# detailed syllabus: m.sc. physics i semester

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• Detailed Syllabus: M.Sc. Physics I Semester

Course No. 441 (2011-2013) Mathematical Physics Credits: 4 Max. Marks: 100 Duration of Examination: 3 Hrs. (a) Semester Examination : 80 (b) Sessional Assessment:: 20 Syllabus for Examination to be held in December 2011, December 2012 & December 2013

UNIT I Complex Variables: Algebra of complex numbers, single and multidimensional functions, Branch points and branch lines, continuity and differentiabiliy of complex functions, Cauchy-Riemann equations, Analyticity and singularity points, complex integration, Cauchy integral theorem, Stokes theorem, Proof for multiple connected regions, Cauchys theorem of residues, Simple problems on the above topics. (10)

UNIT II

Matrices and Tensor Analysis: Eigen values and eigen vectors, diagonalization of matrix, Physics laws, space of NB-dimensions, coordinate transformation, summation convention, contra-variant and co-variant vectors, Contra-variant, covariant and mixed tensors, Kronecker delta, Tensor of higher rank, scalars or invariants, tensor fields, symmetric and skew-symmetric tensors, fundamental operations with tensors (Addition, Subtraction, outer multiplication, contraction, inner multiplication, quotient law, line element of metric tensor, conjugate or reciprocal tensor, associated tensor, Simple problems on the above topics. (10)

UNIT III Laplace Transform: Integral Transforms, Laplace transform: Conditions for L.T., Simple properties of L.T., First and Second shifting theorems, L.T. of derivatives, Derivatives of L.T., L.T. of integrals, integration of L.T., initial and final value theorems, inverse L.T. by partial fractions, Simple problems on the above topics. (10)

UNIT IV

• Fourier Series and Transforms:

Fourier series, Dirichlets conditions, determination of Fourier co-efficient, F.S. for arbitrary period, half-wave expansions, Fourier integral theorem, Fourier sine and cosine transforms, Fourier Transforms of Dirac Delta function, simple problems. (10)

UNIT V

Differential Equations : Power series solution of differential equations validity of the power series method, Bessels equation and solutions, Bessels functions, recurrence formula, orthogonality of Bessel functions, Leguerres Differential equation, Generating function, orthogonal prosperities, Beta and gamma functions and their properties and inter relationships. (10)

Text and Reference Books:

1. Mathematical Methods for Physicists, by G. Arfken 2. Matrices and Tensors of Physicists, by A.W. Joshi 3. Advanced Engineering Mathematics, by E. Kreyszig. 4. Special Functions, by E.D. Rainvile. 5. Special Functions, by W.W. Bell 6. Mathematical Methods for Physicists and Engineers, by K.F. Reily, M.P. Hobson and

S.J. Bence

7. Mathematics for Physicists, by Mary L. Boas 8. Mathematical Physics, by B.D. Gupta 9. Mathematical Physics, by H.K. Dass

10. Mathematical Physics, by Rajput

Note for Paper Setting:

The question paper shall have ten questions in all, two questions from each unit. The

candidates shall have to attempt five questions, selecting one from each unit. Each question

in the Unit will have at least one part o of short answer type, based on concepts, carrying

three marks. The question in the paper may have more than two parts.

• Detailed Syllabus: M.Sc. Physics I Semester

Course No. 442 (2011-2013) Classical Mechanics Credits: 4 Max. Marks: 100 Duration of Examination: 3 Hrs. (a) Semester Examination : 80 (b) Sessional Assessment:: 20 Syllabus for Examination to be held in December 2011, December 2012 & December 2013

UNIT I Constraints and their classifications, Generalized coordinates D Alemberts principle, Lagranges equations, properties of kinetic energy function, theorem on total energy, Lagranges equation for conservative, non-conservative, and dissipative systems, Lagrangian for a charged particle moving in an electromagnetic field, Rayleighs dissipative functions. Gauge transformations, Applications of Lagranges equation: motion of charged particle on surface of earth, body sliding on an slide plane, Harmonic oscillator, simple and compound pendulum. (10)

UNIT II

Generalized momentum, cyclic symmetry of space and time and conservation laws of linear momentum, angular momentum and energy. Translation and rotational cyclic coordinates-symmetric properties: coordinate systems with relative translational motions, rotational coordinate systems, inertial forces, coriolis force, effects of coriolis forces on: ,motion of freely falling body, motion on or near earth surface, motion of a projectile, air flow on surface of earth: centre of mass and relative coordinates the centre of mass frame, reduction of two body central force problem to an equivalent two one body problem. (10)

UNIT III Equation of motion and first integrals. Equivalent one dimensional problem and classification of orbits. The virial theorem. The differential equation for the orbit and integrable power law potential: Conditions of closed orbits, Kepler problem: inverse square law of forces: The motion in time in the Kepler problem: Orbits of artificial satellites: Scattering in a central force field, Rutherford Scattering. (10)

• UNIT IV

Hamiltons principle, Calculus of variation and its application to geodiscs and minimum number of revolutions, Derivation of Lagranges equation from Hamiltons principle, Lagranges equation for non-holonomic systems (method of undetermined multipliers) and application to cylinder rolling on inclined plane and variations, Derivation of Hamiltons equations from variational principle, Principle of least action, Application of Hamiltonian formulation to harmonic oscillator and simple pendulum. (10)

UNIT V

Canonical transformation : Generating functions, properties, examples, Integral invariance of Poincare, Jacobian determinants, Lagrange and Poisson brackets, their relationship and invariance under canonical transformation, Poisson theorem, angular momentum. Poisson brackets, Hamilton-Jacobi equation for Hamiltons principle-function, Application to Harmonic oscillator problem, Hamilton equation for Hamiltons characteristic function, separation of variables and applications to particle motion under central force. (10)

Text and Reference Books:

1. N.C. Rana and P.S. Joag, (Tata McGrae-Hill, 1991) : Classical Mechanics. 2. H. Goldstien (Addition Wesley, 1980) : Classical Mechanics 3. A. Sommerfeld : Mechanics. 4. I. Perceival & D.Richards (Cambridge University Press,1982): Introduction to

Dynamics.

Note for Paper Setting:

The question paper shall have ten questions in all, two questions from each unit. The

candidates shall have to attempt five questions, selecting one from each unit. Each question

in the Unit will have at least one part of short answer type, based on concepts, carrying three

marks. A question in the paper may have more than two parts.

• Detailed Syllabus: M.Sc. Physics I Semester

Course No. 443 (2011-2013) Quantum Mechanics Credits: 4 Max. Marks: 100 Duration of Examination: 3 Hrs. (a) Semester Examination : 80 (b) Sessional Assessment:: 20 Syllabus for Examination to be held in December 2011, December 2012 & December 2013

UNIT I The principle of superposition, one and three dimensional wave packets, Motion of wave packet, Differential equation satisfied by wave packet, Interpretation of wave function, probability current density, equation of continuity, wave packet in momentum space, Ehrenfests theorem, wave packets and uncertainty relations and spread of wave packet.. (10)

UNIT II

Application of Schrodinger Equation: One dimensional finite square well potential, particle in two and three dimensional box, exchange degeneracy, symmetric and anti-symmetric states, solution of free particle Schrodinger equation in spherical polar coordinates, solution of three dimensional harmonic oscillator in spherical polar coordinates, degeneracy of harmonic oscillator states. (10)

UNIT III General Formalism : Fundamental postulates of wave mechanics, operator representation of dynamical variables, commutation of rators, Adjoint and hermitian operators, unitary operator, Eigen value problem for operators, properties of Eigen inunctions and eigen values of hermitian operators, simultaneous eigen functions, Dirac Delta function and box normalization of free particle wave function. Uncertainty principle in operator approach. Ket and Bra notation, matrix representation of wave function and operators. Energy spectrum of one dimensional harmonic Oscillator using matrix mechanics. (10)

• UNIT IV Theory of Angular Momentum-I :

Definition of generalized angular momentum, operators for J+, J-, Jz commutation relation of angular momentum operator with r & p . Spectrum of Eigen values of J2 and Jz, operators for orbital angular momentum L in spherical polar coordinates, Eigen values and Eigen functions of L2 and Lz., spin angular momentum, Eigen values and Eigen functions of S

2 and Sz (10)

UNIT V

Theory of Angular Momentum-II:

Matrix representation of J2, Jz J+, J-, Jx, Jy for J = , 1. Pauli;s spin matrices and their properties. Addition of two angular Momentna, coupled and uncoupled representation. Clebsch Gordon Coefficients, Spectrum of eigen values of total angular momentum. Calculation of C.G. coefficients when (1) J1 = , J2 = , (2) J1 = , J2 = 1. (10)

Text and Reference Books:

1. L.I. Schifff, Quantum Mechanics. (McGrae-Hill).

2. S. GasioQrowicz, Quantum Physics (Wesley).

3. B. Craseman and J.D. Powell, Quantum Mechanics (Addison Wesley).

4. A.P. Messiah, Quantum Mechanics (Addison Wesley).

5. J.S. Sakurai, Modern Quantum Mechanics

6. Mathews and Vankatesan, Quantum Mechanics

Note for Paper Setting:

The question paper shall have ten questions in all, two questions from each unit. The

candidates shall have to attempt five questions, selecting one from each unit. Each question

in the Unit will have at least one part of short answer type, based on concepts, carrying three

marks. A question in the paper may have more than two parts.

