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  • Designing open learning environments for professional development

    Peter B. Sloep Handover project meeting

    April 9, 2011 Amsterdam, NL

    Friday, April 8, 2011

  • overview • the problem - six use cases

    • inspiration - open source development

    • a hypothesis- Learning Networks

    • requirements - for learning, for interaction • solutions - two scenarios plus one

    • in summary - the Handover solution

    Friday, April 8, 2011

  • the problem six use cases


    Friday, April 8, 2011

  • update & upgrade

    James is a chemical engineer working for an SME. He wants to pursue a career as a water manager with the local water board. He therefore needs to update and upgrade his skills.

    Friday, April 8, 2011

  • extend Jean, a lawyer working for a

    pharmaceutical company, finds out she needs to expand her knowledge in order to get a

    more thorough understanding of the science part of the company,

    in particular about biotechnology.

    Friday, April 8, 2011

  • internal knowledge

    sharing/building A multinational wants to do away with its travelling road show of

    trainers and stimulate its employees to study online. They

    also want to stimulate the build- up of a collective knowledge base and stimulate the emergence of

    communities of practice.

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  • innovation The association of public

    libraries wants to rethink its role in society and retrain its personel in the process.

    Collaborative open innovation and creativity as well as joint sense making and learning are key.

    Friday, April 8, 2011

  • keeping up to date

    An SME wants to innovate constantly and therefore needs to keep its personel up to date. Collaborative open innovation and creativity as well as joint sense making and learning are key.

    Friday, April 8, 2011

  • world-wide knowledge

    sharing A large international agency wants to distribute existing

    knowledge on a particular topic more equitably. Not duplicating

    existing work and world-wide knowledge sharing are key.

    Friday, April 8, 2011

  • formal training & informal learning

    individual perspective: upgrade, update, expand ...

    organisational perspective: share knowledge, innovate?, no

    duplication of efforts?

    Friday, April 8, 2011

  • inspiration open source networks


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  • ‘Internet technologies radically undermine organizational structures because they reduce the cost of communications and transactions toward an asymptote of zero (p. 171).’

    Hence, go online.

    Friday, April 8, 2011

  • ‘This enables the formation of ‘episodic communities on demand’, so-called virtual organizations that come together frictionlessly for a particular task and then redistribute to the next task just as smoothly.’

    Hence, use a networked approach.

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  • • There are deeper levels to the book

    • micro-foundations, what drives people: pride; being an innovator; self-promotion; doing things together

    • macro-organisation, how to make it work: co-ordination (individual incentives, shared norms, and leadership), cope with complexity (division of labour)

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  • a hypothesis Learning Networks


    Friday, April 8, 2011

  • a hypothesis

    All use cases may be addressed by working with Learning Networks.

    Provisional definition: online, social networks that have been modelled after networks for open source software development in an attempt to capture their dynamics

    Friday, April 8, 2011

  • formal learning

    informal learning

    accidental learning

    compulsory initial


    further post-initial education

    ‘schools’ non-existent cannot be designed

    ‘training’ key for

    knowledge society

    cannot be designed

    Friday, April 8, 2011

  • A Learning Network = DF

    - an online social network

    - that is deliberately designed

    - to blend formal instruction and informal learning

    - in ways that suit the learner’s needs best

    Friday, April 8, 2011

  • design requirements for learning & support


    Friday, April 8, 2011

  • judge (interpret, analyse, classify)

    transfer: perform adequately effectively & efficiently

    requirements for learning competent, expert


    acquire knowledge anticipate

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  • specific competent behaviour

    knowledge skills


    internalised learn and

    action theory

    personality traits

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  • social learning

    • learning is not passively downloading • learning is interactively (re)organising and

    extending what you know and can do

    • interact: with other agents (environment) • organise: make‘fit’ in with • extend: build upon

    Friday, April 8, 2011

  • goals to be achieved

    goals achieved

    learning activities

    teacher perception

    teacher design

    teacher design

    student perception

    learning activities

    design for social learning

    Wiebe Bijker: interpretative flexibility of artefacts (philosophy of technology)

    Friday, April 8, 2011

  • support services • online profile

    • e-portfolio

    • billing

    • assessment of prior competences

    • network visualisation

    • content provision and matching

    • coaching (peer, teacher)

    • tutoring (peer, teacher)

    • authoring

    • collaboration support

    Friday, April 8, 2011

  • solutions two scenarios plus one


    Friday, April 8, 2011

  • • there is an organisation which is in control, acts as a one-stop-shop for services

    • an online environment is designed, developed, maintained by them

    • you have to ‘go there’ to participate in the network

    • it is a closed infrastructure

    central control

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  • examples

    • VLEs such as Moodle, Blackboard • Content Management systems such as

    Sharepoint, Drupal

    • portals such iGoogle, Netvibes, Liferay, Elgg

    Friday, April 8, 2011

  • distributed control

    • your desktop is your environment, no one is in control

    • use all kinds of Web 2.0 tools to assemble an open infrastructure for learning

    • tools should somehow be interoperable (APIs, specs like open social, IMS spec on Tools Interoperability, widgets)

    Friday, April 8, 2011

  • examples

    • LinkedIn, FaceBook, Yammer, Academia • Mindmeister, Google Docs • Twitter, Jabber • Slideshare, Google Docs, Zotero •, Mendeley, CiteUlike, Connotea, • Wikipedia, Wikiversity, Wikibooks

    Friday, April 8, 2011

  • intermediate solution

    • blend of distributed and central control • central control for formal training • distributed control for informal learning

    (knowledge sharing & knowledge construction)

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  • in summary the Handover solution


    Friday, April 8, 2011

  • 1. the problem - design for professional development, taking personal and organisational interests into account

    2. inspiration - open source development shows the way

    3. a hypothesis - networks for learning, best modelled after open source networks?

    Friday, April 8, 2011

  • 4. requirements - look at what we already know about learning and interaction

    5. two solution scenarios - differentiate between a centralised and distributed approach

    6. blended scenario - central control for formal instruction, distributed control for informal learning

    Friday, April 8, 2011

  • Yochai Benkler University networks and technical platforms will have to focus on managing the increasingly permeable boundaries among universities, and between universities and the world outside them. University platform design should be focused on ensuring that faculty and students have the greatest degree possible of authority and capacity to act freely, innovate internally, and participate externally.

    Benkler, Y. (2009). The Tower and the Cloud: Higher Education in the Age of Cloud Computing. In R. N. Katz (Ed.), The University in the Networked Economy and Society: Challenges and Opportunities (pp. 51-61). Educause.

    Friday, April 8, 2011

  • My online identity

    mail: peter.sloep twitter: pbsloep jabber: pbsloep pbsloep slideshare: pbsloep

    Friday, April 8, 2011