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  • Developing Professional Learning

    Communities for Pedagogical Innovations and

    its Implications on the Southeast Asia Regional

    Standards for Mathematics Teachers

    Ui Hock CHEAH SEAMEO RECSAM

    uhcheah@recsam.edu.my; uhcrecsam1@gmail.com

    MATHTED 9th Biennial Conference October 2013 24 – 26 Oct 2013, Bocolod, Philippines.

  • Outline

    • Design Research approach to develop classroom materials

    • Role of Professional Learning Communities in promoting pedagogical innovations

    • SEARS(MT): Southeast Asia Regional Standards for Mathematics Teachers

  • Designing and Applying Innovation: Traditional Approach

    Expert Design

    Testing and Tryouts

    Refining the

    Innovation

    Classroom Application

    University Faculty and

    Private Enterprise

    Driven

    Researcher focused

    Researcher focused

    Teachers as end users

  • Strength and Weakness of the Traditional Approach

    • Cost-saving efficiency

    • Strong expert input

    • Lack of empowerment of teachers

    • Lack of ownership

    • Cascading effect

    • Sustainability issues

  • An Example of an alternative: The Design Research approach

    • The project forms part of the APEC Lesson Study project on emergency preparedness education

    • The aim of the project was to develop lesson materials in mathematics focusing on emergency preparedness education

  • The Challenges

    Wish list at the start of the project:

    • We wanted to develop a student centered task that allows the students to actively construct mathematical knowledge by themselves

    • The lesson will use an emergency preparedness situation for the students to develop relevant mathematical ideas

  • Learning Mathematics

    Objective Knowledge through textbooks, journals, workbooks. Outcomes: formulas, algorithms

    Mathematical Ideas

    The Starting Point

    Subjective Knowledge through processes, and developing ideas. Outcomes: reasoning, argumentation, proofs

  • The Real World and Mathematical World

    Real World Mathematical World

    1. Real World Model

    4. Real World Situation

    2. Mathematical Problem

    3. Mathematical Model

    Modelling

    Application

  • The Design Research Team

    • 2 researchers

    • 2 teachers

    • 1 school administrator

  • The Design Research Cycle

    Planning the lesson

    (3 meetings)

    First Research Lesson (Grade 8 Class)

    Post Lesson Discussion

    with Lesson Modification

    2nd Research Lesson

    (Grade 7 Lesson)

    Post Lesson Discussion

    with Task Modification

  • The Task

    • Scenario 1. You are the Director of Planning in a town along the South coast of Japan. The population of the town is about 20,000 people. The Government is concerned about the safety of the people in case of natural disasters. What do you know? What do you need to know?

    • Scenario 2. The Minister of Education asks you to plan an evacuation centre for the town which will be used during an earthquake or a Tsunami. Your task is to lead a team of planners to design the evacuation centre and submit it to the government. What do you know? What do you need to know?

  • The Plan

    • Planned collaboratively between teachers and researcher:

    • Use video to introduce scenario

    • Ask students to identify general areas of inquiry related to the scenario

    • Ask students to pose mathematical questions and find the solutions

    • Use of analogy to guide students

  • The general questions

  • The mathematical questions

  • The General Questions (grade 8)

    • The materials to build the evacuation centre

    • The amount of food

    • The cost

    • The location

    • The basic necessities

    • Water

  • The Mathematical Questions Posed by the Students - Grade 8

    • How much expenses needed?

    • How big the area?

    • How many medical officers needed?

    • Overhead cost?

    • How many workers needed?

    • How much water needed?

  • Guiding the Students to Develop the Idea of Proportions

    • The possible classroom uncertainties were discussed during the planning sessions

    • Decision arrived at collaboratively to include analogies to assist students develop the idea of proportions

    • “How many cups of rice does your family cook everyday? How much rice is needed in a month?”

  • 2. The student responses from the grade 7 class

  • The general questions

    • Medical service

    • Food and drinks

    • Shelter

    • Toilets

  • Comparing design research with the traditional design

    • The teachers actively participate in the research process, right from the beginning

    • The teachers contribute their ideas to the lesson design

    • The teachers develop their professional knowledge in the process

    • The teachers become active members of the professional learning community

    • The teachers became more confident in trying new innovations

  • Implications

    • Many similar innovations require teachers to work in professional learning communities

    • Expanded roles of teachers, not only just as instructors and executors of the curriculum

    • Shift of focus to people

    • Shift to collaboratively overcoming uncertainty

    • Appreciation for dialogue

  • SEAMEO RECSAM

    • The Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organisation (SEAMEO) was established in 1965 to promote regional cooperation in education, science and culture (www.seameo.org)

    • The Regional Centre for Education in Science and Mathematics (RECSAM) is one of 20 centres established under the umbrella of SEAMEO

    • SEAMEO RECSAM is mandated to promote and enhance science and mathematics education in the region (www.recsam.edu.my)

  • Southeast Asia Regional Standards for Mathematics teachers (SEARS-MT)

    Rationale: • Diversity in the region ranging from developed to

    newly developing countries • Disparity in GDPs in the region • Learning from each other • Pulling together resources for the region • Science and mathematics as one of the engines driving

    development of the region • Need to further develop teacher professionalism • A regional standards is necessary to to establish

    benchmarks to be used in making comparisons and determining the rate of development of teachers

  • Goal of SEARS(MT)

    • To describe the qualities that a mathematics teacher in the SEAMEO region should attain in the 21st century

  • Purpose of SEARS(MT)

    • As a guide to provide benchmarks or aspirational goals for relevant educational agencies in formulating policies to improve the quality of teacher development programmes that prepare and equip pre-service and in-service mathematics teachers.

    • As a guide in structuring teacher education programmes in both pre-service and in-service teacher preparation.

    • As a guide for teacher development at the personal level. Teachers can use this document as a roadmap to guide their own personal professional development as a mathematics teacher.

  • SEARS(MT) Workshops

    • Two 5-day workshops were organized to draft and to discuss the draft

    • Mathematics education experts from Japan, Australia and SEAMEO countries attended

    • Representatives from the Ministry of Education from 9 SEAMEO countries provided feedback for improvement and revision

  • Current Status of SEARS(MT)

    • Aspirational goals rather than a definitive criterion listing

  • Dimensions of SEARS

    • Dimension 1: Professional Knowledge

    • Dimension 2: Professional Teaching and Learning Process

    • Dimension 3: Personal and Professional Attributes

    • Dimension 4: Professional Communities

    C:/Users/User/Desktop/MTED Phil/Presentation/The Southeast Asian Regional Standards (SEARS(MT))_Draft.pdf

  • Professional Communities as a Dimension of SEARS(MT)

    Key Aspects:

    • Maintain professional code of conduct, professionalism and autonomy

    • Engage and contribute in the professional communities both at schools and outside schools

  • Standards Indicators Professional ethics Adhere to the codes of conduct

    Demonstrate professionalism

    Practise professional autonomy (e.g. willingness to

    perform duty above expectation)

    Professional

    communities at

    schools

    Enrich the educational context for students (e.g. co-

    curricular activities, advisor for mathematics club,

    mathematics competition, mathematics project)

    Participate in the school-based professional learnin