• Detailed Syllabus: M.Sc. Physics I Semester

Course No. 445 (2011-2013) Integrated Electronics Credits: 4 Max. Marks: 100 Duration of Examination: 3 Hrs. (a) Semester Examination : 80 (b) Sessional Assessment:: 20 Syllabus for Examination to be held in December 2011, December 2012 & December 2013

UNIT I Carrier Concentration & Transport: Introduction to Electronic Materials, Crystal planes (Miller Indices), Crystal Structures of Si and GaAs, band theory of solids, Fermi levels in intrinsic and doped semiconductors, degenerate semiconductors derivation of intrinsic carrier concentration, carrier mobility and drift velocity, Resistivity and Conductivity, Hall effect, diffusion phenomenon, Haynes-Shockley experiment, Einsteins relationship, carrier injection & Direct bandgap, recombination processes (direct), Auger recombination, continuity equation, high field effects. (10)

UNIT II

P.N. Junction Theory: P.N. junction: thermal equilibrium condition, depletion region (abrupt and linearly graded junctions), depletion capacitance: C-V characteristics, impurity distribution, and varactor; I-V characteristics; generation-recombination and high-injection effects, temperature effect, charge storage and transient behaviour; minority carrier storage, diffusion capacitance, junction breakdown: tunneling effect and avalanche multiplication; semiconductor heterojunctions. (10)

UNIT III Photanic Devices and BJTs: Energy momentum relationship, direct and indirect bandgap semiconductors, transferred electron effect (Gunn Diode), quantum mechanical phenomenon, tunnel diode, IMPATT Diode, Semiconductor LEDs and LASERs Photodiodes (Heterojunctions) emission in semiconductors, optical absorption, spontaneous and stimulated emission. The Transistor action, active mode operation, current gain, Static characteristics, modes of operation (Ebers-Moll Model), I-V characteristics of CB and CE configurations, frequency response of BJTs, basic concepts of HBT and thyristors. (10)

• UNIT IV

Combinational Logic Circuits:

Review of Boolean Laws & Theorems; Logic Families; TTL AND, OR, NAND, NOR AND NOT Gate circuits; Standard forms of Boolean expressions (SOP & POS form) and their implantation; Karnaugh simplification of SOP & POS expressions (upto 5-variables); Dont care conditions; Simplification by Quine McClusky method; Data selector/multiplexer (4-1,8-1 & 16-1); Encoder (decimal to BCD) Demultiplexer (1 to 16); Decoder (BCD to Decimal); Seven Segment decoder. (10)

UNIT V

Digital Electronics : Clock waveform and its characteristics; One bit memories; RS, JK, JK-master slave, D and T Flip Flops (Unlocked, Locked and Edge triggered); Counters; Modulus of Counter; Asynchronous 2-bit, Up/Down and decade counter; Design of synchronous counter (Mod-8); Resistors: Shift Resistors (SISO, SIPO, PISO and PIPO); Applications of Shift Register. (10)

Text and Reference Books:

1. Semiconductor Devices: Physics & Technology; S.M.Sze, John Wiley & Sons. 2. Solid State Electronics Devices: Ben. G. Streetman; Prentice-Hall of India Ltd. 3. Physics of Semiconductor Devices: M.Shur; Prentice-Hall of India Ltd. 4. Physics of Semiconductor Devices: S.M.Sze: Wiley Eastern Limited. 5. Semiconductor Devices & Integrated Electronics; A.B. Milnes; B.S. Publishers & Distributors, New Delhi.

Note for Paper Setting:

The question paper shall have ten questions in all, two questions from each unit.

The candidates shall have to attempt five questions, selecting one from each unit. Each

question in the Unit will have at least one part of short answer type, based on concepts,

carrying three marks. The question in the paper may have more than two parts.

• Detailed Syllabus: M.Sc. Physics II Semester

Course No. 491 (2009-2011) Quantum Mechanics Credits: 4 Max. Marks: 100 Duration of Examination: 3 Hrs. (a) Semester Examination : 80 (b) Sessional Assessment:: 20

Syllabus for Examination to be held in May 2009, May 2010 & May 2011.

UNIT I Perturbation Theory: Time independent non-degenerate perturbation theory upto second order. Application to perturbed harmonic oscillator. Time independent degenerate perturbation theory upto first order. Application of degenerate perturbation theory to stark effect and Zeeman effect. Time dependent perturbation theory, calculation of first order transition amplitude, transition probability and derivation of Fermis Golden rule. (10)

UNIT II

Semi classical theory of radiation, Einsteins coefficients of emission and absorption, expression for transition probability for absorption and induced emissions using electric dipole approximation, Planks Law. Adiabatic approximation for solving time dependent problems, sudden approximation. (10)

UNIT III Variational technique, its application to ground state of Helium atom. W.K.B-approximation, classical; turning points,. Connection formulate, Application to WKB to bound state problem and tunneling, x decay derivation, Geiger Nattal Law. (10)

• UNIT IV

Scattering Theory-I:

Differential and total scattering cross-sections, scattering amplitude, relation between differential scattering cross/section and scattering amplitude, Laboratory and centre of mass reference frames, relation of s scattering angles and cross-sections in Laboratory and C.O.M. systems, Partial wave analysis, expression for scattering amplitude and total scattering cross-section in terms of Phase shifts, scattering by a perfectly rigid sphere and by square well potential, Deduction of optical theorem from scattering cross section. (10)

UNIT V

Scattering Theory-II:

Free particle Greens Function, Greens function method for scattering, derivation of scattering amplitude and born approximation, validity of Born approximation, Application of Born approximation to square well, Yukawa and screen coulomb potential. Multiparticle Wave function, particle exchange operator, symmetric and anti symmetric wave function, collision of identical particles and their scattering amplitude (10)

Text and Reference Books:

1. L.I. Schifff, Quantum Mechanics. (McGrae-Hill).

2. S. GasioQrowicz, Quantum Physics (Wesley).

3. B. Craseman and J.D. Powell, Quantum Mechanics (Addison Wesley).

4. A.P. Messiah, Quantum Mechanics (Addison Wesley).

5. J.S. Sakurai, Modern Quantum Mechanics

6. Mathews and Vankatesan, Quantum Mechanics

Note for Paper Setting:

The question paper shall have five sections with two questions from each unit. The total

number of questions will be ten and the candidates will have to attempt five questions in all

selecting one from each unit. Each question shall be sixteen Marks.

• Detailed Syllabus: M.Sc. Physics II Semester

Course No. 492 (2009-2011) Statistical Mechanics Credits: 4 Max. Marks: 100 Duration of Examination: 3 Hrs. (a) Semester Examination : 80 (b) Sessional Assessment:: 20

Syllabus for Examination to be held in May 2009, May 2010 & May 2011.

UNIT I Foundations of statistical mechanics, specification of states of a system-the microstate and the macrostate, contact between statistics and thermodynamics, the free energy, the thermodynamics of gases (evaluation of Boltzmann partition function and classical partition function), classical ideal gas, entropy of mixing and Gibs paradox, the semi-classical perfect gas. (10)

UNIT II

Ensembles, microcannonical ensemble, phase space, trajectories and density of states, Liouvilles theorem, canonical ensemble thermodynamic properties of the canonical ensemble, evaluation of the total partition function, partition function in the presence of interactions fluctuation of the assembly energy in a canonical ensemble, grand canonical ensemble, the grand partition function and its evaluation, fluctuations in the number of systems, the chemical potentials in the equilibrium state. (10)

UNIT III

Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, determination of undetermined multipliers and a, equipartition of energy, the Einstein Diffusion equation, Bose-Einstein statistics, the Bose-Einstein gas, Bose-Einstein condensation, Fermi-Dirac statistics, the Fermi-Dirac gas, the electron gas. (10)

• UNIT IV

Cluster expansion for a classical gas, virial expansion of the equation of state, evaluation of the virial coefficients the Ising model, equivalence of the Ising model to other models, spontaneous magnetization, the Bragg-Williams approximation, the Bethe-Peierls approximation. (10)

UNIT V

Phase transitions, Landau theory of phase transition, critical exponents, scaling hypothesis for the thermodynamic functions. Fluctuations, time-dependent, correlation functions, fluctuations and thermodynamic properties. Brownian motion, Langevin theory, fluctuation-dissipation theorem, the Fokker-Planck equation. (10)

Text and Reference Books:

1. Statistical and Thermal Physics by F. Reif. 2. Statistical Mechanics by K. Huang. 3. Statistical Mechanics by R.K. Pathria 4. Statistical Mechanics by R. Kubo 5. Statistical Physics by Landau and Lifshitz.

