Developing Social Capital: Engaging the Poorest Communities

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Developing Social Capital: Engaging the Poorest Communities. Pierre Ferrari President and CEO. Engaging Poor Communities. What do these communities say they lack? What are their needs Listening to the community and small-holder farmers is key to supporting and providing services. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Developing Social Capital: Engaging the Poorest CommunitiesPierre FerrariPresident and CEO1AIARD Conference 2012Priorities for Inclusive Agriculture and Rural Development

Engaging Poor CommunitiesWhat do these communities say they lack?What are their needsListening to the community and small-holder farmers is key to supporting and providing servicesG8 has renewed commitments to food security (this will correlate with the commitments from 2009)Might be wise for Pierre also to acknowledge the May G8 food security commitments and the controversy around them. He might get a question on how Heifer thinks about this:

Renewed focus on private sector

Farms, agribusinesses, and food retailers must be competitive, profitable, and environmentally sustainable enterprises if they are to grow. If they are successful businesses, they will contribute to countries economic growth, assure flows of needed food supplies for consumers through efficient and responsive market channels, and generate national revenues through trade, exports, and taxes. Governments, in turn, can use these agriculturally-based revenues to invest in the economic and social infrastructure needed to sustain an positive cycle of growth: an enabling environment that attracts further private investment and the provision of education and healthcare needed to nurture the next generation. Conversely, excessive government intervention or supports for farms, agribusinesses, and other elements of the food and agriculture systems could impose a burden on the larger economy and stymie innovation and growth. Finding the right balance of government incentives, investments, and institutional supports for private investors, innovators and entrepreneurs is key to building a competitive, profitable, and sustainable food and agricultural sector. A healthy and sustainable food and agricultural system generates jobs and drives innovation both on-and off-farm. While the focus is often increasing the jobs and labor productivity of farmers, jobs are created and sustained more broadly throughout the food and agricultural system when farms are productive and oriented toward markets, buying inputs and services from others and sending commodities through a value chain to consumers. Off-farm jobs are generated in food processing and packaging, transport, and the wholesale and retail sale of food in stores and restaurants, as well as in research, environmental management, financial services, and equipment manufacture. Capital intensity is likely to increase as food and agriculture systems develop, depending on the commodity, the costs and availability of labor, and other economic factors. The number of jobs in any particular segment of a food value chain can thus shift over time but, in all cases, success in the creation of productive jobs on-farm is likely to be associated with the growth of many more jobs off-farm. This broader perspective on job creation highlights the potential of generating greater opportunities for youth, and especially the increasingly educated youth of the developing world, in agriculture and agribusiness. Greater development of value chains -- and especially those involving high-value commodities such as vegetables, dairy, and fish -- has created thousands of jobs for women in processing plants and marketing operations as well as in on-farm jobs. Governments commitments to investing in agriculture and to disseminating new technologies to farmers have also resulted in job opportunities in agricultural extension, credit, and research.

2What Role do NGOs Play?What can NGOs do to support communities?NGO perspectiveWhat has worked?What hasnt worked?Today, the highest levels of food security are achieved in regions that have high levels of agricultural productivity, e.g., the United States, Brazil, Europe, and China. Low levels of food security -- especially in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia -- correlate with low levels of agricultural productivity. Boosting the productivity of farms in countries with low levels of food security is a critical pathway to increasing the stock of healthy, safe, and affordable food and increasing the availability of affordable food supplies where they are most needed. It is likely that increasing local productivity will help align the increased food supply with the cultural preferences of consumers and assure a dietary diversity (especially including fresh produce) which cannot always be achieved through trade.

