developing collaborations between child welfare...
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Developing CollaborationsBetween Child WelfareAgencies and LatinoCommunities
Hilda P. Rivera
Collaborative efforts to achieve permanency planningand family stability for all children in the child welfaresystem are increasing. As Latino children and familiesconstitute the fastest growing ethnic group in the childwelfare system, it is important to tmderstand how todevelop culturally sensitive collaborations with theircommunities. The purpose of this article is to suggesthelpful guidelines for developing collaborations be-tween child welfare agencies and Latino communities.
Hilda P. Rivera, MSW, PhD is Assistant Professor of Social Work, Hunter College,City University ofNeiu York, New York, NY
0009-4021/2002/020371-14 S3.00 2002 Child Welfare League of America 371
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The need for communities and child welfare agencies towork together to achieve family stability and permanencyplanning has been well-established (Omang & Bonk, 1999;Onyskiw, Harrison, & Spady, 1999; Power & Eheart, 2000). ChUdwelfare agencies addressing the needs of children who do notlive in their own home because of neglect, abuse, or abandon-ment have the responsibility for either returning the child to asafe family environment or, if that is not possible, planning a per-manent new home for the child. To achieve this, the federal gov-emment is increasingly mandating that agencies and state gov-ernments change from working in isolation to workingcollaboratively with the communities from which the childrencome. For instance, the New York City Administration forChildren's Services, the city's public child welfare agency, is mov-ing to a neighborhood-based service delivery system in whichpreventive and foster home services are focusing on communitydistricts rather than broader geographic areas (Citizens' Com-mittee for Children, 2001).
Achieving permanency planning and family stability is cru-cial for all children, but especially for children of color, who rep-resent the great majority of children served by the child welfaresystem (Martin, 2000). When compared with other ethnic groups.Latino children have been found to disproportionately remain inlong-term out-of-home care. In 1982, Latino children constituted6.7% of the children in out-of-home care, and by 1993, they com-prised 14% of the children in out-of-home care (Williams, 1997).As Latino children constitute one of the fastest growing ethnicgroups in the child welfare system, it is critical to develop col-laborative efforts that involve those children's communities(Omang & Bonk, 1999; Power & Eheart, 2000; Stehno, 1990).
Despite the importance of this topic, very little has been writ-ten about collaborative efforts between child welfare agencies andculturally diverse communities, especially those of Latino ori-gin. The purpose of this article is to suggest guidelines for devel-
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oping collaborations between child welfare agencies and Latinocommunities. Collaboration is described and its potential ben-efits are discussed, as well as the implications for involving andworking with the very diverse Latino communities in the UnitedStates.
Collaboration: What Does It Mean?
Calls have been renewed for communities and child welfare agen-cies to come together and work on behalf of children's safety,permanency, and well-being. As more research shows the poten-tial benefits of developing collaborative child welfare services,the concept of collaboration has become increasingly popularamong govemment, human service, and community organiza-tions (Omang & Bonk, 1999; Onyskiw et al., 1999). Among thepotential benefits is the development of accessible, cost-effective,and comprehensive child welfare programs and services for chil-dren and families with diverse physical, mental, emotional, cul-tural, and socioeconomic needs.
Nevertheless, collaboration can be a vague term. It has beendefined in many different ways according to particular academicand professional fields. For the purpose of this article, collabora-tion is defined as a process that takes place between two or moreprofessionals or organizations who decide to work together onbehalf of children's safety, permanency, and well-being. Thoseinvolved in a collaborative effort may keep their own individualjob responsibilities, but they must periodically communicate witheach other and coordinate their respective services to avoid du-plication and jointly work as a single, helping team.
Mattessich and Monsey (1992) added that a collaboration is a"mutually beneficial and well-defined relationship entered intoby two or more organizations to achieve common goals" (p. 7).As they explained, the relationship created by the members ofthe collaboration should be one of commitment to: (a) the devel-
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opment of mutual goals, (b) jointly developed structured andshared responsibility, (c) mutual authority and accountability forsuccess, and (d) shared resources and rewards. This definitionclearly underscores four important elements that child welfareagencies must consider before they enter into a collaborative ef-fort: (1) vision and relationships; (2) structure, responsibilities,and communication; (3) authority and accountability; and (4) re-sources and rewards.