Note for Paper Setting:

The question paper shall have five sections with two questions from each unit. The

total number of questions will be ten and the candidates will have to attempt five questions in

all selecting one from each unit. Each question shall be sixteen Marks.

• Detailed Syllabus: M.Sc. Physics II Semester

Course No. 493 Integrated Electronics-II Credits: 4 Max. Marks: 100 Duration of Examination: 3 Hrs. (a) Semester Examination : 80 (b) Sessional Assessment:: 20

Syllabus for Examination to be held in May 2009, May 2010 & May 2011.

UNIT I Operational Amplifier-I : Differential Amplifiers: Circuits Configurations, dual input, balanced output differential amplifier, DC analysis (inverting and non-inverting), CMRR, constant current bias.

Introduction to Op-amps: Block diagram of a typical Op-amps analysis of typical Op-amp, equivalent circuit, open loop configurations of Op-amps (the differential amplifier, inverting and non-inverting amplifiers)

Op-amp with negative feed back:: Voltage series feed back effect of feed back, bandwidth and output offset voltage, voltage follower. (10)

UNIT II

Operational Amplifier-II: Practical Op-amp : input-offset Voltage , input bias scurrent, input offset current, total output offset voltage, CMRR, frequency response. DC and AC amplifier, summing, scaling and averaging amplifiers, instrumentation amplifier, integrator and differentior. Oscillators : Principle, types, frequency stability, response. The phase shift oscillator and LC tunable oscillator. Multivibrators: Monostable and astable MV. (10)

UNIT III Analog and Digital Circuits : Analog computation, active filters, logarithmic and antilogarithmic amplifier, sample and hold amplifiers, square and triangular wave generators, 555 timer. Scmitt trigger, clippers and clampers. Digital to analog converters (ladder and weighed resistor types), Analog to digital converters (Counter type, successive approximation and dual slope converters), Applications of DACs and ADCs. (10)

• UNIT IV Radio Waves and Receivres :

Introduction to the Electromagnetic waves and their optical properties, Various modes of radio wave propagation (space wave propagation, sky wave propagation and ground wave propagation), Refractive index of ionosphere in the absence of the earths magnetic field, condition of reflection, MUFcritical frequency and skip distance. Radio Receivers: Straight and Sueprheterodyne receiver, block diagram and working, pentagrid Mixer, theory of Suuperheterodying. (10)

UNIT V

Memory Devices and Microprocessor (8085):

RAM, ROM and application, introduction of SRAM, DRAN, CMOS and NMOS, magnetic memories (magnetic tape, hard disks, floppy disks), ferroelectric and optical memories, CCD (Principle of operation and applications) Introduction to microcomputer, memory, input/output and interfacing devices, 8085 CPU-Architecture, BUS timing, demultiplexing the address bus generating control signals, instruction set, addressing modes and assembly language programmes for simple mathematical operations. . (10)

Text and Reference Books:

1. Gayakwad,. Operational Amplifier & Linear Integrated units.

2. R.K. Gaur, Digital Electronics & Microcomputers.

3. Electronic Communication system by George Kennedy

Note for Paper Setting:

The question paper contains five Units. Each unit will contain two questions.

The candidates are required to answer in all five questions selecting one from each unit. All

the questions will carry equal marks.

• Detailed Syllabus: M.Sc. Physics II Semester

Course No. 494 Computational Methods & Programming Credits: 4 Max. Marks: 100 Duration of Examination: 3 Hrs. (a) Semester Examination : 80 (b) Sessional Assessment:: 20 Syllabus for Examination to be held in May 2009, May 2010 & May 2011.

UNIT I Solution of simultaneous Algebraic Equations: Back substitution Gauss Elimination method, Gauss-Jordan Elimination method, Pivoting, Jacobi methods & Gauss-Seidel iterative methods Comparison of direct and iterative methods. Root-finding Algorithms: Bisection method, successive bisection method, method of false position, Newton-Raphason method, Secant method, method of Successive approximations. (10)

UNIT II

Interpolation: Lagranges Newton interpolation method, Least square line fitting. Numerical differentiation, Numerical Integration (Gaussian Quadrature method, Newton-cotes Integration formula, Trapezoidal rule and Simpsons rule. Romberg rule) Numerical methods for ordinary differential equations: Eulers method & Runge-Kutta method (second & fourth order)

UNIT III

Introduction to programming in C++: Then input and output operator, comments, Data types, Variables, objects and their declarations, keywords and identifiers chained assignments Integer types, simple arithmetic operators, operator precedence and associativity, the increment and decrement operators, compound assignment expressions, In tiger overflow and underflow, simple programs.

Conditional Statements and Integer Types:

The if statement, the if. else statement, Relational operators, Compound Statements, Compound Conditions Nested Conditions, the Switch Statement, Enumeration types. (10)

• UNIT IV

Iteration and floating types: The while statement, the do...while statement, for statement break statement, continue statement, the go to statement. Function & Arrays: Function declaration & definitions, local variables & functions, void functions, passing by reference and passing by value, passing by constant reference, inline functions, overloading, main ( ), exist ( ) functions, Array declaration and initializing, processing Arrays, passing an Array to a function, the Linear search and Bubble sort algorithm, binary search algorithm, using arrays with enumeration types, Multidimensional Arrays. (10)

UNIT V

Pointers & References:

Pointers declaration, pointer operator, address operator, pointer arithmetics References, Derived types, Arrays & pointers, the new operator, the delete operator, dynamic arrays, Arrays of pointers and pointers to Arrays, Pointers to Pointers. Pointers functions, call by value, call by References. Classes:-

Introduction, class declaration, constructor, constructor initialization, Private member function, class constructor, copy constructor, Pointers to object. Stream I/O:-

Stream classes, the ios class, ios format flags, ios state variables, the istream & ostream classes, unformatted input functions. (10)

Text and Reference Books:

1. Sastry: Introductory Methods of Numerical Analysis. 2. Vetterming Teukolsky, Press and Flannery: Numerical Recipes. 3. Numerical Recipes imn C++: by William H. Press, Saul A. Teukolskly, William T.

Vertterling Brian P. Flannery 4. An Introduction to Numerical Analysis by Kendall E. Atkinson. 5. Programming with C++ by D Ravichandran 6. Object Oriented Programming in Turbo C++ by Robert Lafore 7. Programming in C++ by Balguruswamy 8. Programming in C++ by Schaums Series.

Note for Paper Setting:

The question paper contains five Units. Each unit will contain two questions.

The candidates are required to answer in all five questions selecting one from each unit. All

the questions will carry equal marks.

• Detailed Syllabus M.Sc. Physics (3rd Semester) Course No. 500 Title: Atomic & Molecular Physics Spectroscopy Credits: 4 Maximum Marks: 100 (a) Semester Examination : 80 (b) Sessional Assessment:: 20 Duration of Examination: 3 Hrs.

Syllabus for Examination to be held in December 2009, December 2010 & December 2011 UNIT I : Atomic Physics

Spectra of Alkali Elements: Different series in alkali spectra (main features), Ritz combination principle, Term values in alkali spectra and quantum defect, Spin-Orbit interaction, doublet structure in alkali spectra, intensity rules, alkali-like spectra.

Sommerfeld theory of hydrogen atom

Quantum conditions (qualitative), application of quantization to hydrogen atom, quantization of elliptical orbits total energy of a system in case of Somerfdelds elliptical orbits, Relativistic correction to Sommerfelds elliptical orbits. (10) UNIT II : Molecular spectra Microwave and near Infra-red Spectroscopy Types of Molecular spectra, Regions of the Spectrums, Salient features of rotational specra, rotational spectra of diatomic molecule as a rigid rotator, Energy levels and spectra of a non-rigid diatomic molecule, Salient features of Variational-Rotational spectra, vibrating diatomic molecule as a harmonic oscillator and as anharmonic oscillator. Diatomic molecule as rigid rotator and harmonic oscillator diatomic molecule as a non-rigid rotator and anharmonic oscillator. (10) UNIT III : Raman Sepctra Raman effect and its salient features, vibrational Raman Spectra, Pure rotational Raman Spectra, Vibrational-Rotational Raman Spectra. Electronic Spectra Salient features of molecular electronic spectra, formation of electronic spectra, Frank-Condon Principle, Vibrational Coarse Structure, Rotational fine structure of electronic vibrational transitions. (10)

• ` UNIT IV : Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy :

Nuclear spin and magnetic moment, origin of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, Theory of NMR spectra, experimental study of NMR spectroscopy, Experimental technique, Hyperfine structure of ESR absorptions, fine structure in ESR spectra, double resonance in ESR, Applications of ESR. (10)

UNIT V : X-rays and X-ray Spectra :

Production of X-rays, reflection and refraction of X-rays, Continuous X-ray spectrum, Characteristic emission spectrum, Characteristic absorption spectrum, Comparison of Optical and X-ray spectra, Molseleys law and its applications, monochromatization of X-rays, explanation of emission and absorption spectra, fine structure of X-ray levels, the fluorescence yield and Auger effect, detection and determination of relative intensity of X-rays. (10)

Text and Reference Books:

1. Introduction to Atomic Spectra by H.E. White 2. Fundamentals of Molecular Spectroscopy by C.B. Banwell 3. Spectroscopy Vol.I, II, III by Walker and Straughen. 4. Introduction to Molecular Spectroscopy by G.M. Barrow. 5. Elements of Spectroscopy by Gupta, Kumar, Sharma.