3Heifers Relationship to these CommunitiesHow has Heifer responded to the needs of the communities?Heifers approachesEADD Hub modelHow do these approaches help build social capital for the communities?Heifer brings grassroots focusHighlighting Heifers work that is not traditional, as these are new directions we are going into

PF can just mention that our Uganda project is being awarded a best practices award by Interaction if he wants to put in a plug

4Theory of ChangeHeifer International believes that the worlds most vulnerable smallholder farmers, including women, can produce adequate food and surplus to feed their families, communities and the world, if their capacity is enhanced in combination with the right inputs.Factors contributing to poverty and hunger:Marginalization, gender discrimination, lack of access to resources and services, lack of diversified livelihood opportunities, vulnerability, low income, and environmental degradation 1. Year round availability and access to food2. Surplus food to markets3. Increased consumption of diverse and nutritious food4. Improved hygiene and water/ sanitation practices1. Functioning Self Help Groups/farmer organizations;2. Functioning Cooperatives/ social enterprises3. Active national networks/ alliances/ social movements1. Agro-ecological farming practices1. Diversified sources of income 2. Increase in productive assets3. Scaled up IG activities4. Access to market and appropriate financial servicesGoal: Increased global food securityIncrease in income and assetsFood security and nutritionImproved EnvironmentIncreased Social Capital1. Leadership roles2. Access to and control over income and assets3. Participation in decision making at household and community levelWomen s Empowerment1. Context specific training and input supports (animals, seeds, plants etc);2. Linkage to markets and value chain;3. Imparting knowledge and skills1. Appropriate package of physical inputs2. Establishment of homestead gardens;3. Training for increased knowledge of nutrition of locally available food 1. Organize, create, and strengthen groups, coops, alliances, social movements2. Values enhancement through cornerstones 3. Social mobilization1. Promotion of agro-ecological farming practices1. Womens group formation2. Prioritize womens membership in selection criteria3. Focus on livestock species and other inputs appropriate for womens needs4. Design projects with gender lens with specific focus on the socio-economic benefit for womenInterventions:Outcomes:Preconditions:Farming familiesCommunity-based dairy & livestock servicesHub-based feed enterpriseBulk milk buyers & consumersVillage GroupsDMG / DIG / DFGDairy HubCP or TMUnique ApproachCommunity-based Dairy Hub Business FrameworkOtherhub-based enterprisesCommunity-based banking & credit services





How the Hub Works Virtuous Cycle of Buyers & SellersFood Security & Social CapitalImportance that women-centered programs have in improving the communityExamples of community engagement and women empowerment within the projects Heifer works. might mention 1-2 examples of woman-centered programs and whole point of community engagement Govt of Nepal is copying our model in its own approach to indigenous communities, e.g. should also mention role of POG in building social capital. Larger point cant build food security w/o social capital. 8

In Nepal, SEW Cooperatives are determined to put "social" back into social enterprises. They are comprised of small-scale farmer families, each represented by a woman, and provide a voice for their communitys needs and build rapport with local governments and other resource providers.

Social Entrepreneurs Womens (SEW) Cooperative in NepalEXAMPLE 1: NEPALA different type of cooperative is generating positive change in Nepal. Social Entrepreneurs Womens (SEW) Cooperatives, are more than a mouthful of big words. They are determined to put "social" back into social enterprises. Comprised of small-scale farmer families, each represented by a woman, SEW Cooperatives are designed to embody the true ideology of a cooperative and serve the community first. Currently, 17 SEW Cooperatives are fully functional in Chitwan and Nawalparasi districts. They provide a voice for their communitys needs and build rapport with local governments and other resource providers. Over time, they earn their communities' trust. The women leaders of the SEW Cooperatives know that being a social entrepreneurial entity requires more than a name. The outcomes of their efforts have been plentiful, with a promise of more to come. Over a year ago, Kabasoti SEW Cooperative and Shantikunj SEW Cooperative each received a grant of 100,000 Nepalese rupees, or $1,400, from the governments cooperative division to operate a fair-price consumer shop. Additionally, nearly all SEW Cooperatives in Chitwan and Nawalparasi received licenses from the districts' Agriculture Development Offices to distribute agricultural fertilizer. These cooperatives are extremely dedicated to their community," Laxman Pokharel, chief of the Chitwan District Agricultural Development Office, said. "They are transparent and are run by the farmers themselves. We are confident that by distributing through them instead of a private company, we will avoid problems of swindling, hiked prices, and artificial shortages caused by hoarding.

