12PromptsPrompts and cues are among thecommonly used types of explicit strategiesroutinely used in inclusive classroom.Teachers use prompts to help the childrespond accordingly, which promotes achilds learning. Prompts and cues offer thelearner additional information or turn thechilds attention toward relevant features ofa task. 13. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 - 13The following are usual types of prompts andcues that offer varying levels of support to the child:*Cue: a command or direction that helps achild know that a response is necessary.*Physical or manual prompts: the providing ofphysical assistance to cue a child to respond,accordingly. This type of prompt is also calledhand-over-hand prompting.*Verbal prompts: the use of words or voiceinflections to help a child gain information*Visual prompts: the use of pictures, words. orgraphics to convey information or help a childlearn concepts*Gestural prompts: the use of nonverbal signsor gestures to convey information and inviteresponses*Modeling: the demonstrating of the desiredperformance or set of behaviors. 14. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 - 14Graphic Information andorganizers.Providing visual information andorganizing curriculum content withgraphic advance organizers is beneficialfor children who are English languageLearners (ELS). Advance organizers helpthese children access their priorknowledge and make links to the newlyintroduced content knowledge. 15. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 - 15Corrective FeedbackProviding a child with a specificinformation regarding his/herperformance on task can help the childimprove subsequent attempts. Offeringfeedback to correct a childs mistakes isbest when information is specific andoffered immediately followingperformance of the task. 16. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 - 16Individualize ReinforcementCertain children may requirereinforcement to encourage theirparticipation in learning activities. Forexample children with developmentaldelays may need systematicreinforcement of their participation. 17. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 - 17Common MisconceptionsIt is important to distinguish betweenexplicit strategies and other teachingpractices based upon behavioristtenets. Explicit strategies refer to avariety of teacher-mediatedtechniques that may be used toprovide systematic instruction tochildren when individuallyappropriate. 18. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 - 18EMBEDDING EXPLICITSTRATEGIESExplicit teaching strategies can be usedbefore authentic learning opportunitiesas advance organizers, during alearning activity to guide responses,and after experience to providefeedback and reinforcement. 19. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 - 19Intensifying child-focused support.To achieve individually appropriatepractices, teachers may use explicitstrategies, singly or in combination, withnatural activities and routines that occur.Experts in early intervention recommendchild-focused interventions as internationalactions to intensify intervention and helpsome children gain greater benefits fromnatural contexts, such as homes, child-care centers, and inclusive classrooms. 20. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 - 20Embedding Social andCommunication Strategies.Children learn social interaction skills duringinfancy and early childhood throughopportunities in various contexts. They gainin social skills through feedback from familyand others they encounter within their schooland community. 21. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 - 21Research has revealed that teachersmay observe children who: usually play aloneWander and avoid participationTend to be aggressive-hitting, kicking,biting, or verbally abusive.Lack friends 22. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 - 22Embedding reading and LiteracyStrategies.Explicitly teaching instructional strategies androutines has been reported successful inhelping children with learning disabilitiesimprove their performance in reading andliteracy. Teachers model specific strategiesfor planning and conducting tasks andprovide guidance until students can performthe routines independently. 23. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 - 23THE SIGNIFICANCE OF EXPLICITTEACHING STRATEGIESCertain children may require more overtand intensive intervention to promotetheir learning. Naturalistic teachingstrategies may not provide sufficientsupport for children with severedisabilities. 24. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 - 24Implication for CollaborationUse of embedded explicit strategies hasimplications for collaboration amongprofessional and family members.Collaborative team planning andinvolvement of families is important tomaximize the positive effects ofembedded teaching. 25. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 - 25TEACHING COGNITIVE LEARNINGSTRATEGIESThis category of explicit teaching strategiesencompasses techniques and practices teachersuse to facilitate each childs learning and promotethe development of a childs own strategies forlearning. Some refer to this category as strategiesinstruction or cognitive interventions (Owen &Fuchs, 2002).Children with typical development naturallybecome strategic learners, gaining knowledge andskills from their experiences and interactions withothers in their social and physical environment. 26. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 - 26Defining Cognitive learning strategiesFrom birth, children embark on a lifelongmission to learn how to learn. As infants,children are immersed in a barrage ofsensory information. There are sources ofvisual stimulation, such as colors, shapesand images, moving across their field ofvision. Children hear a cacophony of soundsproduced by objects, animals and people intheir environment. They feel differenttemperatures and textures. 27. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 - 27Mediated Problem SolvingVygotskian theory explains thatchildren first learn their metacognitiveand problem-solving skills in socialinteractions with others (Vygotsky,1978). Children benefit from teachersand parents who are good mediatorsof their experiences. 28. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 - 28Strategies that have found effectiveare:SimpleExplicitConcrete examplesDevelopmentally appropriatePeer Mediated 29. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 - 29Modeling Cognitive learning StrategiesChildren benefit when teachers modelstrategies to enhance thinking andprocessing information. Teachers can actas coaches, showing how, helping thechild attempt the strategy, and evaluatingthe results. It is important to providechildren with effective feedback to keepthem motivated to complete the task. 30. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 - 30Supporting child acquisition and Useof StrategiesA lifelong process of becoming successfullearner begins at birth. The early childhoodyears is an extremely important time in braindevelopment. Moreover, children areacquiring strategies for learning throughtheir experiences with physical environmentand social interactions within their learningenvironment. 31. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 - 31Helping Child Activate PriorKnowledgeAnother objective teachers aim toaccomplish is to activate the priorknowledge of the learner. Children canmore easily grasp new information if theycan establish a link between the newinformation and what is already known.Teachers are instrumental in helpingchildren remember their experiences andknowledge that relate to the new factsand concepts. 32. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 - 32Help child Identify and UseStrategiesIn inclusive classrooms, the distinctionbetween teaching strategies andlearning strategies is blurred. Teachersrealize that the goal is to help childrenacquire and effectively use a variety ofstrategies to learn. Children naturallydevelop strategies for learning;however, some children are moreefficient at acquiring learning strategiesthan others. 33. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 - 33KEY LEARNING STRATEGIESIncrease childrens motivation for learning.Involve children in active learning.Help children become aware of salientsensory cues.Encourage children to hypothesize andmake predictions.Ask different types of questions, especiallyopen-ended questions.Stimulate children to find alternatives andcreative solutions. 34. McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 - 34Offer opportunities to recognize and solveproblems.Promote collaborative thinking and problemsolving.Model use of learning strategies and problemsolving.Help children recognize their emergingstrategies for learning.Provide activities to develop memorystrategies.Activate childrens prior knowledge.Think aloud and foster childrensmetacognitive awareness. 35....

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