Note for Paper Setting:

The question paper shall have five units with two questions from each unit. The total

number of questions will be Ten and the candidates will have to attempt Five questions in all

selecting one from each unit. Each question shall be of 16 marks.

• Detailed Syllabus M.Sc. Physics (3rd Semester)

Course No. 501 Title: Condensed Matter Physics

Credits: 4 Maximum Marks: 100

(a) Semester Examination : 80 (b) Sessional Assessment:: 20 Duration of Examination: 3 Hrs.

Syllabus for Examination to be held in December 2009, December 2010 & December 2011 UNIT I : Crystal Physics and X-ray Crystallography

Crystal solids, unit cells and direct lattice, two- and three-dimensional Bravais lattices, crystal

systems, crystal planes and Miller indices, close packed structures, symmetry elements in

crystals, point groups and space groups. (10)

UNIT II : Reciprocal Lattice and Experimental X-ray diffraction Techniques: Reciprocal lattices and its applications to diffraction techniques, Ewald Sphrre, interaction of X-

rays with matter, absorption of X-rays, experimental diffraction techniques-Laues diffraction

technique, powder X-ray diffraction technique, indexing of powder photographs and lattice

parameter determination, applications of powder method, general concept of atomic scattering

factor and structure factor. (10)

UNIT III : Disorder in Solids:

Point defects (Frenkel & Schottky), line defects (slip, plastic deformation, edge dislocation,

screw dislocation, Burgers vector, concentration of line defects, estimation of dislocation

density), Frank-Reid mechanism of dislocation multiplication (dislocation reaction), surface

(Planar) defects, grain boundaries and stacking faults. (10)

`

• UNIT IV : Electronic Properties of Solids:

Electrons in periodic lattice: Bloch theorem, the Kronnig Penny model, classification of solids on

the basis of band theory, effective mass, Fermi surface and Fermi gas, Hall Effect,

Superconductivity and its historical perspective, critical temperature, persistent current, effect of

magnetic fields, Meissner effect. (10)

UNIT V : Magnetic Properties of Solids: Classification and general properties of ,magnetic materials,. Weiss theory of ferromagnetism,

temperature dependence of spontaneous magnetization, Heissenbergs model and molecular

field theory, curie-Weiss law for susceptibility, domain structure and ferromagnetic domains,

Bloch-Wall energy, spin waves and magnons, quantization of spin waves, the Bloch T3/2 law,

Neel model of antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism. (10)

Text and Reference Books:

1. Introduction to Solids by Azaroff 2. Crystallography for Solid State Physics by Verma and Srivastava 3. Solid State Physics by Kittle 4. Solid State Physics by M.A. Wahab 5. Elementary Solid State Physics by Omar 6. Crystal Structure Determination by G.H. Stout, L.H. Jensen 7. Principals of Condensed Mater Physics by Chaikin and Lubensky.

Note for Paper Setting:

The question paper shall have five units with two questions from each unit. The total

number of questions will be Ten and the candidates will have to attempt Five questions in all

selecting one from each unit. Each question shall be of 16 marks.

• Detailed Syllabus M.Sc. Physics (3rd Semester)

Course No. 502 Title: Nuclear and Particle Physics (General-1)

Credits: 4 Maximum Marks: 100

(a) Semester Examination : 80

(b) Sessional Assessment:: 20 Duration of Examination: 3 Hrs.

Syllabus for Examination to be held in December 2009, December 2010 & December 2011

UNIT I :

Properties of Nuclei & Nuclear Forces

Nuclear Mass, Nuclear Binding Energy Nuclear radius, Spin and magnetic moments of Nuclei, Parity, Angular Moment, Electric Um Quadrapole moments, Concept of meson theory of Nuclear forces, Exchange Force and Tensor Force. Charge independence and Charge symmetry of nuclear forces. Isospin formalism. (10)

UNIT II

Nuclear Interaction

Bound State of two nucleons, Theory of Ground State of two nucleons. Nucleon- nucleon scatterings (n-p & p-p) at Low energies (

• UNIT IV

Nuclear Models

Shell model - Experimental evidence for shell effects and magic numbers, Shell model spin orbit coupling. Schmidts lines and prediction of angular momentum and parity of nuclear ground states. Collective model of Bohr and Mottelson rotational States and Vibrational levels, Nilsson Model. (10)

UNIT V

Elementary Particles and their classifications.

Elementary Particles and their classifications, conservation laws, parity conservation and violation, conservation of isotopic spin, Gell Mann Nishigima scheme, Charge conjugation and time reversal, CP violation and CPT theorem. Strong, Weak and electromagnetic interactions : coupling constants, decay life times and cross-sections. (10)

Text and Reference Books:

1. Nuclear Physics : R.R. Roy and B.P. Nigam 2. Nuclear Physics : D.Halliday 3. Introduction to Nuclear Physics : H.A. Enge 4. Nuclear Physics : E. Fermi 5. Nuclear Physics : I Kaplan 6. Concepts of Nuclear Physics : B.L. Cohen 7. Nuclein-Nucleon interactions : G.E. Brown And A.D. Jackson. 8. Nuclear Interaction : Side Benedetti 9. Nuclear Structure, Vo.1 and Vol. 2 : A.Bohr and B.R. Mottelson.

10. Atomic Nucleus : R.D. Evans.

Note for Paper Setting:

The question paper shall have five units with two questions from each unit. The total

number of questions will be Ten and the candidates will have to attempt Five questions in all

selecting one from each unit. Each question shall be of 16 marks.

• Syllabus (M.Sc. Physics 3

rd Semester)

Course No. 504

Title: Condensed Matter Physics (Special Paper I)

Credits: 4 Maximum Marks: 100

(a) Semester Examination : 80 (b) Sessional Assessment:: 20

Duration of Examination: 3 Hrs.

Syllabus for Examination to be held in December 2009, December 2010 & December 2011

UNIT I : Latticed Dynamics and thermal properties of solids Lattice waves, Vibrations of one dimensional monatomic lattice, Linear diatomic lattice, Three dimensional lattice, Lattice optical properties in ionic crystal, Quantization of Lattice vibrations-concept of phonon, Inelastic scattering of neutrons and X-rays by phonon, Debyes model of specific heat, Anharmonicity, Thermal expansion, Thermal conductivity, Mean-free path of phonons. . (10)

UNIT II : Electron Phonon Interaction Introduction, Plasmons, Plasma optics, transverse optical modes in Plasma, Longitudinal Plasma oscillations, Polaritons, Long wavelength optical phonon in isotropic crystal (Lyddans, Sachs and Teller relation), electron phonon interaction In polar solids polarons, Electron phonon interaction in metals, Electron photon and phonon photon interaction (Graphical representation). (10)

UNIT III : Superconductivity

Theoretical aspects Londons theory, Superconductivity at high frequency, Thermodynamics of superconducting transitions, Manifestation of energy gap, Copper pairing due to phonons, BCS theory, Josephsons tunneling effect (a.c and d.c), Type I and type - II superconductors, Elementary idea of high temperature superconductivity. (10)

• `

UNIT IV : Exciton, Photoconductivity, Luminescence

Exciton, Weakly bond exciton, Tightly bound excitons, Trapping and its effect, Photoconductivity, Electronic transition in photoconductors, Model of superconductivity, Influence of traps, Luminescence, Model of luminescence in Sulphide Phosphorous, Thalium activated alkali halides, Electro luminescence. (10)

UNIT V : Mossbauer Effect: Resonant absorption, Mechanisms of Mossbauer effect recoil energy, natural line width,

thermal line width: Dopplers broadening, Experimental description, Classical theory, Debye

Waller factor, Quantum theory, Mossabauer effect and lattice dynamics, Mossbauer effect and

magnetism, Applications of Mossbauer effect. (10)

Note :

The question paper will have two questions from each unit (Total ten questions) and the candidate will be required to answer one question from each unit (total questions to be attempted will be five). Each question carries sixteen marks

References:

1. Quantum theory of Solids - Charles Kittel 2. Quantum theory of Solid State Joseph Callaway 3. Introduction to Solid State Theory - Otfried Madelung 4. Introduction to Solid State Theory - Charles Kittel 5. Elementary Solid State Physics, Principles and Application M.A. Omar 6. Solid State Physics R.K. Singhal

.

• Detailed Syllabus M.Sc. Physics (3rd Semester)

Course No. 505 Title: Nuclear and Particle Physics (Special-1)

Credits: 4 Maximum Marks: 100

(a) Semester Examination : 80

(b) Sessional Assessment:: 20 Duration of Examination: 3 Hrs.