The structure of collaborations varies depending on the par-ticular needs and resources of the organizations or agencies in-volved. There are two common types: the interdisciplinary orinterprofessional, and the interorganizational collaborations. Aninterdisciplinary or interprofessional collaboration involves twoor more members of different professions or disciplines workingtogether toward a common goal. For example, a child welfareagency might call on a social worker, psychologist, physician,nurse, teacher, political official, and clergy member to help amultiproblem family that requires a coordinated scope of services.Each member of this small group is trained in different profes-sional disciplines and brings unique knowledge, skills, and workexperiences that can contribute to the resolution of common prob-lems and the achievement of common goals. For the team to workcollaboratively, it is necessary that each member is committed toengaging in a continuous process of communication, examina-tion, and evaluation of his or her individual efforts toward com-prehensive planning and common goals. This type of collabora-tion should not be limited to members of the professionalcommunity. It should include all family and community mem-bers involved in the case.
Another type of collaboration involves different agencies orcommunity organizations working together to provide a moreextensive, comprehensive, and coordinated range of services fora child and the family. This is called interorganizational collabo-ration. For example, a community notices a rise in young moth-
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ers entering the child protection and welfare system. Leaders fromthe child welfare system, schools, youth organizations, healthcenters, and the community could come together to affect the iden-tified problems. They might find that many of the agencies al-ready provide services to teen mothers, but because those ser-vices are provided in a fragmented and uncoordinated manner,many of these young women could be falling through the cracksof the system. Respective leaders may make the decision to de-velop a collaborative community initiative to effectively addressthe problem. As discussed earlier, collaborations bring previouslyseparated agencies or organizations into a new structure and/orrelationship that allow the sharing of expertise and resources toresolve common problems and develop programs of mutual in-terest. Undoubtedly, the successful development of anyinterorganizational collaboration requires a great deal of commit-ment, comprehensive planning, and well-established communi-cation mechanisms.
Understanding Diversity Within Latino Communities
The development of any type of collaboration between commu-nities and child welfare agencies can be very rewarding and chal-lenging, especially if issues of diversity are taken seriously. Thissection focuses on the high degree of diversity within Latino com-munities and the importance of developing collaborative initia-tives that are culturally competent.
Child welfare staff at all levels who want to engage Latinocommunities in their collaborative efforts should be culturallycompetent. As Lum (1999) described, a culturally competent prac-tice is one that incorporates cultural self-awareness, knowledgeacquisition, skill development, and inductive leaming or partici-pation in continuing discussions of multicultural practice. Lackof knowledge about the community and lack of skills to establishcommunication and relationships will delay any collaborative
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process. Moreover, unresolved issues of racism, oppression anddiscrimination, inequitable policies and services, misunderstand-ing and miscommunication from child welfare agencies and otherorganizations, and a hesitation to actively involve diverse com-munities in meaningful dialogue will severely limit the potentialbenefits of working in collaboration (Colon, 2001; Derezotes &Snowden, 1990; Hogan & Siu, 1988; Williams, 1997).
Therefore, it is crucial that child welfare agency staff who com-mit to effectively collaborating with Latino communities first re-flect on their own history of individual and institutional racism,prejudice, and discrimination and their effects on professionalattitude, perception, and behavior toward this population. Im-portantly, this reflection may lead to the reexamination and per-haps drastic revision of agency policies, procedures, practices,staff training and patterns, and organizational structures.
Who Are Latinos?
The number of Latinos (people of Latin American descent) in theUnited States has significantly increased in the past several years.According to the 2000 census, the Latino population increasedby 57.9%, from 22.4 million in 1990 to 35.3 million in 2000, com-pared with an increase of 13.2% for the total U.S. population. Thispopulation group is also incredibly diverse, with Mexicans (20.6million), Puerto Ricans (3.4 million), and Cubans (1.2 million) asthe three largest subgroups. There are also approximately 3 mil-lion Central and South Americans and nearly 1 million Domini-cans. Latinos are expected to continue to grow numerically andconstitute a population of 51 million people in the United Statesby year 2020 ("Americans," 1994).
Although Latinos share many characteristics, they are highlydiverse in terms of race, language, national origin, religion, so-cioeconomic status, historical experience, and immigration andcitizenship status (Castex, 1994; Gutierrez, Yeakley, & Ortega,
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2000; Zambrana & Dorrington, 1998). Not recognizing the extraor-dinary diversity that exists within Latino groups, and taking asimplistic approach based on reductionistic cultural assumptionsthat are not based on research, can lead to problematic practice(PadiUa, 1996).