The Nepal Soil Conversation Office in Nawalparasi provided 80,000 Nepalese rupees, or $1,120, of grant support to the Ganjyoti SEW Cooperative for organic turmeric farming. The village development committee of Kabasoti provided 40,000 Nepalese rupees, or $560, for skills development training to the Kabasoti SEW Cooperative. The Buffer Zone Program of Pithaulie gave 15,000 Nepalese rupees, or $210, to the Digopan SEW Cooperative. Donors are confident that fair distribution and sustainable impact is achieved when they channel money through SEW Cooperatives.

SEW Cooperatives are not limited to entrepreneurial activities. With an expanded membership that includes all family members, these groups are an ideal platform to spread the word about social issues, including domestic violence and precautions to take during an Avian influenza outbreak. Ratnanagar Municipality has appointed Shantikunj SEW Cooperative as the coordinator of efforts to prevent violence against women. Since then, this intervention's effectiveness has doubled. The women members report and take action to stop violence.District health posts and public health offices work with SEW Cooperatives to coordinate and publicize vaccination programs. The network of women are crucial to making things happen. Radio Chitwan F.M. broadcasts a Cooperative Education program twice a month in partnership with the Shantikunj and Sarwangin SEW Cooperatives that helps farmers, women and communities believe they can hold the reins of their own future.

The SEW Cooperatives combined to form two Cooperative Unions for more opportunities at the district and national levels. Heifer Nepal initially facilitated the establishment of these cooperatives through project families and groups. More families continue to join, and new SEW Cooperatives are being formed throughout Nepal. Heifer Nepal envisions that these entities will soon take over the economic and social development work in their communities, giving life to Abraham Lincolns words, "by the people for the people."


Sudhamiya Paswan, 33Livestock for Poverty Alleviation in Terai Region NEPAL (22-0531-17)

Received a buffaloMorning milk sold to dairy, evening milk for familyCurd made from excess milk and soldSold manureWith additional income, purchased goat and installed irrigation for her land

Sudhamiya deposited part of her income into the groups savings for the pass-on fund. When the required amount is saved, a buffalo is passed on to another woman in need. Recipients are given 36 months to collect adequate funds for the pass on.

Sudhamiya was able to make her pass-on within 10 months of receiving her buffalo.When Sudhamiya received her buffalo, she started selling its milk. The morning milk was sold to a local dairy, and the evening milk was consumed by her family. The buffalo manure was also sold and brought additional income. They were soon making a comfortable living, and landlords who once rejected the Paswans requests to farm their land began approaching them. The first year, the Paswans planted lentils on 0.4 hectare of leased land and harvested six quintals, earning US $288. The next year, they leased an additional 0.8 hectare of land and planted lentils on 0.5 hectare, wheat on 0.2 hectare, and vegetables on 0.1 hectare. From the excess milk, Sudhamiya made curd, which earned US $53 in a year. She bought a goat for US $16. She also used her income to build a tap near her leased field for irrigation. After paying for her buffalos and familys needs, Sudhamiya deposited part of her income into the groups savings for the pass-on fund. When the required amount is saved, a buffalo is passed on to another woman in need. Recipients are given 36 months to collect adequate funds for the pass on. Sudhamiya was able to make her pass-on within 10 months of receiving her buffalo.10Dolores DelgadoAllin Kausay- Good Living: Agroecology and Local Andean Markets (ARPAC) PERU (23-1740-02)

After constructing a shed, Dolores and her husband are building an addition with an improved stove prepare and serve guinea pigs. Dolores says When your home known for guinea pigs your neighbors will do the same.

The community is able to then share in the profits and development. Most terrain is barren and brown, they have been able to grow vegetables and fodderUses organic fertilizer on farmReceived guinea pigsMoney saved because they grow the guinea pigs foodHas received training on animal care Guinea pigs have been a source of nutritionThrough the Cusco Regional Agricultural Producers Association, the Good Living: Agroecology and Local Andean Markets Project will benefit more than 5,000 rural Andean families. These families are from the province of Anta in the Cusco region, are members of the association and sell their agricultural products directly in the Cusco market. Most of these families are either poor or extremely poor, which is apparent in the...