Syllabus for Examination to be held in December 2009, December 2010 & December 2011

UNIT I : ` Symmetries

Isospin : SU (2) Symmetry, its mathematical formulation and breaking. SU (3), generators of SU (3), I-U-V spins, Casmier operator, Quark Model. Gell-Man Okubo mass formulae, magnetic moment of baryon, the mixing and mass formula. (10)

UNIT II

Static Quark Model of Hadrons

The Baryon Moments Decuplet, Quark spin and color, Baryon Octect, Quark-Antiquark combinations :- The pseudoscalar mesons, the vector mesons, leptonic decay of vector mesons, Baryon Magnetic moments, Heavy-meson spectroscopy and the quark model. J/U and upsilon states; Zweig Rudle, Quark confinement and search for free quarks. (10)

UNIT III

Parity of Particle and Antiparticle, Parity Conservation and Non-conservation, Charge conservation, Gauge invariance and photons.

Charge conjugation invariance, Eigen States of then charge conjugation operator, Positronium decay, Ko decay, CP violation in Ko decay, KL

o - Kso system oscillations, Ko regeneration. Time Reversal In variance, CPT theorem and its consequences. Isospin of two nucleon systems and pion-nucleon system, G parity, Wave optical discussion of hadron scattering. (10)

• UNIT IV

Nuclear Scattering-Resonances

Resonances (p, , , , ) and their Quantum numbers production and formation experiments. Relativistic kinematics and Invariants Mandelstam variables, phase space, decay of one particle into three particles Dalitz plot. (10)

UNIT V

Feynman Calculus and Quantum Electrodynamics

The Feynman Rules for a TOY theory, Feynman diagrams, Feynman Higher order diagrams. Electromagnetic Interactions : Elastic scattering of spinless Electrons by Nuclei, Four Momentum transfer, scattering of Electrons with spin by spinless nuclei, Electron scattering by nucleons. The process e+e-+-, Bhabha scattering e+e e+e- (10)

Note for Paper Setting:

The question paper shall have five units with two questions from each unit. The total

number of questions will be Ten and the candidates will have to attempt Five questions in all

selecting one from each unit. Each question shall be of 16 marks.

Text and Reference Books:

1. Introduction High energy Physics by Donald H. Pzerikins. 2. Nuclear and Particle Physics by E. Burchman 3. Elementary Particles by I.S. Hughes 4. Quarks, Leptons and Gague Fields by Kerson Haung 5. Introduction to Particle Physics by M.P. Khanna 6. Particle Physics by B.R. Martin and G.Shah 7. The Big and Small by G. Venkataraman 8. Elementary Particles and their interactions concepts and phenomena Quang Ho-Kim,

Pham Xuan Yam. 9. Introduction to Elementary Particle Physics by David Griffith

• .

Detailed Syllabus M.Sc. Physics (3rd Semester)

Course No. 506 Title: Nuclear Theory (Special-1)

Credits: 4 Maximum Marks: 100

(a) Semester Examination : 80

(b) Sessional Assessment:: 20 Duration of Examination: 3 Hrs.

Syllabus for Examination to be held in December 2009, December 2010 & December 2011

UNIT I :

Review of basic concepts of finite group theory, permutation group, Caleys theorem, applications of Caleys theorem for determining group structures of finite groups of order 3,4,5 and 6, Lagrange theorem, its application for finding group structures of order, 4,5 and 6. Quotient group, self conjugate subgroups, Matrix representation, equivalent representation, unitary representation. (10)

UNIT II

Reducible and irreducible representation, characters of irreducible representations, Schurs Lemmas, Statement and proof of orthogonality theorem for irreducible representative of a group. Interpretation of orthogonality theorem. Orthogonality of characters and character tables. Continuous groups, Lie groups, General properties and examples of Lie groups. (10)

UNIT III

Symmetry in Physics, Symmetry in physical laws, Noethers theorem, Symmetry and quantum Mechanics, Examples from quantum mechanics i.e., one dimensional system, Symmetry in quantum numbers. Matrix elements and selection rules. Concept of broken Symmetry. The axial rotation group SO (2). Generators of SO (2), 3-dimensional rotation group SO (3), its generators and irreducible representation. (10) UNIT IV

• O (4) and SO(4) Groups, SO (4)s as a direct product of two SO (3) groups. Special Unitary Group SU (2), its irreducible representations. Homomorphism of SU (2) on SO (3). Generators of U (n) and SU (n). Generators of SU (2), Physical applications of SU (2). (10)

UNIT V

The special unitary group SU (3). Physical application of SU (3), Gelmanns representation of SU (3) and quarks. Detailed study of Lorentz group. Application of group theory of isotropic harmonic Oscillatorand Hydrogen atom. (10)

Note for Paper Setting:

The question paper shall have five units with two questions from each unit. The total

number of questions will be Ten and the candidates will have to attempt Five questions in all

selecting one from each unit. Each question shall be of Sixteen marks.

Text and Reference Books:

1. Introduction to Group Theory, A.W. Joshi 2. Group Theory, Hammer Mesh 3. Group Theory and Quantum Mechanics, M. Tinkham 4. A.P. Messiah, Quantum Mechanics 5. Quantum Mechanics/Symmetries (2nd Edition), W. Griener and B./ Muller.

• Detailed Syllabus: M.Sc. Physics III Semester

Course No. 508 Electronics Special Paper-I Credits: 4 Max. Marks: 100 Duration of Examination: 3 Hrs. (a) Semester Examination : 80 (b) Sessional Assessment:: 20

Syllabus for Examination to be held in December 2009, December 2010 & December 2011.

Unit - I Electronic Communication and Modulation : Importance of Communication, Introduction to Elements of communication systems and types of electronics communication (Simplex, Duplex, Analog, Digital, Base band and modulated signals)

Modulation Systems: Amplitude Modulation (Spectrum of an Amplitude Modulated signal,. Low-level AM Modulator), Single Sideband (SSB) Modulation, Generation of SSB signal (Filter Method), Vestigial-Sideband (VSB) Modulation, Demodulation of AM Waves (Square-law Detectors, Linear Diode Detector) Angle Modulation (Frequency and Phase Modulation), FM generation (Parameter Variation method), Frequency multiplication, FM Demodulation (Slope Detector) (10)

Unit -II Microwave devices and Circuits : Basic principle of operation of a Klystron (Multicavity and Reflex Klystron), Principle of operation of Cavity Magnetron, Helix Traveling Wave Tube, Velocity Modulation, Wave Modes and Microwave Antennas

Gunn Effect, Gun Diode, IMPATT Diode and TRAPATT Diode (10)

UNIT III Unit -III Communication Channels : Optical Fibers: Introduction to optical fibers, comparison of conventional transmission cables with optical fibers types of optical fibers, Propagation in fibers using Rays model, Bandwidth requirements and attenuation in optical fibers. Fundamentals of Transmission Lines, Loss in Transmission lines, Standing Waves and SWR, Slotted Lines, Rectangular Waveguides, Dominant Modes of Operation, Cavity /resonator, Strip line and Basic SAW resonator (10)

• Unit -IV: Radar and Satellite Systems Fundamentals of RADAR system: Block Diagram, Frequencies and Powers used in RADAR, RADAR performance Factors, Effects of Noise, Basic Pulse RADAR systems (Block Diagram and Description), Antenna and Scanning, Moving target Indication(Doppler Effect), Other RADAR systems (RADAR Beacons, Phased RADAR), RADAR applications. Orbital Satellites, Geostationary Satellites, Look Angles (angle of elevation, Azimuth angle), Satellite system Link Model (UP Link Model, Transponder, Down-Link Model) (10)

Unit -V: Multiple Access methods and Networks

Frequency Division Multiple Accessing (FDMA), Time Division Multiple Accessing (TDMA), Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA), ALOHA, CDMA. Types of Networks (Circuit Switching, Message Switching, packet-Switched Network), Design Features of Computer Communication Networks, ISDN, LAN, WAN, OSI Protocol of network architecture, Introduction to Mobile Telephone Communication (The Cellular Concept) (10)

Text and Reference Books:

* Principles of Communication Systems by H. Taub and D.L. Schilling, 2e. Tata McGra- Hill Edition * Electronic Communication Systems by G. Kennedy and B. Davis, 4e, Tata McGra-Hill Edition * Electronic Communication Systems Fundamentals through Advanced by Wayne Tomasi, 3e, Pearson Education

* Communication Electronics, Principles and Applications by Louis E. Frenzel, 3e Tata McGra-Hill Edition

Note for Paper Setting:

The question paper shall have five units with two questions from each unit. The total

number of questions will be Ten and the candidates will have to attempt Five questions in all

selecting one from each unit. Each question shall be of Sixteen marks.

• Detailed Syllabus: M.Sc. Physics 4th Semester

Course No. 551 Title: Electrodynamics and Plasma Physics Credits: 3 Max. Marks: 75 Duration of Examination: 3 Hrs. (a) Semester Examination : 60 (b) Sessional Assessment:: 15

Syllabus for the Examination to be held in May 2010, May 2011 & May 2012.