Assumptions related to language, religious affiliation, immi-gration, and citizenship status are common and often wronglymade about families of Latino origin. Very often Latinos are as-sumed to speak only Spanish. However, Spanish might be thesecond language or only one of the many languages spoken bysome of them. In fact, many may be fluent in other European(e.g., Portuguese, French, and English), indigenous (e.g., Quechua,Mayan, and Guarani), or Creole dialects and languages. Latinosare often assumed to be Roman Catholic. This assumption ig-nores the large and growing group of Protestant Latinos and manyother Latinos who are spiritual but not religious. In addition, otherLatinos have been influenced by diverse African and indigenousbeliefs, which may be solely practiced or integrated in their Chris-tian and/or Catholic rituals (e.g., Santeria and Espiritismo). Fi-nally, immigration and citizenship status tend to be solely as-sumed by the family's appearance, language proficiency, speechaccent, and historical experiences, among other things. This as-sumption does not acknowledge the fact that many Latinos liv-ing in the United States are documented (have a legal right tolive and remain in the United States, including those who arealready full citizens), and those who are undocumented still haverights, such as a chUd's right to schooling.
Neither prescriptions nor recipes can be given or made forworking with all Latino populations. Yet, agencies and staff seri-ously committed to developing a culturally competent practicewill find the process of working with and leaming from Latinocommunities very exciting and rewarding. In this path, the sig-nificant degree of diversity within Latino communities will beseen not as a hurdle but as a tremendous opportunity.
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Involving Latino Communities
Communities, especially communities of color, have been histori-cally described as having many deficits and needs rather thanmany assets and resources (Kretzmann & McKnight, 1993). Latinocommunities are no exception. Although social evidence and cen-sus data indicate that Latino communities are at risk of poverty,low educational achievement, mental health disorders, and otherserious problems, these communities still have many assets andresources that should not be underestimated (Colon, 2001;Delgado, 1994; Derezotes & Snowden, 1990; Gutierrez & Ortega,1991; Simoni & Perez, 1995; Zambrana & Dorrington, 1998).
The belief that Latino communities have many problems andfew resources has limited child welfare agencies and other orga-nizations from working more closely with members of these com-munities. Delgado (1998) pointed out the importance of devel-oping interorganizational collaborations based on communityassets rather than deficit models. He argued that social servicesagencies should better assess existing community organizations(e.g., bodegas, food establishments, botanical shops, and recreationalcenters) that are popular among Latino community members findthat already provide them with some kind of social services.
As stated earlier, there are different types of collaborationscovering a wide range of activities that vary in structure andmembership, authority, labor intensity, and resources. The fol-lowing case illustrates how collaboration can be creatively de-veloped to use the existing resources in the community:
Restaurant "E" had been in existence three years, open sixdays per week and eight hours per day. Both owners of Restau-rant "E" (husband and wife) are also foster parents to a numberof children. In order for them to become foster parents, they havehad to take workshops that have increased their helping knowl-edge and skills. Consequently, they have a basis from which toprovide information and make referrals to social service agen-
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cies. The restaurant has several buUetin boards that provide agen-cies or community groups with the opportunity to post informa-tion of community interest and social services available withinthe commimity. (Delgado, 1998, pp. 65-66).
This case shows how child welfare agencies and other socialservice organizations attempting to engage Latino communitiesin collaborative efforts must be open to a broader perspective ofcommunity so that they include organizations that play a mean-ingful role in the lives of children and families. These might in-clude churches, businesses, and social clubs such as marketplaces,grocery stores, restaurants, botanical shops, sport leagues, andbarber or beauty shops, just to name a few. Their reputation inthe community, willingness to help, and access to a vast numberof families can greatly contribute to the agency's outreach, pro-gram planning, and service delivery.
Guidelines for Planning Collaborations
This section suggests some guidelines for planning collaborationsbetween child welfare agencies and Latino communities. It is ex-pected that the following guidelines will facilitate the develop-ment of collaborations that can effectively contribute to familystability and child permanency plarvning efforts.
Organizational and Administrative Adaptations
By their very design, the friendliness and accessibility of childwelfare agencies toward the community's children and familiescome from vary. Agencies that are attempting to make themselvesaccessible to Latino communities and hoping to establish coUabo-rative relationships with these communities and organizationsshould take a close and critical look at their ways of conductingcommunity outreach and planning, implementing, and deliver-ing services. Communities and people of color often do not vm-derstand the services provided by child welfare agencies and fre-
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quently have negative opinions about them. Therefore, it is veryimportant that the agency assesses its resources and needs, in-cluding community visibility and rapport.