UNIT I Review of four vector and Lorentz transformation in four dimensional space, Electromagnetic field tensor. Transformation of fields, field due to a point charge in uniform motion, Lagrangian Formulation of the motion of a charged particle in an Electromagnetic field, Maxwells equations. 8

UNIT II

Retarded potentials, Lienard-Wiechert Potentials, Potentials for a charge ion in uniform motion, fields of an accelerated charge, Radiation from an accelerated charged particles at low velocity, Linear and Circular acceleration and angular distribution of power Radiated. 8

UNIT III Bremsstrahlung, Synchrotron radiation and Cerenkov radiation, reaction force of radiation. Motion of charged particles in electromagnetic field, uniform E and B fields, Non-uniform fields, Diffusion across magnetic fields. Time varying E and B fields, Adiabatic Invariants: first, second third Adiabatic invariants. 8

UNIT IV Elementary concepts, Plasma parameters, Mobility of charged particles; effect of magnetic field on the mobility of ions and electrons. Diffusion of electrons and ions, Ambipolar diffusion, Diffusion in Magnetic field. Dielectric constant of plasma; Quasineutrality of Plasma; Debye shielding distance, Magneto hydrodynamics and Equations. 8

• UNIT V

Hydromagnetic waves; Alfven and Magnetosonic waves, Wave Phenomena in Magnetoplasma; Polarization, Phase velocity, and Resonances, Electromagnetic waves propagating parallel and perpendicular to magnetic field, Appleton-Hartee formula and propagation through ionosphere and magnetosphere. 8

Note for Paper Setting:

The question paper shall have five Units with two questions from each unit.

The total number of questions shall be ten and the candidates will have to attempt five

question in all selecting one from each unit. Each questions shall be of twelve marks.

Text and Reference Books:

1. Panofsky & Phillps : Classical Electricity and Magnetism

2. Biltencourt : Plasma Physics.

3. Chen : Plasma Physics

4. Jackson : Classical Electrodynamics.

5. Electrodynamics by Kumar & Gupta & Singh.

• Syllabus M.Sc. IVth Semester(Physics)

Course No. 552

Title: Condensed Matter Physics (General Paper II)

Credits: 3 Maximum Marks: 75

(a) Semester Examination : 60 (b) Sessional Assessment:: 15

Duration of Examination: 3 Hrs.

Syllabi for the Examination to be held during May 2010, May 2011 & May 2012.

UNIT I : Crystal Growth Theoretical concept of crystal growth (Supercooling and Nucleation), Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Nucleation, Crystal Growth Techniques Solution growth: Water solution, Gel, Flux method Melt technique: Czochralski pulling, Bridgman Stockbarger, Zone melting, Verneuil flame fusion. (8)

UNIT II : Atomic Diffusion and Colour Centres Atomic diffusion, Ficks Ist and 2nd law of diffusion, Diffusion mechanism, Random Walk treatment of diffusion , The Kirkendall effect, Diffusion in alkali halide, Ionic conductivity in alkali halide, Colour centers, Types of colour centers, Generation of colour centers. (8)

UNIT III : Resonance Phenomenon

Magnetic resonance, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Equation of motion, Line width and Motional narrowing, Application of NMR in materials, electron spin resonance, Application of ESR, Ferromagnetic resonance. (8)

• `

UNIT IV : Dielectric and Ferroelectric Properties

The Dielectric constant and polarizability, Clausius- Mossotti relation, Measurement of dielectric constant, Dipolar polarization in solids, Ionic polarizability, electronic polarizability, Ferroelectricity, Ferroelectric domains.. (8)

UNIT V : Electrons in solids and Surfaces States: Interacting Electron gas-Introduction, Hartree- Folk Approximation, Hartee Folk Approx. for electron gas, Coulomb interaction, Correlation energy, Screening, Plasmons, Quasi-electrons, Dielectric constant of electron gas. (8)

Note :

The question paper will contain two questions from each unit (Total of ten questions) and the candidate will be required to answer one question from each unit (total questions to be attempted will be five). Each question carries twelve marks

Text and Reference Books:

1. Introduction to Solid State Theory - Otfried Madelung 2. Introduction to Solid State Theory - Charles Kittel 3. Quantum theory of Solids - Charles Kittel 4. Solid State Physics (Structure and Properties of Materials) M.A. Wahab 5. Elementary Solid State Physics (Principles and Application) M.A. Omar 6. Art of science of growing crystals - J.J. Gilman 7. Crystal growth Brain R Pamplin.

• Detailed Syllabus: M.Sc. Physics 4th Semester

Course No. 553 Title: NUCLEAR & PARTICLE PHYSICS(General-II) Credits: 3 Max. Marks: 75 Duration of Examination: 3 Hrs. (a) Semester Examination : 60 (b) Sessional Assessment:: 15

Syllabus for the Examination to be held in May 2010, May 2011 & May 2012.

Unit - I Nuclear Decay

Energies of -decay, neutrino hypothesis, Fermi theory of -decay. Shape of beta spectrum, Total decay Rate, Comparative life times, Fermi-Kurie plots, Selection rules for Beta decay transitions (Fermi & Gammow Teller transitions), Mass & Helicity of Neutrino, Parity violation and Wus experiment.

Gamma decay excited levels and their life times ,measurements. Multipole transitions in nuclei-Selection rules and transition probabilities. Internal conversation and pair production process. Nuclear isomerism. 8

UNIT II

Energy loss of charged particles through matter. Bethe block ionization formula. Range-Energy relation. Multiple coulomb scattering -p measurements, Bremsstrahlung and Cerenbkov radiations. Interaction of gamma radiation with Matter (Compton scattering, photoelectric effect and pair production). 8

UNIT III

Accelerating Machines and General Characteristics of Detector Linear accelerators, Principle of orbital accelerators, Cyclotron, synchro-cyclotron, modification with reference to magnetic field and frequency, Beam Collider. Detector properties: - Sensitivity, Detector response, Energy resolution Response function and time, Detector efficiency and Dead time. 8 UNIT IV

Nuclear Detector - (A)

• Nuclear Emulsions, Gaseous Ionization Detector:- Ionization and Transport Phenomena in Gases, Transport of electrons and Ions in Gases. Avalanche Multiplication, GM Counters, Proportional counters, Multiwire proportional counters. 8

UNIT - V

Nuclear Detectors - (B)

Semiconductor Detectors: Basic Semiconductor Properties: energy band structure, Charge carriers, Intrinsic charge carrier concentrations, Mobility, Recombination and trapping surface Barrier Detectors, Lithium Drifted Silicon Diodes. Scintillation Detectors: General Characteristics, Organic & Inorganic scintillators.

Note for Paper Setting:

The question paper shall have five units with two questions from each unit. The total

number of questions will be Ten and the candidates will have to attempt Five questions in all

selecting one from each unit. Each question shall be of 12 Marks.

Text and Reference Books:

1. Nuclear Physics : D.Halliday. 2. Introduction to Nuclear Physics : H.A. Enge 3. Concept of Nuclear Physics : B.L. Cohen 4. Physics of Nuclear & Particles, Vol.I & II : P.Marmier and E.Sheldon 5. Accelerator Physics: S.Y. Lee. 6. Principles of Particle Accelerators: Enrico Persico, Ezio Ferrari, Sergio e. Sergre. 7. Principles of Particle Detector : Dan. Green 8. Introduction to Elementary Particles : D. Griffiths 9. Introduction to High Energy Physics : P.H. Perkins.

10. Nuclear & Particle Physics : E. Burcham 11. Elementary Particles : L.H. Ryder.

• Detailed Syllabus: M.Sc. Physics (4th Semester)

Course No. 554 Title: Condensed Matter Physics (Special Paper II)

Credits: 4 Max. Marks: 100 Duration of Examination: 3 Hrs. (a) Semester Examination : 80 (b) Sessional Assessment:: 20

Syllabus for the Examination to be held in May 2010, May 2011 & May 2012.

UNIT I : Experimental techniques for crystal data collection Rotating crystal methods (single/double oscillation, rotation) basic principle and geometry of Weissenberg technique, visual estimation technique for intensity data collection, indexing of zero and higher layer Weissenberg photographs, determination of unit cell parameters and equi-inclination setting for obtaining higher layer Weissenberg photographs. (10)

UNIT II : Experimental methods of observing dislocations X-ray topographic technique, basic principle, Berg-Barrett technique, Lang Technique, X-ray diffraction topography camera, double crystal diffractometry, etching, methods of etching, theory of etching application of etching to dislocation problem (10)

UNIT III : Surface and Interface Physics

Elementary concepts of surface crystallography, surface electronic structure, work function, thermionic emission, heterostructures, semiconductor lasers, light emitting diodes. (10)

UNIT IV : Thin films Liquid phase epitaxy (experimental set up), preparation of thin films by vacuum vapour deposition, film thickness measurement and study of surface topography by multiple beam interferometry, electrical conductivity of thin films, Boltzmann transport equation for a thin film. (10)

• UNIT V : Exotic Solids: Introduction to nanotechnology, nanomaterials synthesis and applications, New forms of carbon

fullerenes, nanowires and nanotubes, types of nanotubes, formation of nanotubes, properties

and uses of nanotubes. (10)

Text and reference Books:

1. Introduction to Solid by Azaroff 2. Crystallography of Solid State Physics by Verma and Srivastava 3. Solid State Physics by Kittle 4. Multiple beam interferrometry by Tolansky 5. Physics of Thin Films by Chopra 6. Crystal Structure Determination by G.H. Stout, L.H. Jensen. 7. Handbook of Nanotechnology by Bharat Bhushan.

Note for paper setting :

The question paper shall have five units with two questions from each unit. The total number of

questions will be Ten and the candidates will have to attempt Five questions in all selecting one

from each unit. Each question shall be of Sixteen marks.

• Detailed Syllabus: M.Sc. Physics (4th Semester)

Course No. 555 Title: Nuclear & Particle Physics (Special Paper II)

Credits: 4 Max. Marks: 100 Duration of Examination: 3 Hrs. (a) Semester Examination : 80 (b) Sessional Assessment:: 20

Syllabus for the Examination to be held in May 2010, May 2011 & May 2012.

UNIT I : Weak Interactions-I Classification of Weak Interactions, Nuclear -decay-Fermi theory, inverse -decay, Parity non-conservation in Neutrino, Helicity of the Neutriono, Helicity States, Diarc theory to -decay, The V-A interaction, parity violation in decay, Pion and Muon decay (10)

UNIT II : Weak Interactions-II Weak Decays of strange particles _ Cabibbo Theory, weak neutral currents, Absence of S=1, neutral currents. The GIM model and charm. Weak mixing angles with six quarks. Observations of W+ and Z0 Bosons. Lepton families, Neutrino masses and neutrino Oscillations. (10)

UNIT III : Quark Parton Model

Evidence for Partons, deep inelastic electron-nucleon scattering, scale invariance and Partons (Bjosrken scaling), Neutrino nucleon inelastic scattering, lepton-quark scattering, Patron spin, Parton charges, antiquark contents of the nucleon, gluon constituents Electron-Positron ahhinilation to hadrons, Lepton pair production in hadron collisions The Drell-Yan process. (10)

UNIT IV : Quantum Chromodynamics Quantum Chromodynamics and Quark-Quark interactions, QCD potential at short distances, QCD potential at large distances (String model) Multijet events in e+e- annihilation, effects of quark interactions in Deep-Inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering, Running coupling constant :

• Quantitative predictions of QCD, q2 evolution of structure functions, Comparison of Quark and Gluon distribution (10)

UNIT V : Unification of Interactions: Renormalization in Quantum Electrodynamics, divergence in weak interactions, introduction of

Neutral currents, Gauge invariance in QED, generalized Gauge Invariance. The Weinberg-

Salam SU(2) x U(1) Model, Yang-Mils fields and SU(2) symmetry, spontaneous symmetry

breaking. Neutral current coupling of Fermions. Higgs mechanism. The standard model. Grand

unification : Proton decay, the cosmic baryon asymmetry. (10)

Text and reference Books:

1. Introduction to High Energy Physics by Donanld H.Perkins. 2. Nuclear & Paticle Physics by E. Burcham 3. Elementary Particles by I.S. Hughes 4. Quarks, Leptons and Gauge fields by Kerson Huang 5. Introduction to Particle Physics by M.P. Khanna 6. Particle Physics by B. R. Masrtin and G. Shah 7. The big and small by G. Venkataraman 8. Elementary Particles and their interactions, concepts and phenomena by Quang Ho-

Kim, Pham Xuan Yam 9. Introduction to Elementary Particle Physics by David Griffith

Note for paper setting :

The question paper shall have five units with two questions from each unit. The total

number of questions will be Ten and the candidates will have to attempt Five questions in all

selecting one from each unit. Each question shall be of 16 marks.

• Detailed Syllabus: M.Sc. Physics (4th Semester)

Course No. 556 Title: Nuclear Theory (Special Paper II)

Credits: 4 Max. Marks: 100 Duration of Examination: 3 Hrs. (a) Semester Examination : 80 (b) Sessional Assessment:: 20

Syllabus for the Examination to be held in May 2010, May 2011 & May 2012.

Unit - I Transition from discrete to continuous vibrating system. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian, Formulations for continuous systems, Euler Lagrange equations and Hamiltons equations of motion. Applications of Lagrangian and Hamiltonaian formulations to Schrodinger and Electromagnetic fields. Derivation of Schrodinger equation and Maxwells equations. (10)

UNIT - II

Second quantization, quantum equations of motion, second quantization of electromagnetic field, commutation relation between E & H, quantized field energy and momentum, second quantization of Schrodinger field. Occupation Number representation and Number representation of one body and two body operators for Fermions. (10)

UNIT - III

BrilloWin-Wigner perturbation series, Heisenberg and interaction representations, Theory of S-Matrix expression, time integrals, normal ordering, contraction of operators, Wicks theorem, Diagrammatic representation of Wicks theorem. (10)

UNIT - IV Density operator and its equation of motion, Fermi gas and Thomas Fermi model. Importance of Hatree-folk Method, Derivation of H.F. equation, Symmetries of HF Hamiltonian choice of expansion for the orbits. Single major shell HF-calculations. (10)

• UNIT - V : Pairing Theory

General aspects, pair creation and annihilation operators, one body and two body potentials in

second quantized formalism, pairing interaction in second quantized form. Pairing theory for

degenerate configuration, commutation relations of pair creation operators with pairing

Hamiltonian and Number operator. Calculation of pairing matrix for two and four particles in j =

5/2 shell. Generalization to non-degenerate configurations. The BCS formalism. Normalization of

BCS wave function. Derivation of expression for occupation probability and pairing gaps,

Uniform model. (10)

Note for the paper setting :

The question paper shall have five units with two questions from each unit. The total number of questions will be Ten and the candidates will have to attempt Five questions in all selecting one from each unit. Each question shall be of sixteen marks Text and Reference Books:

1. Classical Mechanics, Goldstein 2. Quantum Mechanics, L.I. Schiff. 3. Elements of Advanced Quantum Mechanics, J.M. Ziman 4. Shapes and Shells in Nuclear Structure, S.G. Nilsson and I. Ragnarson (Chapter 14). 5. File Quantization, W. Greiner and J. Reinhardt.

.

• Detailed Syllabus: M.Sc. Physics (4th Semester)

Course No. 558 Title: Physics of Liquid Crystals (Elective)

Credits: 3 Max. Marks: 75 Duration of Examination: 3 Hrs. (a) Semester Examination : 60 (b) Sessional Assessment:: 15

Syllabus for the Examination to be held in May 2010, May 2011 & May 2012.

UNIT I : Classification of Liquid Crystals Introduction, classification of liquid crystals, thermotropic liquid crystals (rod like molecules), chirality in liquid crystals, nematic, cholestrric and smectic mesophases, polymorphism in thermotropic liquid crystals, polymer liquid crystals and their applications, distribution functions and order parameter, measurement of order parameters by X-ray diffraction. (8)

UNIT II : Theories of phase transition in liquid crystals Nature of phase transitions and critical phenomena in liquid crystals, Mier-Saupe theory for nematic-isotropic and nematic-smectic A transitions, optical properties of cholesteric liquid crystals, the blue phases, pressure induced mesomorphism. (8)

UNIT III : Continuum Theory

Continuum theory of the nematic state, liquid crystals in electric and magnetic fields, magnetic coherence length, Freedericksz transitions, field-induced cholesteric-nematic transition, continuum theory of smectic. A Phase, Reentrant phenomena in liquid crystals. (8)

UNIT IV : Ferroelectric and discotic liquid crystals

• Ferroelectric liquid crystals, applications of ferroelectric liquid crystals, discotic liquid crystals, the columnar liquid crystal, the discotic nematic phase. Lyotropic liquid crystals, constituents of lyotropic liquid crystals, structures of lyotropic liquid crystal phases, biological membranes. (8)

UNIT V : Identification of Liquid Crystal Phases and Liquid Crystal Technology: Identification of nematic, smectic and chiral liquid crystal phases by optical polarizing

microscopy (Visual appearance and texture), Phase identification with Differential Scanning

Calorimetry, liquid crystal display, the twisted nematic liquid crystal displays, liquid crystal

displays using polymers, applications of liquid crystals. (8)

Text and reference Books:

1. Liquid Crystals by S. Chandrasekhar. 2. Thermotropic Liquid Crystals by Vertogen and Jeu 3. The Physics of Liquid Crystals by de Geenes and Prost. 4. Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals by Goodby et al.

Note for paper setting :

The question paper shall have five units with two questions from each unit. The total

number of questions will be Ten and the candidates will have to attempt Five questions in all

selecting one from each unit. Each question shall be of 12 marks.