In the assessment process, the agency should identify whichareas need to be enhanced. Some of the organizational and ad-ministrative areas that might need to be improved are addingbilingual personnel, developing strategies and skills to conductcommunity outreach, and increasing expertise to develop collabo-rations. Besides addressing the agency limitations, it is also im-portant to recognize its resources. Many times, child welfare agen-cies are not accustomed to collaboration with communitymembers and organizations and think that they do not have any-thing to offer or that it is too late or difficult to initiate a relation-ship. This is not necessarily true. Agencies with a strong and sin-cere commitment to work with the communityin this case, theLatino communitywill find that they may have much to con-tribute and that it is never too late or too difficult to involve thecommunity in the helping process. Although the agency assess-ment process is a first step, it is important for staff at all levels tounderstand that this an ongoing process. In other words, this pro-cess will probably take time and a great deal of energy.
Identification of Community Resources
The assessment and identification of community resources canbe achieved in diverse ways. Children, families, and staff canparticipate in the process of gathering information about the com-munity. Children and families can provide information about theirhelp-seeking patterns and identify places in the community thatthey use for help and support. Moreover, diverse communitymembers can serve many important functions such as membersof advisory boards, recruiters of foster parents, and bridges toother organizations in the neighborhood.
Agency staff at all levels should participate in the informa-tion gathering process. They should be willing to get to know the
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community by walking around the community, visiting local es-tablishments and organizations, frequenting the local library, read-ing local newspapers, participating in community meetings andspecial events, and so forth. They should take the time to talkwith community members about the community's history of mi-gration, cultural traditions, and values. Staff may be delighted tofind that many community members enjoy talking about theirculture when they have respectful and sympathetic listeners. Insum, it is important that agency staff raise public visibility bypromoting and practicing the agency's mission and commitmentto children and families.
Relationship Building: Importance o/Confianza
Relationships, especially collaborative relationships, do not oc-cur overnight. They involve thoughtful processes in which allpartners involved are flexible and willing to grow and work to-gether. When developing collaborations with Latino communi-ties, it is very important to maintain open channels of communi-cation. Although technological advances to facilitate speedyinformation exchanges are becoming popular, frequent face-to-face interactions are essential. Written communication, such asfollow-up letters or thank you notes, is also an important tool atthe agency's disposal.
For collaborative relationships between agency staff andLatino communities to develop, they should be based on confianza,confidence or tmst. As noted by Delgado (1998), confianza im-plies pure friendship that is based on mutual trust, understand-ing, and appreciation. This is obviously a process that involvesopenness among all involved parties. Staff, who are not neces-sarily accustomed to working outside the agency, need to feelcomfortable spending time in the community, sharing informa-tion, and trusting community members. One can notice mutualconfianza among both parties in the case presented earlier. Theowners of Restaurant E showed their tmst and satisfaction with
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the agency services by marketing them in their business, and theagency trusted them to post information about its services.
For the agency to connect genuinely with the community, itis crucial to establish an ongoing dialogue and address any nega-tive opinions and concems that are sometimes spread about childwelfare agencies. The development of mechanisms such as sur-veys and focus groups for obtaining feedback from the commu-nity is critical. It is equally important to create systems to effec-tively review the feedback received from the community and toaddress questions and concems in a kind and timely manner. Also,never forget to show appreciation.
Once a comfortable degree of confianza has been achieved, itis important to begin to negotiate the stmcture, characteristics,and extent of the coUaboration. Delgado (1994) pointed out thatthis process might be influenced by four main factors. These are(1) the level of service provision and willingness of local commu-nity organizations to get involved, (2) agency capability (e.g.,culturaUy competent staff), (3) relationship with the community (e.g.,positive, neutral, negative), and (4) wiUingness to coUaborate.
The development of collaborations between child welfare agen-cies and Latino communities may be challenging and time con-suming but, at the same time, such development can be very re-warding. All the work put into creating collaborations is rewardedwhen not only agencies but the whole community works togetherto achieve family stability and permanency planning for all chil-dren. This article has attempted to initiate a timely dialogue aboutthe importance of developing collaborations between child wel-fare agencies and ethnically diverse communities. Although itfocuses specifically on Latinos, it is hoped that this article pro-vides useful guidelines to work with other populations.
Finally, the knowledge base for developing and implement-ing effective collaborations between child welfare agencies and
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ethnicaUy diverse communities should be expanded. More re-search in the areas of community-based practice and collabora-tion building with Latino families and communities involved inthe child welfare system is needed.*'
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(Address requests for a reprint to Hilda P. Rivera, 129 East 79"' Street, New York, NY10021.)