• Detailed Syllabus : M.Sc. Physics 4th Semester

Course No. 559 Title: Quantum Electrodynamics (Elective)

Credits: 3 Max. Marks: 75 Duration of Examination: 3 Hrs. (a) Semester Examination : 60 (b) Sessional Assessment:: 15

Syllabus for the Examination to be held in May 2010, May 2011 & May 2012. UNIT I : Second Quantizastion

Creation and annihilation operators for Bosonic and Ferionic states, Field operators, Second quantized operators (One-particle density operator and kinetic energy operator), pair correlation function (Paulis exclusion principle and Boson condensation). (8) RELATIVISTIC QUANTUM MECHANICS UNIT II : Klein-Gordon (K.G.) Equation Klein-Gordon equation, Plane wave solutions, Probability current density and equation of continuity, Difficulties due to existence of negative energy states, Correct non-on-relativistic expression for probability density, Klein-Gordon equation in electromagnetic field, solution of KG. equation for a particle with coulomb potential V0 (Hydrogen atom problem), First order K.G. equation and its solution (8) UNIT III : (Dirac Equation)

Derivation of Dirac equation, and -matrices and their anti-commutation relations and their representations, Plane wave solutions of Dirac Equation (Positive energy and Negative energy solutions), Dirac equation with a central potential and hydrogen atom problem, Existence of electron spin for a dirac particle (8) UNIT IV : (Covariance of Dirac Equation)

Covariant form of Dirac Equation, y-matrices and their properties, y5-matrix and properties, Covariance of Dirac Equation under Lorentz transformations and Rotations,Construction of Plane wave solutions of Dirac Equation by Lorentz Boost of particle at rest, Bilinear covariants. (8)

• UNIT V : (Heisenberg Representation in Dirac theory) Dirac operators in the Heisenberg representation, Heisenberg equation of motion, constants of

motion and spin of Dirac particle, Velocity in Dirac theory, Zitterbewegung and negative energy

solutions, Presence of negative energy components, Hole theory and charge conjugation. (8)

Note for paper setting :

The question paper shall have five units with two questions from each unit. The total

number of questions will be Ten and the candidates will have to attempt Five questions in all

selecting one from each unit. Each question shall be of twelve marks.

Text and reference Books:

1. Quantum Mechanics, Baym 2. Relativistic Quantum Mechanics, J.J. Sakurai 3. Quantum Mechanics, L.I. Schiff 4. Text Book of Quantum Mechanics, Mathews and Venkatesan

• UNIVERSITY OF JAMMU

Title: Physics & Technology of Semiconductor Devices and Integrated Circuits (Elective) M.Sc. Physics (IVth Semester)

Course No. 560 Credits: 3 Maximum Marks: 75 Duration of Examination: 3 Hrs. (a) Semester Examination : 60 (b) Sessional Assessment:: 15

Syllabus for the Examination to be held in May 2010, May 2011 & May 2012.

Unit - I Semiconductor Materials :

Energy Bands, Intrinsic carrier concentration, Donors and Acceptors, Direct and Indirect band semiconductors, Degenerate and compensated semiconductors. Elemental (Si) and compound semiconductors (GaAs). Replacement of group III element and Group V elements to get tertiary alloys such as Alx Ga(1-x) As or GaPy As(1-y) and quaternary Inx Ga(1-x) PyAs(1-y) alloys and their important properties such as band gap and refractive index changes with x and y. Doping of Si (Group III(n) and Group V (p) compounds) and GaAs (group II(p), IV (n.p) and VI (n compounds)). (8)

Unit - I Carrier Transport in Semiconductors :

Carrier Drift under low and high fields in (Si and GaAs), saturation of drift velocity. High field effects in two valley semiconductors. Carrier Diffusion, Carrier Injection, Generation, Recombination Processes-Direct, Indirect bandgap Semiconductors, minority Carrier Life Time, drift and diffusion, Determination of conductivity (a) four-probe and (b) Van der Paw techniques, Hall coefficient, minority carrier lifetime (8)

Unit - III Junction Devices :

Junction Devices: (i) p-n junction energy Band diagrams for homo and hetro junctions,. Current flow mechanism in p-n junction, effect of indirect and surface recombination currents on the forward biased diffusion current, (ii) Metal-semiconductor (Schottky Junction): Energy band diagram, current flow mechanisms in forward and reverse bias, effect of interface states. (iii) Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor

• (MOS) diodes. Energy band diagram, depletion and inversion layer. High and low frequency Capacitance Voltage (C-V) characteristics. (8)

Unit-IV Polysilicion Preparation of Crystal; single crystal growth: Czochralski method, float zone method, brideman technique ingot shaping, polishing, cutting, epitaxy: VPE (reaction kinetics, basic transport process): MBE, defects in epitaxial; layers. Lithography, Etching and Micro-machining of Silicon, Fabrication of Integrated Circuits and Integrated Micro-electro-Mechanical-systems (MEMS) (8)

Unit-V Thermal Oxidation, Thins Film Deposition Techniques, Vacuum pumps and Gauges-Pumping speed, throughput Effective conductive control. . Film Deposition Methods : chemical vapour deposition (CVD) MOCVD, PEMOCVD (Plasma enhanced MOCVD) Physical vapour deposition : thermal evaporation, sputtering and laser ablation Different types of films : Films for protection, films for doping, films for marking, films for interconnection. (8)

Note for Paper Setting:

The question paper shall have five units with two questions from each unit. The total

number of questions will be Ten and the candidates will have to attempt Five questions in all

selecting one from each unit. Each question shall be of twelve marks.

Text and Reference Books:

1. Semiconductor Devices Physics and Technology by S.M. Sze Wiley (1985) 2. Introduction to Semiconductor Devices, S.M. Tyagi; John Wiley & Sons. 3. Measurement, Instrumentation and Experimental Design in Physics and Engineering by

M. Sayer and A. Mansingh, Prentice Hall, India (2000) 4. Solid State electronics, Ben G. Streetman 5. Material Science by engineers, by James F. Shackelford, Prentice Hall 6. The Physics of Semiconductor Devices by D.A. Eraser, Oxford Physics Series (1986) 7. Thin Film Phenomena by K.L. Chopra.

• Department of Physics & Electronics University of Jammu

Detailed Syllabus: M.Sc. Physics IV Semester

Course No. 561 Max. Marks: 100 Electronics (Special Paper-II) Credits: 4 (a) Semester Examination : 80 (b) Sessional Assessment:: 20 . Duration of Examination: 3 Hrs.

Syllabus for the Examination to be held in May 2010, May 2011 & May 2012.

Unit - I Signal Analysis

Sinusoidal signals (Frequency and time Domain), Fourier series expansion of periodic sequence of impulses, Sampling function, Normalized power, Power Spectral density (of Digital data, sequence of random pulses), Effect of Transfer function on power spectral density, Fourier transform (example v(t) = cos wt), Convolution, Parsevals Theorem, Power and Energy Transfer through a network. Correlation between waveforms, Autocorrelation, Autocorrelation of periodic waveforms. (10)

Unit -II Pulse Modulation Systems The Sampling theorem (Low-pass Signals, Band-pass Signals), Pulse-Amplitude Modulation (PAM), Channel Bandwidth for a PAM signal, Natural sampling, Flat-top sampling, Signal recovery through Holding, Quantization of signals, Quantization Error Pulse-Code Modulation (PCM), Electrical representation of Binary Digits, Differential Pulse-Code Modulation (DPCM), Delta Modulation (DM), Adaptive Delta Modulation (ADM) (10)

Unit -III Digital Modulation Techniques Binary Phase-Shift Keying (BPSK) ( Reception, Spectrum, Geometrical Representation), Differential Phase-Shift Keying (DPSK), Differentially-Encoded PSK, Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (transmitter, Receiver, signal space representation), M-ARY PSK. QASK. Binary Frequency-Shift Keying (Spectrum, Receiver) (10)

• Unit -IV: Noise Various Sources of Noise, Frequency-domain representation of noise, Effect of filtering on the probability density of Gaussian noise, Spectral components of noise, Effect of Filter on the Power spetral density of Noise, Mixing ( Noise with sinusoid, noise-noise mixing ), Linear Filtering, Quadrature components of noise nc(t), ns(t), (Power spectral Density, probability density and their time derivatives) (10)

Unit -V: Data Transmission and Noise Calculation

The Baseband Signal receiver, Optimum Filter, Matched Filter, Coherent Reception: Correlation, Phase-Shift Keying (PSK), Frequency-Shift Keying (FSK), Differential PSK, DPSK, Calculation of Error Probability for BPSK and BFSK Calculation of Quantization noise, output-signal power and output-to-noise ratio in PCM and Delta Modulation (DM) transmission. (10)

Text and Reference Books:

* Principles of Communication Systems by H. Taub and D.L. Schilling, 2e. Tata McGraw-Hill Edition * Electronic Communication Systems by G. Kennedy and B. Davis, 4e, Tata McGraw-Hill Edition * Electronic Communication Systems Fundamentals through Advanced by Wayne Tomasi, 3e, Pearson Education

* Communication Systems, Analog & Digital by R.P. Sing and S.D. Sapre 2e, Tata McGraw-Hill Edition

Note for Paper Setting:

The question paper shall have five units with two questions from each unit. The total

number of questions will be Ten and the candidates will have to attempt Five questions in all

selecting one from each unit. Each question shall be of sixteen marks.